Today s Topics. Energy Balance. Energy Balance: Calories IN. Energy Balance: Calories IN. Determining Calorie Needs. Nutrition and Weight Control

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1 Nutrition and Weight Control Angie Scheetz, RD Today s Topics Energy Needs My Pyramid- Portion Control Meal Planning Non-Hunger Eating Energy Balance Intake vs. Expenditure Intake: Calories consumed through food Expenditure: Calories burned through body processes, daily activity and exercise Excess is stored as body fat Energy Balance: Calories IN Calories in FOOD Carbohydrate 4 calories per gram Fat 9 calories per gram Protein 4 calories per gram Vitamins and minerals DO NOT provide calories or energy! Energy Balance: Calories IN Eat a meal or snack Liver releases nutrients Digestion begins in into bloodstream for the mouth and energy or converts them to storage forms stomach Most nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine and transported to the liver Determining Calorie Needs Factors to consider: Age Gender Basal metabolic rate Body size Body composition Activity level Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 1

2 How Many Calories Do You Need? Your energy needs are based on 3 main components Basal metabolic rate (60-70%) Thermic effect of food (6-10%) Energy cost of activity (20-30% in sedentary adults; can be much greater for active adults) Determining Calorie Needs Basic calculation 10 calories per pound of body weight = basal calorie needs Multiply by appropriate factor: Sedentary: Light Activity: Moderate Activity: Heavy Activity: Determining Calorie Needs Mifflin Equations (JADA. Sept :9, ) Male: W H 5A Female: W H 5A W= weight in kg (divide wt in lbs by 2.2) H= height in cm (multiply ht in inches by 2.54) A= age in years Then multiply by appropriate activity factor Example 45 year old male who is 6 feet tall and weighs 210 pounds Works as a lawyer and exercises 2-3 times per week for 30 minutes (210#/2.2) (72 *2.54) 5( 45) = * Activity Factor (1.5) = 2817 Calories For Weight Loss Important to meet minimum requirements Keep a food diary for one week to determine average calorie intake One pound body fat ~ 3500 kcal stored energy Create a kcal deficit per day for ½ to 1 lb per week wt loss Combination of reducing intake & increasing expenditure = greatest chance for long-term success Calories IN: The Bottom Line Excess calories from ANY source can be stored as fat! We require calories from carbohydrate, fat and protein to function optimally! Each macronutrient serves specific purposes do not avoid one particular group to cut calories! Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 2

3 Reducing Energy Intake Simple theory is extremely difficult to practice! increased portion sizes decreased meal planning decreased preparation at home increased reliance on convenience/fast food stress/anxiety/depression emotional/habitual ties to food The New Food Guide Pyramid My Pyramid Portion Control Balance Exercise Grain Group 1 slice of bread 1 cup of ready to eat cereal ½ cup of cooked rice, pasta, or hot cereal *make half of your grains whole Vegetable Group 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables 1 cup vegetable juice 2 cups raw leafy greens Fruit Group 1 cup fruit 1 cup 100% fruit juice ½ cup dried fruit Milk Group 1 cup of milk 1 cup of yogurt 1 ½ ounces natural cheese 2 ounces processed cheese Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 3

4 Meat & Beans Group 1 ounce of meat, poultry, or fish ¼ cup of cooked, dry beans 1 egg 1 Tablespoon of peanut butter ½ ounce of nuts or seeds Discretionary Calories may be used to: Increase amount of food selected from a food group Consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form such as 2% milk or medium-fat meat or items that contain added sugars Add oil, fat, or sugar to foods Consume alcohol (for those who consume alcohol) Meal Planning Putting it Together Maximizing Your Meals Balance is important in meal planning Macronutrients Micronutrients Sensory appeal Nutrition that promotes satiety: Fiber and volume Protein and fat Balancing Macronutrients Carbohydrate, protein and fat all play important roles National Academy of Sciences: 45-65% carbohydrate 10-35% protein 20-35% fat Satiety from macronutrients varies Protein > Carbohydrate > Fat Important to have balance among the three in order to feel satisfied for longer periods of time Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 4

5 Balancing Micronutrients Human body requires more than 40 vitamins & minerals in order to function properly Best way to ensure adequate levels? Consume a wide variety of foods from each of the five food groups especially fruits and vegetables! Seek variety in texture and temperature to provide sensory satisfaction from meals - less likely to need large quantities Nutrition that Promotes Satiety Foods high in fiber Soluble - oats and oat products, fruits and vegetables, beans, legumes, barley Insoluble - whole grain foods (whole-wheat pasta; whole-wheat breads, crackers, pitas, & English muffins; brown rice) fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds Foods high in volume, low in calories broth-based soups, whole fruits and vegetables, whole grains, plain popcorn, hot cereal, salsa, low calorie beverages Nutrition that Promotes Satiety Adequate protein and fat at each meal: Protein has highest satiety factor of all 3 macronutrients: choose fish, skinless poultry, lean red meat, low fat dairy, soy alternatives, legumes, etc Fat slows rate of gastric emptying include small amounts of vegetable fats: olive, canola, flaxseed oils; nuts and seeds and related products; avocadoes, olives, etc Planning the Power Meal A balanced meal includes: # of servings Grain or other starch at least 1 Fruit &/or vegetable 1-3 Calcium source* 1 Lean meat or protein source* 1-3 oz or equivalent * Your calcium source may also double as a protein source (yogurt, skim milk, soymilk, tofu made with calcium, cheese) Power Menus - Breakfast Power Menus - Lunch/Dinner Smoothie made with milk, ½ frozen banana, & frozen strawberries Toasted whole-grain English muffin with peanut butter Oatmeal made with skim milk, topped with chopped nuts and lightly sweetened Fresh orange Cup of tea Black bean soup with whole grain breadstick Spinach salad with mandarin oranges and light sesame dressing Skim milk Sizzling chicken fajitas with bell peppers, onions and sharp cheddar cheese Sliced peaches Ice water with twist of lime Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 5

6 Power Snacks Yogurt with: fresh fruit or low-fat granola or dry cereal Trail mix made with: dry cereal dried fruit & nuts/seeds (almonds, peanuts, walnuts, etc) 1 cup of whole grain cereal with skim milk Fresh veggies with low-fat yogurt dip or hummus or low-fat string cheese Fresh fruit with peanut butter or low-fat cottage cheese or skim or low-fat milk ½ lean turkey sandwich on whole grain bread NON-HUNGER EATING Non-Hunger Eating How often do you eat for physiological needs? How often do you eat in response to stress, celebration, boredom, anger, frustration, etc? How often do you eat past the point of comfortable satiety? How often do you ignore your body s need for food? Psychology of Eating Key is to realize that all eating occasions involve a decision! Manage feelings and emotions first, then decide if you are truly hungry. Experts have found that most cravings pass within 20 minutes. Get a Handle on It! Keep a food diary for several weeks Type and amount of food Time and location of snack or meal Mental/emotional state at time of eating Hunger/satiety rating Use this information to develop strategies that work for you! Using Hunger/Satiety Scale Rate your hunger from 1 to 10 before, during & after meals & snacks Purpose to become more aware of your physiological hunger/satiety cues, to normalize eating patterns, and to minimize eating when not hungry Use in conjunction with food diary Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 6

7 Hunger/Satiety Scale Resources Habits Not Diets - The Secret to Lifetime Weight Control by James and Cassandra Ferguson Intuitive Eating by Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch The Way to Eat by David Katz and Maura Harrigan Gonzalez starved stuffed Where am I??? Resources normalizing eating patterns/ healthy wt. American Dietetic Association Interactive Healthy Eating Index Any Questions? Angie Scheetz, RD ext 239 Copyright 2010 National Institute for Fitness and Sport 7

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