Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories"

Transcription

1 Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories Organ Glucose/ Glycogen Triacyl Glycerols* Liver Brain Mobile Proteins Muscle 1, ,000 Adipose Tissue , * Fat molecules Fat tissue

2 Pyruvate is a hub. Interconversion of sugars and proteins Glycolysis no O 2 lactate Alanine, { transamination Glucose Pyruvate ATP Glycogen NAD,FAD H 2 O Oxidative Phosphorylation O 2, CO 2 Acetyl Co-A ADP, PO 4 Citric Acid Cycle CO 2 NADH / FADH CO 2

3 Identify the hubs Fig

4 There are relatively few hubs 5

5 Two-way traffic Traffic circles vs. switches Efficiency: intermediates common to both pathways. Gluconeogenesis: 7 of the ten enzymes of glycolysis are used for gluconeogenesis. Others: three glycolytic enzymes are replaced with four specific to gluconeogenesis for the purposes of regulation and energetics (ratchets).

6 Glycolysis vs. gluconeogenesis Of ten reactions in glycolysis, 7 run close to equilibrium, small changes in [S] or [P] can nudge them forward or backward. Exceptions: hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase: sites of metabolic regulation. These three reactions are mediated by different enzymes for gluconeogenesis.

7 Metabolic types Correlate w. possession of whole pathways, or not. eg. photosynthesis (we are comfortable with not having that). Glycolysis: and ancient and honourable pathway. Developed under anaerobic conditions and perpetuated in all known later forms of life. (There are a few other founder pathways too). Pathways that never got edged out. Table 17.2.

8 Energetics Glycolysis: C6H12O6 2 H3C-CHOH-COO - + 2H + No redox, net yield in ATP = 2 Energy yield: ΔG = -184 kj/mol total, 60 kj/mol captured as ATP. ATP: energy for stunningly diverse processes

9 NAD(P) Fig NADH vs. NADPH catabolic vs. anabolic and photosynthetic. NADH/NADPH: primarily chemical/electrochemical H - on a handle. Transduction of energy from chemical to electrochemical to H + gradient to mechanical back to chemical (ATP)

10 Pyruvate is a hub, feeding / draining the citric acid cycle. Glucose alanine, lactate ATP pyruvate oxaloacetate : low ATP, low 2C supply CO 2 Acetyl-CoA Citric A. cycle

11 The incentive to use the TCA cycle C 6 H 12 O O 2 -> 6 CO H 2 O Glycolysis + conversion to acetyl Co-A ΔG = kj/mol Glucose + 2 PO4 + 2 ADP + 4 NAD + -> 2 acetate + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP + 4 (3 ATP) 2 Acetyl Co-As through TCA cycle { } 2X 2 H2O + acetate -> 2 CO2 + GTP + 3 (3 ATP) + (2 ATP) 24 ATP from TCA cycle vs. 2 ATP from glycolysis alone, 38 ATP from glucose to CO2 including glycolysis, conversion to acetyl CoA and 12 TCA cycle (some energy lost for transport into mitochondria.)

12 Efficiency of energy capture: each ATP is worth 30.5 kj/mol Glucose + 2 PO ADP + 2 H -> 2 ethanol + 2 CO 2 + 2ATP + 2 H 2 O ΔG = -234 kj/mol, Energy captured in ATP = 61 kj/mol = 26% of possible for this reaction, 2% of glucose CO2 energy. Glucose + 2 PO ADP -> 2 lactate + 2ATP + 2 H 2 O ΔG = -115 kj/mol, Energy captured in ATP = 61 kj/mol = 53% of possible for this reaction, 2% of glucose CO2 energy. Glucose + 2 PO ADP + 4 NAD + -> 2 acetate + 2 CO 2 + 2ATP + 4 NADH + 4H + ΔG = -607 kj/mol, Energy captured in ATP = 427 kj/mol = 70% of possible for this reaction, 15% of glucose CO2 energy. Glucose + 6 O 2 -> 6 CO H 2 O + 4 ADP + 10 NADH +H + + 2FMNH 2 ΔG = kj/mol, Energy captured in ATP = 1159 kj/mol 13 = 41% of possible for this reaction: glucose CO2 energy.

13 BUT... The cost of transport of pyruvate into the mitochondria reduces this yield somewhat. 14

14 Entry into the mitochondrion Pyruvate dehydrogenase, see page 614 pyruvate + CoA + NAD + acetyl-coa + CO2 + NADH + H + Fig

15 Acetyl CoA, another control point pyruvate CO 2 :ATP, Co-A,citrate Ketones (Cholesterol) (acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, acetone) Acetyl Co-A Fatty acids, Fat β oxidation oxaloacetate, (via citric acid cycle) Citric Acid Cycle 3NADH + FADH + ATP per acetyl CoA

16 Glycolysis no O 2 { Glucose ATP Glycogen NAD,FAD H 2 O Oxidative Phosphorylation Alanine, lactate Pyruvate O 2, Ketones CO 2 Acetyl Co-A Fat ADP, PO 4 Citric Acid Cycle CO 2 NADH / FADH CO 2

17 Themes : The many many reactions that go on all the time in your cells are orchestrated and regulated by complex intercommunication: Hormonal regulation: insulin vs. glucagon, Feedback inhibition by downstream products, Stimulation by abundant starting materials. Catabolism vs. Anabolism at traffic intersections.

18 Brain Glucose is the preferred fuel for the brain Brain uses some 420 Cal/day 60% of resting state glucose consumption (Not stimulated during mental activity) Brain can t use fat, because it doesn t cross blood-brain barrier. Ketones are the brain s emergency fuel (liver supplies glucose and ketones).

19 Muscle Maintains a glycogen reserve, glucose is the preferred fuel for bursts of activity. During intense activity, when O 2 is depleted, does glycolysis. Pyruvate is converted to lactate or alanine, which are converted back to pyruvate for complete consumption, by liver (this borrows time). Muscle also transaminates amino acids to make them usable as fuels in the citric acid cycle. Resting muscle derives 85% of its energy from fatty acids. Heart muscle does not readily resort to glycolysis, and does not maintain glycogen reserves. Citric acid cycle activity is crucial. Fatty acids are the major fuel (ketones in a pinch).

20 Fat Tissue (Adipose tissue) Contains huge reservoir of fuel: fat. The triacyl glycerols need to be broken into fatty acids plus the glycerol backbone first. When triacyl glycerol is to be consumed, removal of the first fatty acid is rate limiting. This step is under hormonal regulation: stimulated by adrenalin (epinephrine). Fatty acids are synthesized in liver and assembled into triacyl glycerols in fat cells. An intermediate of glycolysis, DHA, is needed. If lots of glucose is available (and therefore lots of DHA) triacylglycerol is reformed. Otherwise the fatty acids are released into blood for use by other tissues.

21 To burn or to store? Unneeded Acetyl-CoA fatty acyl-coas = R-CoA, R = fatty acid. Glycolysis DHAP glycerol. 3 R-CoA + glycerol triacyl glycerol (a fat molecule). Liver cells lipoprotein triacyl glycerol 3 R-CoA + glycerol ( consumption) Blood R-CoA β oxidation in muscle/liver. R-CoA Fat cells : insulin? +glycerol? glycerol fat : adrenalin, glucagon

22 Liver A metabolic hub. (Be nice to your liver). Removes all sugars other than glucose from blood. Makes reserves of glycogen (up to 400 Cal worth). Leaves some glucose for other tissues. (which ones?) Excess glucose acetyl CoA fatty acids. When glucose runs short, makes it from lactate, alanine (muscle), glycerol (fat). When fuel is very scarce, uses fatty acids as fuel (β oxidation and ketone production). This is regulated in oppositely to fatty acid synthesis. When amino acids must be burned, the liver does this too, after removal of N and excretion as urea ( CO(NH 2 ) 2 ). The C skeletons (α keto acids) are used to make glucose or fatty acids. Liver uses α keto acids as fuel, NOT glucose, which it sends back into blood for the brain and muscle.

23

24 Job One: Glucose Homeostasis (maintenance of a constant status). Brought to you by... The Liver.

25 Just after a meal Insulin rises, glucagon drops, in response to elevated blood glucose. Insulin stimulates glycolysis in liver, to make DHA fat. Insulin stimulates glycogen formation in muscle and liver, supresses gluconeogenesis in liver. Glucose itself inhibits glycogen degradation. Insulin stimulates uptake of amino acids by muscle too, and inhibits protein degradation.

26 Many hours after a meal (after the surge) Insulin levels drop again, glucagon is secreted as the glucose level drops. Lower insulin less uptake of glucose into muscle and fat. Glucagon acts at the liver to stimulate mobilization of glycogen. Also release of fatty acids from fat cells. It also inhibits glycogen formation and fatty acid synthesis. Muscle and liver use fatty acids as fuel, not glucose. Once glycogen is exhausted, glycerol from fat is used to make glucose for export to brain. Also, amino acids from protein.

27 Fasting Although a well-fed (healthy) adult carries reserves for 2-3 mo. Most of this is fat. Carbohydrate reserves are exhausted after 1 day. Blood glucose must be maintained for the sake of the brain. Fatty acids can t be made into glucose, only the glycerol. Proteins must be used, with loss of function. Instead, our organs undergo a metabolic shift, from glucose to fatty acids (liver) and ketones (brain). Muscles switch from glucose use (inhib. by low insulin) to fatty acids (β oxidation). Acetyl CoA and citrate rise and shut down glycolysis at point of production of acetyl CoA. Instead, pyruvate, alanine and lactate are used to make glucose (for brain).

28 Prolonged fasting (three days) Liver begins producing ketones and the brain increasingly uses these (acetoacetonate) instead of glucose. Ketones can be made from fatty acids, whose oxidation via the citric acid cycle is not possible any more now that oxaloacetate is depleted by gluconeogenesis. About a third of brain activity is now supported by ketones, and the heart begins to use these too. Several weeks into a fast Ketones become the major fuel for the brain (they can pass through the blood-brain barrier. Only 40 g glucose needed per day vs. 120 g on first fasting day. Fat is used instead of muscle (20 g/day vs. 75 g/day early on.) When fat runs out, you use protein, from muscle, heart, liver, kidney (and die).

29 Zubay, Figure

30 Zubay, Figure

31 Zubay, Figure

32 33

Metabolism. Chapter 5. Catabolism Drives Anabolism 8/29/11. Complete Catabolism of Glucose

Metabolism. Chapter 5. Catabolism Drives Anabolism 8/29/11. Complete Catabolism of Glucose 8/29/11 Metabolism Chapter 5 All of the reactions in the body that require energy transfer. Can be divided into: Cell Respiration and Metabolism Anabolism: requires the input of energy to synthesize large

More information

Lecture 5: Cell Metabolism. Biology 219 Dr. Adam Ross

Lecture 5: Cell Metabolism. Biology 219 Dr. Adam Ross Lecture 5: Cell Metabolism Biology 219 Dr. Adam Ross Cellular Respiration Set of reactions that take place during the conversion of nutrients into ATP Intricate regulatory relationship between several

More information

GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels

GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels - Catabolic process degradative pathway - Energy stored in sugars (carbohydrates) released to perform biological work - Transforms GLUCOSE to PYRUVATE

More information

Physiological Chemistry II Exam IV Dr. Melissa Kelley April 13, 2004

Physiological Chemistry II Exam IV Dr. Melissa Kelley April 13, 2004 Name Write your name on the back of the exam Physiological Chemistry II Exam IV Dr. Melissa Kelley April 13, 2004 This examination consists of forty-four questions, each having 2 points. The remaining

More information

Glycolysis. Intracellular location Rate limiting steps

Glycolysis. Intracellular location Rate limiting steps Glycolysis Definition Fx Fate Site Intracellular location Rate limiting steps Regulation Consume ATP Subs level phosphoryla tion Key reactions control points Nb Oxidation of glucose to give pyruvate (

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. Dietary fats are important because: a. they keep blood pressure normal.

More information

Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS

Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS Alternate Fuel Sources When glucose levels are low Proteins and Triglycerides will be metabolized Tissues will use different fuel sources depending on:

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration 1. To perform cell work, cells require energy. a. A cell does three main kinds of work: i. Mechanical work, such as the beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement

More information

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes How is energy obtained biologically? Recall: Red Ox Reactions Unit 2: Metabolic Processes Oxidation Is the chief mechanism by which chemical potential energy is released This energy comes from reduced

More information

Transfer of food energy to chemical energy. Includes anabolic and catabolic reactions. The cell is the metabolic processing center

Transfer of food energy to chemical energy. Includes anabolic and catabolic reactions. The cell is the metabolic processing center Metabolism There are a lot of diagrams here. DO NOT, I repeat, DO NOT get overly anxious or excited about them. We will go through them again slowly!! Read the slides, read the book, DO NOT TAKE NOTES.

More information

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical change of

More information

Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis

Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis Anaerobic Pathways Glycolysis Glucose + 2 ATP 4 ATP + 2 Pyruvate No oxygen required Fairly low energy yield Lactate byproduct Resting levels low Tolerances 40 mmole/kg in humans, 200 mmole/kg in sea turtles

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration

More information

Metabolism: From Food to Life

Metabolism: From Food to Life CHAPTER 7 Metabolism: From Food to Life Chapter Summary Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical and physical processes by which the body catabolizes and anabolizes molecules. Metabolic pathways are

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8 How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 8 Impacts, Issues: When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels More than forty disorders related to defective mitochondria are known (such as Friedreich s ataxia); many

More information

Multiple choice: Circle the best answer on this exam. There are 12 multiple choice questions, each question is worth 3 points.

Multiple choice: Circle the best answer on this exam. There are 12 multiple choice questions, each question is worth 3 points. CHEM 4420 Exam 4 Spring 2015 Dr. Stone Page 1 of 6 Name Use complete sentences when requested. There are 120 possible points on this exam. Therefore there are 20 bonus points. Multiple choice: Circle the

More information

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants Energy

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy You should be able to: 1. Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name and describe the three stages of cellular respiration;

More information

anabolic pathways- Catabolic Amphibolic

anabolic pathways- Catabolic Amphibolic METABOLISM Introduction The fate of dietary components after digestion and absorption constitute metabolism regulated by metabolic pathway 3 types: anabolic pathways- Synthesis of compound e.g. synthesis

More information

LESSON 2.4 WORKBOOK. Part two: Glucose homeostasis in the blood Un-Storing energy

LESSON 2.4 WORKBOOK. Part two: Glucose homeostasis in the blood Un-Storing energy DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Fasting A state of abstinence from all food or drinks that provide calories. For a complete list of defined terms, see the Glossary. LESSON 2.4 WORKBOOK Part two: Glucose homeostasis

More information

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5 1. Which of the following statements about NAD + is false? a. NAD + is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. b. NAD + has more chemical energy than NADH. c. NAD + is reduced

More information

2. When a muscle depletes its supply of ATP, the next molecule used as an energy source is: a) pyruvate b) muscle glycogen c) blood glucose d) GTP

2. When a muscle depletes its supply of ATP, the next molecule used as an energy source is: a) pyruvate b) muscle glycogen c) blood glucose d) GTP Chapter 34: Carbohydrate Metabolism Multiple Choice 1. The synthesis of glycogen from glucose is known as: a) glycogenolysis b) gluconeogenesis c) glycogenesis d) the Embden-Myerhof pathway 2. When a muscle

More information

NAME KEY ID # EXAM 3a BIOC 460. Wednesday April 10, Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided!

NAME KEY ID # EXAM 3a BIOC 460. Wednesday April 10, Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided! EXAM 3a BIOC 460 Wednesday April 10, 2002 Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided! 1 1. (5 pts.) Define the term energy charge: Energy charge refers to the

More information

Regulation of Metabolism

Regulation of Metabolism Regulation of Metabolism Pratt and Cornely Chapter 19 Regulation by Compartmentalization Form of reciprocal regulation Degradation vs biosynthesis Requires transporters 1 Specialization of organs Fuel

More information

Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation

Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation Figure 9.16 Electron shuttles span membrane 2 NADH or 2 FADH 2 MITOCHONDRION 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate Pyruvate

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nayef Karadsheh

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nayef Karadsheh number 13 Done by Asma Karameh Corrected by Saad hayek Doctor Nayef Karadsheh Gluconeogenesis This lecture covers gluconeogenesis with aspects of: 1) Introduction to glucose distribution through tissues.

More information

2/25/2015. Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis. Alternate Endpoints. Gluconeogenesis fate of end products

2/25/2015. Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis. Alternate Endpoints. Gluconeogenesis fate of end products Anaerobic Pathways Glycolysis Glucose + 2 ATP 4 ATP + 2 Pyruvate No oxygen required Fairly low energy yield Lactate byproduct Resting levels low Tolerances 40 mmole/kg in humans, 200 mmole/kg in sea turtles

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation*

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* *Lecture notes are to be used as a study guide only and do not represent the comprehensive information you will need to know for the exams. Life Is Work

More information

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Objectives Distinguish between fermentation and anaerobic respiration. Name the three stages of cellular respiration and state the region of the cell

More information

Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids

Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids Dr NC Bird Oxidation of long chain fatty acids is the primary source of energy supply in man and animals. Hibernating animals utilise fat stores to maintain body heat,

More information

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms Energy flows into

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Edited by Shawn Lester PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated

More information

2) The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidationreduction

2) The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidationreduction Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 7.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7. Respiration

How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7. Respiration How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 7 Respiration Organisms classified on how they obtain energy: autotrophs: produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis heterotrophs: live on organic compounds

More information

Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17

Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17 Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17 December 26, 2010 Prof. Shimon Schuldiner Email: Shimon.Schuldiner@huji.ac.il Phone: 6585992 CHAPTER 17 Fatty Acid Catabolism Key topics: How fats are digested in animals

More information

serves as a source of raw materials and energy for cellsslide

serves as a source of raw materials and energy for cellsslide 9-1 Chemical Pathways (Metabolism) refers to all of the chemical that take place in an organism or cell. Each reaction may handle materials or and is catalyzed by an enzyme. Metabolism has two parts: 1.

More information

Class XI Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants Biology. 1. It is a biochemical process. 1. It is a physiochemical process.

Class XI Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants Biology. 1. It is a biochemical process. 1. It is a physiochemical process. Question 1: Differentiate between (a) Respiration and Combustion (b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle (c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation (a) Respiration and combustion Respiration Combustion 1. It is a

More information

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE LECTURE CONTENT INTRODUCTION CITRIC ACID CYCLE (T.C.A) PRODUCTION OF ACETYL CoA REACTIONS OF THE CITIRC ACID CYCLE THE AMPHIBOLIC NATURE OF THE T.C.A CYCLE THE GLYOXYLATE CYCLE

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Assemble polymers, pump substances across membranes, move and reproduce The giant panda Obtains energy for its cells by eating plants which get

More information

Chem Lecture 8 Carbohydrate Metabolism Part I: Glycolysis

Chem Lecture 8 Carbohydrate Metabolism Part I: Glycolysis Chem 352 - Lecture 8 Carbohydrate Metabolism Part I: Glycolysis Introduction Carbohydrate metabolism involves a collection of pathways. Glycolysis Hexoses 3-Carbon molecules Gluconeogenesis 3-Carbon molecules

More information

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism Stage II of catabolism involves the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and aminoacids into acetylcoa In aerobic organisms, citric acid cycle makes up the final

More information

Biology 638 Biochemistry II Exam-2

Biology 638 Biochemistry II Exam-2 Biology 638 Biochemistry II Exam-2 Biol 638, Exam-2 (Code-1) 1. Assume that 16 glucose molecules enter into a liver cell and are attached to a liner glycogen one by one. Later, this glycogen is broken-down

More information

Case Study: Carbohydrate Metabolism. eating an early dinner the night before and skipping breakfast that morning, Sid goes to the

Case Study: Carbohydrate Metabolism. eating an early dinner the night before and skipping breakfast that morning, Sid goes to the Student Name Biochemistry 4320 Case Study Part I 4 November 2013 Case Study: Carbohydrate Metabolism Sid is a high school student who has decided to start exercising before school. After eating an early

More information

0.40. Biochemistry of Carbohydrates

0.40. Biochemistry of Carbohydrates 0.40 Biochemistry of Carbohydrates Biochemistry of Carbohydrates ATP ADP Glycolysis The Breakdown of Glucose Primary Energy Source of Cells Central Metabolic Pathway All Reactions Occur in Cytoplasm Two

More information

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Key Concepts - The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions - Eight enzymatic reactions of the Citrate Cycle - Key control points in the citrate cycle regulate

More information

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Chapter bjectives: Learn about Blood glucose. Learn about the glycolysis reaction pathways and the regulation of glycolysis. Learn about the fates of pyruvate under various

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

CELLULAR GLYCOGEN Why Glycogen as an Energy Storage Molecule? Glycogenolysis NOT phosphorolysis

CELLULAR GLYCOGEN Why Glycogen as an Energy Storage Molecule? Glycogenolysis NOT phosphorolysis CHM333 LECTURE 29 & 30: 4/12 15/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna CELLULAR GLYCOGEN Why Glycogen as an Energy Storage Molecule? 1. Fat cannot be as rapidly mobilized in skeletal muscle. 2. Fat

More information

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate(the product of glycolysis) passes by special pyruvatetransporter into mitochondria which proceeds as follows:

More information

g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology

g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology What can you remember about respiration? 1. What is respiration? 2. What are the raw materials? 3. What are the products? 4. Where does it occur? 5. Why does

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7

Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 7 Respiration Organisms can be classified based on how they obtain energy: autotrophs: are able to produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis heterotrophs:

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE? A. They are generally endergonic. B. They usually require ATP. C. They are part of metabolism. D.

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib number 22 Done by Baraa Ayed Corrected by Yaseen Fatayer Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib 1 P a g e Today we are going to cover these concepts: Oxidation of odd number fatty acids Oxidation of very long fatty acids

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions Glucose metabolism 1. Below is depicted glucose catabolism. Indicate on the pathways the following: A) which reaction(s) of glycolysis are irreversible B) where energy

More information

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO + H O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O powers most cellular work Heat energy 1 becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes

More information

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Mobilization of stored fats and oxidation of fatty acids Lippincott s Chapter 16 What is the first lecture about What is triacylglycerol Fatty acids structure

More information

BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS

BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS Lymphatic Vessels One main lymph vessel receives lymph from the right upper arm and the right side of the head and the thorax and empties into the

More information

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle BIOB111 CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY Session 21 Session Plan Gluconeogenesis Cori Cycle Common Metabolic Pathway The Citric Acid Cycle Stoker 2014, p859 Gluconeogenesis

More information

METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI

METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI 1 METABOLISM Process of how cells acquire, transform, store and use energy Study of the chemistry, regulation and energetics

More information

Glycolysis. Glycolysis Expectations. Glycolysis 10/20/2015. Chapter 16, Stryer Short Course. Memorize/learn Figure 16.1

Glycolysis. Glycolysis Expectations. Glycolysis 10/20/2015. Chapter 16, Stryer Short Course. Memorize/learn Figure 16.1 Glycolysis Chapter 16, Stryer Short Course Glycolysis Expectations Memorize/learn Figure 16.1 Know overall reaction and stages Explain chemical/physiological purpose of each step Learn structures Reversible/Irreversible

More information

1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Glucose priming get glucose ready to split phosphorylate glucose rearrangement split destabilized glucose

1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Glucose priming get glucose ready to split phosphorylate glucose rearrangement split destabilized glucose Warm- Up Objective: Describe the role of in coupling the cell's anabolic and catabolic processes. Warm-up: What cellular processes produces the carbon dioxide that you exhale? 1st half of glycolysis (5

More information

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Citrate Cycle Lecture 28 Key Concepts The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Eight reactions of the Citrate Cycle Key control points in the Citrate Cycle regulate metabolic flux What role

More information

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University Respiration Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is comprised of: anabolism synthesis of molecules, requires input of energy catabolism break down of molecules,

More information

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis. by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis. by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology BIOCHEMISTRY Glycolysis by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology email: jayavejayan@ump.edu.my Chapter Description Overview This chapter is related to carbohydrate catabolism. It

More information

Metabolism. Metabolism. Energy. Metabolism. Energy. Energy 5/22/2016

Metabolism. Metabolism. Energy. Metabolism. Energy. Energy 5/22/2016 5//016 Metabolism Metabolism All the biochemical reactions occurring in the body Generating, storing and expending energy ATP Supports body activities Assists in constructing new tissue Metabolism Two

More information

ATP. Principles of Energy Harvest. Chapter 9~ The point is to make ATP! Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. What s the point?

ATP. Principles of Energy Harvest. Chapter 9~ The point is to make ATP! Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. What s the point? Chapter 9~ Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy What s the point? The point is to make! 2006-2007 Principles of Energy Harvest Catabolic pathway Fermentation Cellular Respiration C6H126 + 62

More information

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle)

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as: Kreb s cycle Sir Hans Krebs Nobel prize, 1953 TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle The citric acid cycle requires aerobic conditions!!!!

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

Points 1. Following is the overall reaction catalyzed by the Calvin-Benson cycle:

Points 1. Following is the overall reaction catalyzed by the Calvin-Benson cycle: BCH 4054 February 22, 2002 HOUR TEST 2 NAME_ Points 1. Following is the overall reaction catalyzed by the Calvin-Benson cycle: CO 2 + 3ATP + 2NADPH 1/3 glyceraldehyde-3-p + 3ADP + 2NADP + Give the structures

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush number 7 Done by حسام أبو عوض Corrected by Shahd Alqudah Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush 1 P a g e As we have studied before, in the fourth reaction of the Krebs cycle, α- ketoglutarate is converted into Succinyl-CoA

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Cellular Respiration HO double membrane outer membrane inner membrane CO matrix Produces molecules Requires oxygen Releases carbon dioxide

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy AP Biology Reading Guide Name: Date: Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. The Principles of Energy Harvest

CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. The Principles of Energy Harvest CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY The Principles of Energy Harvest 1. Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic, energy-yielding pathways 2. Cells recycle the ATP they use for

More information

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chem 109 C Fall 2014 Armen Zakarian ffice: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chapter 25 o Glycolysis : fates of pyruvate NADH, H + H + C 2 NADH, H + H - (S)-lactic acid lactate dehydrogenase; anaerobic conditions -

More information

Name: KEY. Chem 3511 Exam 4

Name: KEY. Chem 3511 Exam 4 Chem 3511 Exam 4 The exam starts on the next page. It has 12 questions, worth a total of 100 points. Please write legibly and don t assume that long answers are required if there is a lot of space left

More information

Biochemistry of carbohydrates

Biochemistry of carbohydrates Biochemistry of carbohydrates الفريق الطبي األكاديمي Done By: - Hanan Jamal لكية الطب البرشي البلقاء التطبيقية / املركز 6166 6102/ In the last lecture we talked about Pyruvate, pyruvate is a central intermediate;

More information

Lecture 36. Key Concepts. Overview of lipid metabolism. Reactions of fatty acid oxidation. Energy yield from fatty acid oxidation

Lecture 36. Key Concepts. Overview of lipid metabolism. Reactions of fatty acid oxidation. Energy yield from fatty acid oxidation Lecture 36 Lipid Metabolism 1 Fatty Acid Oxidation Ketone Bodies Key Concepts Overview of lipid metabolism Reactions of fatty acid oxidation Energy yield from fatty acid oxidation Formation of ketone bodies

More information

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1 CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1 web 2017 József Mandl Strategy of metabolism 1 Strategy of metabolism to extract energy ( hydrogen ) from the environment to store the energy excess to store hydrogen CH 3 O 2

More information

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Mobilization of stored fats and oxidation of fatty acids Lippincott s Chapter 16 What is the first lecture about What is triacylglycerol Fatty acids structure

More information

Glucose. Glucose. Insulin Action. Introduction to Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism

Glucose. Glucose. Insulin Action. Introduction to Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism Glucose Introduction to Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism Fasting level 3.5-5 mmol (1 mmol = 18 mg/dl) Postprandial 6-10 mmol Amount of glucose in circulation is dependent on: Absorption from the

More information

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. powers most cellular work. Heat energy

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. powers most cellular work. Heat energy Figure 9-01 LE 9-2 Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic + O molecules 2 powers most cellular work Heat energy LE 9-UN161a becomes

More information

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Carbohydrate Metabolism

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Carbohydrate Metabolism ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES I. Glycolysis A. Pathway Regulation of glycolysis Hexokinase: Activated by glucose. Inhibited by G6P. 6-Phosphofructokinase: Inhibited by ATP, especially

More information

CHAPTER 16. Glycolysis

CHAPTER 16. Glycolysis CHAPTER 16 Glycolysis Net reaction of Glycolysis Converts: 1 Glucose Hexose stage 2 pyruvate - Two molecules of ATP are produced - Two molecules of NAD + are reduced to NADH Triose stage Glucose + 2 ADP

More information

AMINO ACID METABOLISM. Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI

AMINO ACID METABOLISM. Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI AMINO ACID METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI Amino acids derived from dietary protein absorbed from intestine through blood taken up by tissues used for biosynthesis

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Glycolysis

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Glycolysis CELLULAR RESPIRATION Glycolysis Sources of Energy Carbohydrates glucose most usable source of energy cells turn to other fuels only if glucose supplies have been depleted stored in glycogen (animal) &

More information

Glycolysis. Color index: Doctors slides Notes and explanations Extra information Highlights. Biochemistry Team 437

Glycolysis. Color index: Doctors slides Notes and explanations Extra information Highlights. Biochemistry Team 437 Glycolysis Color index: Doctors slides Notes and explanations Extra information Highlights Biochemistry Team 437 ﺑ ﺳ م ﷲ اﻟرﺣﻣن اﻟرﺣﯾم Objectives: Recognize glycolysis as the major oxidative pathway of

More information

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of

More information

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish the chapter: 1, 3, 7, 10, 16, 19, 20 Additional Problem: Write out the eight reaction steps of the Citric Acid Cycle, using

More information

Cellular Metabolism 9/24/2013. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Consists of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell!

Cellular Metabolism 9/24/2013. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Consists of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell! Cellular Metabolism Biology 105 Lecture 6 Chapter 3 (pages 56-61) Metabolism Consists of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell! Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

Voet Biochemistry 3e John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Voet Biochemistry 3e John Wiley & Sons, Inc. * * Voet Biochemistry 3e Lipid Metabolism Part I: (Chap. 25, sec.1-3) Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O G o = -2823 kj/mol Fats (palmitic acid) C 16 H 32 O 2 + 23 O 2 16 CO 2 + 16 H 2 O G o

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky Enzymes and Metabolism Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb 1 Protein Macromolecules composed of combinations

More information

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012 How cells release Chemical Energy 1 7.1 OVERVIEW OF CARBOHYDRATE BREAKDOWN PATHWAYS Organisms stay alive by taking in energy. Plants and all other photosynthetic autotrophs get energy

More information

Aerobic Respiration. The four stages in the breakdown of glucose

Aerobic Respiration. The four stages in the breakdown of glucose Aerobic Respiration The four stages in the breakdown of glucose 1 I. Aerobic Respiration Why can t we break down Glucose in one step? (Flaming Gummy Bear) Enzymes gently lower the potential energy until

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

3.2 Aerobic Respiration

3.2 Aerobic Respiration 3.2 Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Cellular Respiration Catabolic pathways Breaks down energy-rich compounds to make ATP Requires oxygen Occurs in different parts of the cell C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) 6CO

More information