2. What are the products of cellular respiration? Include all forms of energy that are products.

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1 Name Per Cellular Respiration An Overview Why Respire Anyhoo? Because bucko all cells need usable chemical energy to do work. The methods cells use to convert glucose into ATP vary depending on the availability of oxygen and their biological make-up. In many cases, cells are in an oxygen-rich environment. For example, as you sit on your duff and read this sentence, you are hopefully breathing in oxygen which is carried around your super cool body by red blood cells. Some cells grow in environments without oxygen (yeast in winemaking or bacteria that cause botulism in canned food), and occasionally animal cells must function without sufficient oxygen (as in running sprints or completing squats to exhaustion). So let s look at some aerobic and anaerobic processes that are used to convert glucose into ATP!! Diagram 1 Cellular Respiration 1. What are the reactants of cellular respiration? 2. What are the products of cellular respiration? Include all forms of energy that are products. 3. Use the diagram above and your big picture to answer the following... a. How many net ATP s are made from substrate-level phosphorylation (starting with 1 glucose)? b. What is the maximum amount of ATP s made from oxidative phosphorylation (from 1 glucose)? c. Circle the metabolic reactions that produce CO 2? Glycolysis Pyruvate Entry Krebs ETC/Chemiosmosis d. Which of the four phases require molecular oxygen? Glycolysis Pyruvate Entry Krebs ETC/Chemiosmosis

2 4. The goal of cellular respiration is to provide the cell with energy in the form of ATP. a. Using the diagram on the first page or our big picture, how many ATP s total are produced for every glucose molecule that undergoes cellular respiration? b. What reactants of ATP synthesis must be available in the cell in order to produce ATP? c. What are several cellular processes for which energy or ATP is necessary? Electron Acceptor Molecules Nicotinamide adenine dinulcoetide (NAD + ) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are coenzymes used in cellular respiration to transport high potential energy electrons to the electron transport chain in the mitochondrion. At the conclusion of cellular respiration, molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor. 5. Fill in the Chart below. + NAD + + H + NADH + FAD + 2H + FADH 2 + ½ O 2 + 2H + H 2O a. How many electrons are in a hydrogen ion? (H + )? b. What is another name for a hydrogen ion? Explain. 6. How many NADH molecules are produced from the oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose during the whole process of cellular respiration? 7. What reactants must be available in the cell for NADH to be produced? 8. Is the removal of hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH and FADH 2 oxidation or reduction? Explain your reasoning. 9. Predict what happens to the product molecules after they drop off their electrons and hydrogen ions.

3 10. Cells can survive for short periods of time without oxygen. Only the glycolysis phase of cellular respiration occurs in those circumstances. a. Predict the number of net ATP molecules that could be produced by one glucose molecule if oxygen were not available. b. Since oxidative phosphorylation no longer occurs when oxygen is not available, predict what would eventually happen to the supply of NAD + in the cell if only glycolysis were occurring? Energy in Anaerobic Environments 11. Examine the two anaerobic processes in the above diagram. Is oxygen used in either process? 12. What is the definition of anaerobic? 13. The efficiency of a cell is dependent on the cyclic nature of NAD + and NADH. Building NAD + molecules from raw materials each time one was needed would require a huge amount of free energy and resources. Even though the fermentation steps shown above do not provide any ATP, they are critical to the energy production of the cell. Predict what would happen to the energy supply in a cell if fermentation did not happen under anaerobic conditions.

4 14. The muscle burn that you feel when completing strenuous activity is caused by skeletal muscle cells working anaerobically. During anaerobic activity, your muscle cells produce an abundance of lactic acid and also accumulate lots of K + ions (potassium). Lactic acid must be sent to the liver to be converted back to pyruvate. Your muscle cells have the sensation of soreness during the recovery period when your cells are trying to get rid of the lactic acid and restore the proper ion concentration. For those of you that have lifted weights --- don t you just love the BURN!! 15. All living organisms can complete the glycolytic metabolic process. What does this tell us about the first living organism? 16. The evolution of photosynthesizing organisms on Earth and the development of an oxygen-rich environment led to a rapid diversification of life. Explain why there is an evolutionary advantage to an organism that requires oxygen to live compared to one that does not require oxygen.

5 17. Under laboratory conditions, skeletal muscle cells were broken up and separated into fractions of mitochondria and cytoplasm in an attempt to learn more about cellular respiration. Each fraction was incubated with glucose or pyruvate. Tests were carried out during incubation for the presence of either carbon dioxide or lactic acid. The results were shown below: Cell Fraction CO 2 Lactic Acid Mitochondria incubated with glucose Absent Absent Mitochondria incubated with pyruvate Present Absent Cytoplasm incubated with glucose Absent Present Cytoplasm incubated with pyruvate Absent Present a. What does the presence of lactic acid in a sample indicate about what process is occurring in each cell fraction? b. Explain why lactic acid was produced by the cytoplasm fraction incubated with glucose, but not the mitochondrial fraction. c. Why was no carbon dioxide produced by either fraction incubated with glucose? d. Why did the cytoplasm fraction produce lactic acid in the presence of both glucose and pyruvate? e. Why did the mitochondria produce carbon dioxide in the presence of pyruvate but not in the presence of glucose?

6 Glycolysis 1. Which molecule above is the primary reactant for glycolysis? 2. How many carbons are in the primary reactant? 3. How many carbons are in a pyruvate molecule? 4. How many pyruvate molecules are made from each glucose molecule? 5. Explain why 2 PGAL s are at the highest point of the diagram above. 6. Do 2 pyruvate molecules have more or less potential energy than glucose? Provide evidence. 7. What is the net production of ATP by glycolysis? 8. In the last steps of glycolysis 4 ATP molecules are produced. What is the source of the four phosphate groups that are added to the ADP molecules to make the 4 ATP s? What do we call this type of phosphorylation?

7 Pyruvate Oxidation 1. Where does pyruvate entry occur? 2. Is the pyruvate molecule likely to move across the mitochondrial membranes by diffusion? (Your answer should include a comment about polarity) 3. Propose a method by which the pyruvate molecule moves across the inner mitochondrial membrane. 4. During pyruvate entry, the pyruvic acid is decarboxylated. What molecule is removed during this process? 5. How many of the carbons of the pyruvate molecule remain when it is attached to Coenzyme A? 6. How many acetyl-coa, carbon dioxide, and NADH molecules are produced for each glucose molecule during pyruvate entry?

8 The Krebs Cycle 1. Where does the Krebs cycle take place? 2. Why is this metabolic reaction called a cycle? 3. How many carbons are in oxacloacetate? 4. How many carbons are in citrate? 5. Where did the extra carbon atoms come from to convert oxaloacetate into citrate? 6. What are the three different types of enzymes needed for the Krebs cycle and what does each type of enzyme do?

9 7. Throughout the Krebs cycle, energy is transferred to other high potential energy molecules. List those molecules and indicate the number produced from 2 turns of the cycle. Remember, 2 acetyl-coa s are produced from 1 glucose molecule --- this is why we complete the Krebs cycle twice. 8. Which molecule in the Krebs cycle has the lowest potential energy (citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, or oxaloacetate? Provide specific evidence from the Krebs diagram. 9. Each Acetyl-CoA molecule has 4 high potential energy covalent bonds (pairs of electrons). What happens to these 4 bonds during the Krebs cycle? 10. Even though pyruvate entry and the Krebs cycle do not use molecular oxygen directly, if a cell is in an anaerobic situation, both pyruvate entry and the Krebs cycle will eventually stop working. Why?

10 The Electron Transport Chain Chain Chain --- Chain of Enzymes 1. Considering the diagram above, circle a section of the mitochondrion below where this site might be located. 2. Where is the highest concentration of H + located? 3. How do the hydrogen ions reach this area? 4. Explain why energy is required to move the hydrogen ions across the membrane in the direction indicated. 5. What are the two molecules that give electrons up to the ETC?

11 6. Where did the electrons ultimately come from that are traveling through the ETC? Think about the overall equation of cellular respiration. 7. What molecule is the final electron acceptor? What does is turn into? 8. Where did the Oxygen get the H + ions after it gained the two electrons? Does this contribute to the gradient? Explain. 9. Is any ATP produced in the electron transport chain? 10. Is any ATP used in the electron transport chain? Explain. 11. Which shuttle has higher potential energy (NADH or FADH 2)? Which shuttle is more electronegative? Explain both questions.

12 Chemiosmosis 1. Describe the movement of protons through the membrane. 2. Is free energy directly needed for the hydrogen ions to move in the direction shown above? 3. What is the name of the embedded protein that provides a channel for the hydrogen ions to pass through the membrane? 4. The flow of hydrogen ions through the channel provides free energy to do work. What process above requires energy?

13 The embedded protein complex, ATP synthase or L.O.L., is more of a machine than a chemical enzyme. Research has shown that a protein rotor down the middle of the ATP synthase complex turns as hydrogen ions flow through. This rotates other proteins found on the catalytic knob, which then squeeze the ADP and inorganic phosphate groups together to form ATP. 5. During oxidative phosphorylation, what molecule is being phosphorylated? 6. Under ideal conditions each NADH molecule will result in three ATP molecules, and each FADH 2 molecule will result in two ATP molecules during oxidative phosphorylation. Calculate the total number of ATP molecules that might be produced in this phase of cellular respiration from one glucose molecule. 7. Considering all stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation) how many ATP molecules are produced from one glucose molecule, assuming ideal circumstances? 8. Because of its role in aerobic respiration, oxygen is essential for most living things on Earth. In complete sentences, describe the role of molecular oxygen (O 2) in aerobic respiration. 9. Which side of the inner mitochondrial membrane has a higher ph when cellular respiration is cooking with gas? Explain.

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