FREE ENERGY Reactions involving free energy: 1. Exergonic 2. Endergonic

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FREE ENERGY Reactions involving free energy: 1. Exergonic 2. Endergonic"

Transcription

1 BIOENERGETICS

2 FREE ENERGY It is the portion of the total energy change in a system that is available for doing work at constant temperature and pressure; it is represented as ΔG. Reactions involving free energy: 1. Exergonic 2. Endergonic

3 EXERGONIC REACTIONS Reactions in which the free energy of the final state is less than the free energy of the initial state. This represents energy that can be used to do biological work Reaction is spontaneous or favorable. ΔG is - or <0

4 ENDERGONIC REACTIONS Reactions in which the free energy of the initial state is less than the free energy of the final state. ΔG is + or >0 Reaction is nonspontaneous or unfavorable Considerable amount of energy must be imparted to the system

5 COUPLED REACTIONS: 2 TYPES 1. Coupling involves a common obligatory intermediate (I) A+C I B+D 2. Synthesizing a compound of high-energy potential in the exergonic reaction and incorporate this new compound into endergonic reaction. AH 2 Carrier BH 2 A Carrier-H 2 B The overall free energy change for the reaction is negative (ΔG < 0)

6 HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATES High energy phosphates play central role in energy capture & transfer. E X E R G O N I C E SYNTHESIS MUSCULAR CONTRACTION NERVOUS EXCITATION ACTIVE TRANSPORT

7 HIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS Compound ΔG (Kcal/mol) Phosphoenolpyruvate ,3 bisphosphoglycerate Phosphocreatine ATP( ADP+Pi) -7.3 AMP(Adenosine+Pi) -3.4 PPi( 2Pi) -4.0 Glucose-1-phosphate -5.0 Fructose-6-phosphate -3.8 Glucose-6-phosphate -3.3

8 ENERGY CURRENCY OF CELL High energy phosphates act as energy currency of cell. 3 major sources of high energy phosphates taking part in energy conservation or energy capture. 1. Oxidative phosphorylation: Free energy to drive this process comes from Respiratory chain oxidation using molecular O 2 in mitochondria.

9 2. Glycolysis: 3. TCA Cycle:

10 ROLE OF ATP/ADP CYCLE IN TRANSFER OF HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATES SUCCINYL Co-A PEP 1,3 BPG P ATP OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION CREATINE- P store of P CREATINE P ADP G6P Glycerol3P Other Phosphorylations Gl 1,6 BP

11 BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION

12 BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE Respiration Xenobiotics (metabolism by Cytochrome P450 system). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with respiratory or circular failure. May result oxygen toxicity.

13 ENZYMES INVOLVED IN OXIDATION & REDUCTION: OXIDOREDUCTASES Oxidases Dehydrogenases Hydroperoxidases Oxygenases

14 OXIDASES Catalyse the removal of hydrogen from a subtrate using oxygen as a hydrogen acceptor. AH 2 1/2 O 2 e.g. 1. Cyt. Oxidase AH 2 A A H 2 O O 2 H 2 O 2 2. L-AA oxidase 3. Xanthine oxidase 4. Glucose oxidase

15 DEHYDROGENASES Transfer of hydrogen from one substrate to another in a coupled oxidation - reduction reaction. Can t use O 2 as H 2 acceptor. AH 2 A Carrier -H 2 Carrier BH 2 B Depend on: 1. Nicotinamide coenzymes 2. Flavin coenzymes 3. Cytochromes

16 HYDROPEROXIDASES Use H 2 O 2 or organic peroxides as substrates. 2 types: 1. Peroxidases 2. Catalases

17 H 2 O 2 + AH 2 Peroxidases 2H 2 O + A 2GSH + Glutathione peroxidase H 2 O 2 2H O+ 2 GSSG 2H 2 O 2 Catalases 2H 2 O + O 2

18 OXYGENASES Catalyze direct incorporation of oxygen into a substrate. Takes place in 2 steps: 1. O 2 binding to the enzyme at active site, & 2. The reaction in which bound O 2 is reduced/transferred to substrate. 2 subgroup of oxygenases: i. Dioxygenases ii. Monooxygenases

19 Dioxygenases: Incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into the substrate. e.g. A+O 2 AO 2 i. Homogentisate oxidase ii. L-tryptophan dioxygenase iii. 3-hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase

20 Monooxygenases: Incorporate only one atom of molecular oxygen into the substrate. May be Microsomal or Mitochondrial. A-H + O 2 + ZH 2 A-OH + H 2 O + Z DRUG-H + O 2 + 2Fe H + DRUG-OH + H 2 O + 2Fe 3+ Hydroxylase

21 RESPIRATORY CHAIN & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

22 Respiratory chain oxidizes reducing equivalents and acts as a proton pump. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which liberated free energy is trapped as high-energy phosphate.

23 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 4 sequential complexes found in the inner side of inner mitochondrial membrane. They accept e - from e - donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttle these e - across the membrane creating an electrical & chemical gradient (+1.1V). Through the proton driven chemistry of the ATP synthase, generate ATP.

24

25 COMPLEXES OF ETC Complex II- Succinate - Coenzyme Q reductase Complex I - NADH dehydrogenase/ NADH Coenzyme Q reductase. Fp Q ½ O 2 + H + Complex III - Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c oxidoreductase H 2 O Cyt-C Complex IV - Cytochrome c oxidase.

26 ETC COMPONENTS Complex Components Prosthetic group I II III IV NADH-Q oxidoreductase Succinate Q reductase Q-Cytochrome C oxidoreductase Cytochrome c oxidase ATP synthase FMN Fe-S FAD Fe-S Heme b H Heme b L Heme C1 Fe-s Heme a Heme a3 CuA & CuB

27 Oxidative phosphorylation- Two phases H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 1. Generation of the proton gradient. H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 2. Using the gradient's energy to make ATP

28 TRANSPORT OF REDUCING EQUIVALENTS THROUGH ETC AH 2 NAD + FpH 2 2Fe 3+ H 2 O A NADH Fp 2Fe 2+ ½ O 2 H + H + 2H + 2H +

29 Pyruvate Lipoate α - Ketoglutarate Proline 3- Hydroxyacyl - CoA 3- Hydroxybutyrate Glutamate Malate Isocitrate Fp [FAD] NAD Glycerol 3 phosphate I Fp [FMN] FeS Fp [FAD] FeS Acyl - CoA Sarcosine Dimethylglycine Succinate Choline Fp [FAD] FeS Q FeS ETF [FAD] Fp [FAD] II

30 III IV Q Cyt b FeS Cyt c 1 Cyt c Cyt aa 3 Cu O 2

31 Q CYCLE CYTOSOL (OUTSIDE) INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE MATRIX (INSIDE) H + QH 2 H + e - e - b 566 QH QH H + e - C 1 Q b 562 H +

32 ATP Synthase a subunit binds to outside of ring Exterior column has 1 a subunit 2 b subunits, & the δ subunit Moving unit (rotor) is c ring & γε Remainder is stationary (stator) F 1 subunit has 5 types of polypeptide chains (α 3, β 3, γ, δ, ε) F 0 contains the proton channel ring of c subunits

33 Subunit a Proton enters Proton exits

34 The Binding Change Mechanism (Paul Boyer)

35 P:O RATIO When substrates oxidized by NADdehydrogenase, 3 mol ATP is produced per ½ mol of O 2 consumed. P:O= 3. When substrates oxidized by AFDdehydrogenase, 2 mol ATP is produced per ½ mol of O 2 consumed. P:O= 2.

36 INHIBITORS OF ETC

37 N A D H Complex II Malonate Succinate Complex I Oligomycin FAD FeS Carboxin TTFA Complex III Complex IV FMN,FeS Q Cyt b, FeS, Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a 1 Cyt c 3 Cu Cu Piericidine Amobarbital Rotenone BAL Antimycin A Uncouplers CN, CO Azide, H2S O H 2 O ADP + Pi ATP ADP + Pi ATP ADP + Pi ATP

38 CHEMIOSMOTIC THEORY (Mitchell) OLIGOMYCIN H + Inner Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase NADH +H + I H + ADP+Pi H + ATP NAD + Proton translocation Q III H + Uncouplers H + + H + _ 1/2O 2 H 2 O C IV H +

39 Transport of Reducing Equivalents SHUTTLE PATHWAYS

40 SHUTTLE PATHWAYS Two pathways: 1. Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle - Muscle & Brain 2. Malate-Aspartate Shuttle - Liver, kidney & heart They transport the reducing equivalents from cytosol to mitochondria and not vice versa.

41 Malate aspartate shuttle Cytosol Liver, kidney & heart Mitochondria NAD + NADH + H + Malate Malate dehydrogenase Oxaloacetate α -KG 1 α -KG Malate Malate dehydrogenase Oxaloacetate NAD + NADH + H + Transaminase Transaminase Glutamate Asp Asp Glutamate 2 H + H +

42 Glycerophosphate shuttle Cytosol Mitochondria Muscle & brain NAD + Glycerol 3 phosphate Glycerol 3 phosphate FAD NADH + H + Glycerol 3 PO 4 dehydrogenase Dihydroxy acetone phosphate Glycerol 3 PO 4 dehydrogenase Dihydroxy acetone phosphate FADH 2 Resp. chain

43

44 TRANSPORTER SYSTEMS N-Ethylmaleimide H 2 PO 4 H + Malate -2 Citrate -3 +H + α-kg -2 OUTSIDE ATP 4- Atractiloside INSIDE OH - Pyruvate HPO 4-2 Malate -2 Malate -2 ADP 3-1. Phosphate 2. Pyruvate 3. Dicarboxylate 4. Tricarboxylate 5. α-kg 6. Adenine nucleotide

45

Electron Transport and Oxidative. Phosphorylation

Electron Transport and Oxidative. Phosphorylation Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron-transport chain electron- Definition: The set of proteins and small molecules involved in the orderly sequence of transfer to oxygen within the

More information

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport Chain (overview) The NADH and FADH 2, formed during glycolysis, β- oxidation and the TCA cycle, give up their electrons to reduce molecular O 2 to H 2 O. Electron transfer occurs through

More information

Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals Prentice Hall c2002 Chapter 14 1 14.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation

More information

A) Choose the correct answer: 1) Reduction of a substance can mostly occur in the living cells by:

A) Choose the correct answer: 1) Reduction of a substance can mostly occur in the living cells by: Code: 1 1) Reduction of a substance can mostly occur in the living cells by: (a) Addition of oxygen (b) Removal of electrons (c) Addition of electrons (d) Addition of hydrogen 2) Starting with succinate

More information

Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial transport systems

Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial transport systems Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial transport systems JAN ILLNER Respiratory chain & oxidative phosphorylation INTERMEMBRANE SPACE ubiquinone cytochrome c ATPase Production

More information

Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD

Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD natarboush@ju.edu.jo www.facebook.com/natarboush OMM: permeable to small molecules (MW

More information

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative phosphorylation Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative phosphorylation So far we have discussed the catabolism involving oxidation of 6 carbons of glucose to CO 2 via glycolysis and CAC without any oxygen molecule directly

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration

More information

Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation is the last step in the formation of energy-yielding metabolism in aerobic organisms. All oxidative steps in the degradation of

More information

Electron transport chain,oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems. M.Kohutiar, B.Sopko

Electron transport chain,oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems. M.Kohutiar, B.Sopko Electron transport chain,oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems. M.Kohutiar, B.Sopko Content 1. Structure of mitochondria Mitochondrial transport systems 2. Electron transport 3. Parts

More information

Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college

Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college The Metabolic Pathway of Cellular Respiration All of the reactions involved

More information

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. powers most cellular work. Heat energy

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. powers most cellular work. Heat energy Figure 9-01 LE 9-2 Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic + O molecules 2 powers most cellular work Heat energy LE 9-UN161a becomes

More information

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5 1. Which of the following statements about NAD + is false? a. NAD + is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. b. NAD + has more chemical energy than NADH. c. NAD + is reduced

More information

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION, ELECTRON TRANSFER CHAIN AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION, ELECTRON TRANSFER CHAIN AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION MODULE Biological Oxidation, Electron transfer Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 9 BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION, ELECTRON TRANSFER CHAIN AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION 9.1 INTRODUCTION Chemically, oxidation is

More information

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO + H O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O powers most cellular work Heat energy 1 becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes

More information

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 20-1

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 20-1 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 20-1 Learning Objectives 1. What Role Does Electron Transport Play in Met.? 2. What Are the Reduction Potentials for the Electron Transport Chain?

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Assemble polymers, pump substances across membranes, move and reproduce The giant panda Obtains energy for its cells by eating plants which get

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy You should be able to: 1. Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name and describe the three stages of cellular respiration;

More information

3.2 Aerobic Respiration

3.2 Aerobic Respiration 3.2 Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Cellular Respiration Catabolic pathways Breaks down energy-rich compounds to make ATP Requires oxygen Occurs in different parts of the cell C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) 6CO

More information

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms Energy flows into

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE? A. They are generally endergonic. B. They usually require ATP. C. They are part of metabolism. D.

More information

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE LECTURE CONTENT INTRODUCTION CITRIC ACID CYCLE (T.C.A) PRODUCTION OF ACETYL CoA REACTIONS OF THE CITIRC ACID CYCLE THE AMPHIBOLIC NATURE OF THE T.C.A CYCLE THE GLYOXYLATE CYCLE

More information

19 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation W. H. Freeman and Company

19 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation W. H. Freeman and Company 19 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation 2013 W. H. Freeman and Company CHAPTER 19 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Key topics: Electron transport chain in mitochondria Capture

More information

Chapter 9 Overview. Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle. Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions. Aerobic metabolism I

Chapter 9 Overview. Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle. Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions. Aerobic metabolism I n n Chapter 9 Overview Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions Ingestion of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids Provide basic building blocks for

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush number 7 Done by حسام أبو عوض Corrected by Shahd Alqudah Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush 1 P a g e As we have studied before, in the fourth reaction of the Krebs cycle, α- ketoglutarate is converted into Succinyl-CoA

More information

Electron Transport System Supplemental Reading. Key Concepts PETER MITCHELL'S CHEMIOSMOTIC THEORY

Electron Transport System Supplemental Reading. Key Concepts PETER MITCHELL'S CHEMIOSMOTIC THEORY Electron Transport System Supplemental Reading Key Concepts - PETER MITCHELL'S CHEMIOSMOTIC THEORY - THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM IS A SERIES OF COUPLED REDOX REACTIONS Complex I: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky Enzymes and Metabolism Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb 1 Protein Macromolecules composed of combinations

More information

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.6 Oxidative Phosphorylation 3.6a Electron Transport 3.6b ATP Synthesis

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.6 Oxidative Phosphorylation 3.6a Electron Transport 3.6b ATP Synthesis Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY 3.6 Oxidative Phosphorylation 3.6a Electron Transport 3.6b ATP Synthesis Section 3.6a: Electron Transport Synopsis 3.6a - During processes such as glycolysis and Krebs

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

NAME KEY ID # EXAM 3a BIOC 460. Wednesday April 10, Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided!

NAME KEY ID # EXAM 3a BIOC 460. Wednesday April 10, Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided! EXAM 3a BIOC 460 Wednesday April 10, 2002 Please include your name and ID# on each page. Limit your answers to the space provided! 1 1. (5 pts.) Define the term energy charge: Energy charge refers to the

More information

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration 1. Respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport: an overview 2. Glycolysis

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW

MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW 1 MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW A. MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW Mitochondrial Structure The arrangement of membranes: distinct inner and outer membranes, The location of ATPase, DNA and ribosomes The

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Edited by Shawn Lester PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD

Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD natarboush@ju.edu.jo www.facebook.com/natarboush Why do we need it? Location & where is it in the picture? Electron (energy) carrying molecules Components Enzymes & cofactors

More information

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism Stage II of catabolism involves the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and aminoacids into acetylcoa In aerobic organisms, citric acid cycle makes up the final

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions Glucose metabolism 1. Below is depicted glucose catabolism. Indicate on the pathways the following: A) which reaction(s) of glycolysis are irreversible B) where energy

More information

Cellular Metabolism. Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69)

Cellular Metabolism. Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Metabolism Animation Breaking Down Glucose For Energy

More information

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Objectives Distinguish between fermentation and anaerobic respiration. Name the three stages of cellular respiration and state the region of the cell

More information

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle)

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as: Kreb s cycle Sir Hans Krebs Nobel prize, 1953 TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle The citric acid cycle requires aerobic conditions!!!!

More information

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Key Concepts - The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions - Eight enzymatic reactions of the Citrate Cycle - Key control points in the citrate cycle regulate

More information

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of

More information

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Citrate Cycle Lecture 28 Key Concepts The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Eight reactions of the Citrate Cycle Key control points in the Citrate Cycle regulate metabolic flux What role

More information

ATP ATP. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy. The point is to make ATP!

ATP ATP. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy. The point is to make ATP! ellular Respiration Harvesting hemical Energy 1 The point is to make! 2 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats, proteins Heterotrophs eat these organic molecules

More information

Ch. 9 Cellular Respiration Stage 2 & 3: Oxidation of Pyruvate Krebs Cycle

Ch. 9 Cellular Respiration Stage 2 & 3: Oxidation of Pyruvate Krebs Cycle Ch. 9 Cellular Respiration Stage 2 & 3: Oxidation of Pyruvate Krebs Cycle 2006-2007 Glycolysis is only the start Glycolysis glucose pyruvate 6C Pyruvate has more energy to yield 3 more C to strip off (to

More information

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish the chapter: 1, 3, 7, 10, 16, 19, 20 Additional Problem: Write out the eight reaction steps of the Citric Acid Cycle, using

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy.

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. 2. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy 3. Biochemical pathways are

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the giant panda, obtain energy by eating plants,

More information

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS All the energy required for 'life' processes is obtained by oxidation of some macromolecules that we call 'food'.

More information

Reading Assignment: Start reading Chapter 14: Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Cholorplasts See animation 14.

Reading Assignment: Start reading Chapter 14: Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Cholorplasts See animation 14. 5.19.06 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Reading Assignment: Start reading Chapter 14: Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Cholorplasts See animation 14.3 on your text CD ATPsynthase

More information

Releasing Chemical Energy

Releasing Chemical Energy Releasing Chemical Energy Ø Energy From Carbohydrates Ø Aerobic Respiration/ Stages Ø Fermentation Ø Food as a Source of Energy How Do Cells Access the Chemical Energy in Carbohydrayes? Aerobic Respiration

More information

Active Learning Exercise 5. Cellular Respiration

Active Learning Exercise 5. Cellular Respiration Name Biol 211 - Group Number Active Learning Exercise 5. Cellular Respiration Reference: Chapter 9 (Biology by Campbell/Reece, 8 th ed.) 1. Give the overall balanced chemical equation for aerobic cellular

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration 1. To perform cell work, cells require energy. a. A cell does three main kinds of work: i. Mechanical work, such as the beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement

More information

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP]

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] 3.7 Cell respiration ( Chapter 9 in Campbell's book) 3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] Organic compounds store

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

III. Metabolism The Citric Acid Cycle

III. Metabolism The Citric Acid Cycle Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Lethbridge III. Metabolism The Citric Acid Cycle Slide 1 The Eight Steps of the Citric Acid Cycle Enzymes: 4 dehydrogenases (2 decarboxylation) 3

More information

Microbial Metabolism. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R

Microbial Metabolism. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R 5 Microbial Metabolism Big Picture: Metabolism Metabolism is the buildup and breakdown of nutrients

More information

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes How is energy obtained biologically? Recall: Red Ox Reactions Unit 2: Metabolic Processes Oxidation Is the chief mechanism by which chemical potential energy is released This energy comes from reduced

More information

Sheet #13. #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016. Here we go.. Record #18

Sheet #13. #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016. Here we go.. Record #18 1 Sheet #13 #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016 Here we go.. Record #18 2 Three processes play central role in aerobic metabolism: 1) The citric acid

More information

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chem 109 C Fall 2014 Armen Zakarian ffice: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chapter 25 o Glycolysis : fates of pyruvate NADH, H + H + C 2 NADH, H + H - (S)-lactic acid lactate dehydrogenase; anaerobic conditions -

More information

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Chapter 16 - Citric Acid Cycle TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) Citric acid cycle and Krebs cycle. Named after Sir Hans Krebs, Nobel Laureate. He worked as an assistant professor for Otto Warburg (Nobel

More information

2. What are the products of cellular respiration? Include all forms of energy that are products.

2. What are the products of cellular respiration? Include all forms of energy that are products. Name Per Cellular Respiration An Overview Why Respire Anyhoo? Because bucko all cells need usable chemical energy to do work. The methods cells use to convert glucose into ATP vary depending on the availability

More information

Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7

Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7 Overview: Life Is Work To perform their many tasks, living cells require energy from outside sources.

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

BCH Graduate Survey of Biochemistry

BCH Graduate Survey of Biochemistry BCH 5045 Graduate Survey of Biochemistry Instructor: Charles Guy Producer: Ron Thomas Director: Glen Graham Lecture 50 Slide sets available at: http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/teach/guyweb/bch5045/index.html

More information

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP Chapter 8 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Energy is stored in organic compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Heterotrophs eat

More information

Enzymes what are they?

Enzymes what are they? Topic 11 (ch8) Microbial Metabolism Topics Metabolism Energy Pathways Biosynthesis 1 Catabolism Anabolism Enzymes Metabolism 2 Metabolic balancing act Catabolism Enzymes involved in breakdown of complex

More information

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Chapter 9

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Chapter 9 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Releasing energy (ATP) from glucose (chemical energy) in the presence of O 2 Energy flows Matter cycles True or False Plants only perform

More information

Cell Respiration. Anaerobic & Aerobic Respiration

Cell Respiration. Anaerobic & Aerobic Respiration Cell Respiration Anaerobic & Aerobic Respiration Understandings/Objectives 2.8.U1: Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP. Define cell respiration State

More information

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle. TCA Cycle; Krebs Cycle; Citric Acid Cycle

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle. TCA Cycle; Krebs Cycle; Citric Acid Cycle Tricarboxylic Acid ycle TA ycle; Krebs ycle; itric Acid ycle The Bridging Step: Pyruvate D hase O H 3 - - pyruvate O O - NAD + oash O 2 NADH O H 3 - - S - oa acetyl oa Pyruvate D hase omplex Multienzyme

More information

Transport. Oxidation. Electron. which the en the ETC and. of NADH an. nd FADH 2 by ation. Both, Phosphorylation. Glycolysis Glucose.

Transport. Oxidation. Electron. which the en the ETC and. of NADH an. nd FADH 2 by ation. Both, Phosphorylation. Glycolysis Glucose. Electron Transport Chain and Oxidation Phosphorylation When one glucose molecule is oxidized to six CO 2 molecules by way of glycolysiss and TCA cycle, considerable amount of energy (ATP) is generated.

More information

Bioenergetics. Chapter 3. Objectives. Objectives. Introduction. Photosynthesis. Energy Forms

Bioenergetics. Chapter 3. Objectives. Objectives. Introduction. Photosynthesis. Energy Forms Objectives Chapter 3 Bioenergetics Discuss the function of cell membrane, nucleus, & mitochondria Define: endergonic, exergonic, coupled reactions & bioenergetics Describe how enzymes work Discuss nutrients

More information

Lecture METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE

Lecture METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE Lecture 19-24 METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE Introduction Carbohydrates are major sources of energy for living organisms. The chief source of carbohydrate in human food is starch, which is the storage form

More information

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Carbohydrate Metabolism

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Carbohydrate Metabolism ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES I. Glycolysis A. Pathway Regulation of glycolysis Hexokinase: Activated by glucose. Inhibited by G6P. 6-Phosphofructokinase: Inhibited by ATP, especially

More information

Fatty acid breakdown

Fatty acid breakdown Fatty acids contain a long hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxylate group. Most contain between 14 and 24 carbon atoms. The chains may be saturated or contain double bonds. The complete oxidation of

More information

Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration An Introduction to Essential Cellular Metabolic athways GLY e- Cytolplasm TS e- KC Matrix of Mitochondria Cytolplasm By Noel Ways Basic Metabolic athways: Glycolosis,

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate(the product of glycolysis) passes by special pyruvatetransporter into mitochondria which proceeds as follows:

More information

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration 9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration Oxygen Carbon 2 2 Dioxide 34 Water Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of

More information

Name Test 3 PHYS 0213 (Biochem) Spring 2005

Name Test 3 PHYS 0213 (Biochem) Spring 2005 Name Test 3 PY 0213 (Biochem) pring 2005 1. (8 pts.) In glycolysis, is formed during the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. What is the driving force for this reaction? 2 P 3 2 + 3 + 1. 2.

More information

BioChem Course Outline

BioChem Course Outline BioChem 330 - Course Outline Metabolism and Bioenergetics (II) ENZYME CATALYSIS: kinetic constants k cat, K m Catalytic strategies, the serine proteases CATABOLISM (breakdown) Carbohydrates Glycolysis

More information

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Overview (Also called KREBS CYCLE, or CITRIC ACID CYCLE ) Occur totally in mitochondria. TCA cycle is an aerobic pathway, bcz O 2 is required as the final electron accepter. Supplies

More information

Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis (Ch. 6)

Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis (Ch. 6) Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis (Ch. 6) What s the point? The point is to make! 2007-2008 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats, proteins Heterotrophs

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy AP Biology Reading Guide Name: Date: Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8 How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 8 Impacts, Issues: When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels More than forty disorders related to defective mitochondria are known (such as Friedreich s ataxia); many

More information

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.1 Metabolic Pathways 3.1a Overview of Metabolism 3.1b High-Energy Compounds 3.

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.1 Metabolic Pathways 3.1a Overview of Metabolism 3.1b High-Energy Compounds 3. Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY 3.1 Metabolic Pathways 3.1a Overview of Metabolism 3.1b High-Energy Compounds 3.1c Redox Reactions Section 3.1a: Overview of Metabolism Synopsis 3.1a - Metabolism is the

More information

Final Exam Review BiCh

Final Exam Review BiCh Final Exam Review BiCh110 2017 Exam will be posted to the course website on Monday morning, December 4th (not on Wednesday, December 6th as stated in the syllabus) Exams are due by 5pm on Friday, December

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration Unit Objective I can compare the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy flow, reactants, and products. During

More information

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants Energy

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle 19-1

The Citric Acid Cycle 19-1 The Citric Acid Cycle 19-1 The Citric Acid Cycle Three processes play central role in aerobic metabolism the citric acid cycle electron transport oxidative phosphorylation Metabolism consists of catabolism:

More information

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University Respiration Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is comprised of: anabolism synthesis of molecules, requires input of energy catabolism break down of molecules,

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Xe - + Y X + Ye - CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy SUMMARY EQUATION

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Xe - + Y X + Ye - CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy SUMMARY EQUATION AP BIOLOGY CELLULAR ENERGETICS ACTIVITY #2 NAME DATE HOUR CELLULAR RESPIRATION SUMMARY EQUATION STEPWISE REDOX REACTION Oxidation: Reduction: Xe - + Y X + Ye - CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12

More information

1- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

1- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? Name: NetID: Exam 3 - Version 1 October 23, 2017 Dr. A. Pimentel Each question has a value of 4 points and there are a total of 160 points in the exam. However, the maximum score of this exam will be capped

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. The Principles of Energy Harvest

CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. The Principles of Energy Harvest CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY The Principles of Energy Harvest 1. Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic, energy-yielding pathways 2. Cells recycle the ATP they use for

More information

Lesson Overview. Cellular Respiration: An Overview. 9.2 process of cell respiration

Lesson Overview. Cellular Respiration: An Overview. 9.2 process of cell respiration 9.2 process of cell respiration Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of the 3-carbon molecule pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid is a reactant in the Krebs cycle. ATP and NADH

More information

RESPIRATION: SYNTHESIS OF ATP. Clickers!

RESPIRATION: SYNTHESIS OF ATP. Clickers! RESPIRATION: SYNTHESIS OF ATP Clickers! Respiration is a series of coupled reactions Carbon (in glucose) is oxidized ATP is formed from ADP plus phosphate O 2 ADP + Pi CO 2 + H 2 O ATP Synthesis of ATP

More information

membrane protein from halobacter can pumps protons when illuminated (expose to light ).

membrane protein from halobacter can pumps protons when illuminated (expose to light ). بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم *bacteriorhodopsin(protein from bacteria): it is a purple membrane protein from halobacter can pumps protons when illuminated (expose to light ). - we took the bacteriorhodopsin

More information