How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Chapter 9

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1 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Chapter 9

2 Cellular Respiration Releasing energy (ATP) from glucose (chemical energy) in the presence of O 2

3 Energy flows Matter cycles

4 True or False Plants only perform photosynthesis and animals only perform cellular respiration.

5 Respiration vs. Cellular Respiration

6 Cellular respiration Goal: produce ATP What type of reaction?

7 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics 1 glucose= up to 38 ATP 40% energy in glucose 60% lost as heat

8 Energy needs: Muscle cell 10 million ATP per second Exercise -> more ATP (more heat)

9 FYI: Energy just to maintain body 75% of energy from food each day Heart pumping blood Breathing Maintain body temperature Digest food

10

11 Oxidation-Reduction reaction AKA: Redox reaction Movement of electrons between molecules

12 Oxidation-Reduction reaction Oxidation: loss of electrons Reduction: gain of electrons LEO the lion says GER

13 Electrons transferred as H atoms Glucose is oxidized Oxygen is reduced

14 Help with Oxidizing Glucose Carbon Enzyme

15 Help with Oxidizing Glucose Coenzyme (niacin)

16 3 stages of Cellular Respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb s cycle) 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron transport chain (ETC) Chemiosmosis

17 Cellular Respiration Overview

18 GlycolysisOverview

19 Glycolysis Energy extracted from glucose -> ATP and NADH Cell can use immediately Needs to pass electrons to ETC Leftover energy from glucose is in pyruvate

20 Substrate Level Phosphorylation How ATP is made in glycolysis and citric acid cycle Enzyme transfers a phosphate from a substrate to ADP

21 Glycolysis Universal energy harvesting process No O 2 needed Occurs in cytoplasm

22 Glycolysis 9 chemical reactions Different enzyme for each Many intermediate compounds

23 2 phases of Glycolysis Phase 1 (steps 1-4): consume energy ATP energizes glucose in order to split it

24 2 ATPs used

25 G3P

26 2 phases of Glycolysis Phase 2 (steps 5-9): energy pay off 2 NADH and 4 ATP made

27

28 Glycolysis net energy yield 2 ATP used and 4 made Net gain of 2 ATP per glucose Some organisms can survive on this small energy yield

29 Glycolysis

30 Pyruvate Transported into mitochondria Must be prepped before it can enter citric acid cycle

31 Pyruvate Prep (x2)

32 Citric Acid Cycle overview AKA: Kreb s Cycle x2 per glucose

33

34

35 Each step catalyzed by different enzyme

36 Citric Acid Cycle

37 Structure of Mitochondria Intermembrane space

38 Proteins embedded in inner membrane Cytochrome

39 Oxidative Phosphorylation Electrons brought to ETC by NADH and FADH 2

40 *NADH is a higher energy molecule than FADH2

41 Oxidative Phosphorylation Carrier proteins bind and release e-by redox reactions (energy released) Energy used to actively transport H + across inner membrane

42

43 Oxidative Phosphorylation H + gradient stores potential energy Like water being held in a dam H + run down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase (can t cross membrane) Like water from dam rushes downhill ATP synthase activated to catalyze attachment of phosphate to ADP Like water spinning turbine to generate electricity

44

45 Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxygen is what pulls e-down the ETC ½ O 2 + 2e-+ 2H + = H 2 O Exergonic or endergonic? Electron transport ATP synthesis

46

47 Cellular Respiration Overview 2 H 2 O 2 CO 2 4 CO 2 4 H 2 O

48 How many e-does it take Each NADH with a pair of electrons produces enough of a H + gradient to make 3 ATP Each FADH 2 yields 2 ATP (starts ETC later)

49 Electron Transport Chain youtu.be/3y1do4nnaky

50 What would happen without oxygen?

51 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic (Cellular) requires oxygen Anaerobic (fermentation) takes place in absence of oxygen

52 Anaerobic Respiration Glycolysis occurs 2 ATP 2 pyruvate 2 NADH NADH needs to be recycled back to NAD +

53 Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in muscle cells and some bacteria

54 Lactic Acid uses

55 Alcoholic Fermentation Occurs in yeast and some bacteria

56 Alcoholic Fermentation uses Is yeast found in alcoholic beverages?

57 Facultative Anaerobes Can use aerobic or anaerobic respiration Ex: Yeast, muscle cells, some bacteria

58 Obligate Anaerobes Require anaerobic conditions Ex: Bacteria living in stagnant ponds or deep in soil

59 Is aerobic or anaerobic respiration more efficient at converting glucose to energy?

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