Principles of cell signaling Lecture 4

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Principles of cell signaling Lecture 4"

Transcription

1 Principles of cell signaling Lecture 4 Johan Lennartsson Molecular Cell Biology (1BG320),

2 Receptor tyrosine kinase-induced signal transduction Erk MAP kinase pathway PI3-kinase Akt pathway PLCg PKC pathway 2

3 Phospholipase C hydrolyses PIP 2 into DAG and IP 3 1,2-Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate (IP 3 ) are potent second messengers Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules that are not proteins IP 3 binds to and activate IP 3 -receptor in the ER membrane, leading opening of the channel and release of Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm DAG remains in the plasma membrane and functions as a protein kinase C (PKC) activator by facilitating its translocation to the membrane 3

4 PLCg is activated by receptor tyrosine kinases Receptor tyrosine kinases activate PLCg Membrane recruitment depends on both SH2 domain interaction with activated RTK and PH domain interaction with the membrane lipid PIP 3 SH2 PH 4

5 Ca 2+ concentration is kept low in the cytoplasm by Ca 2+ pump proteins Free intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ~ nm. [Ca 2+ ] within lumen of ER ~ mm 5

6 IP 3 promote increased cytoplasmic [Ca 2+ ] Examples of proteins regulated by Ca 2+ Calpain Ca 2+ -dependent protease Troponin Regulator of actin-myosin contraction Calmodulin Intracellular Ca 2+ sensor that can affect activity of many other proteins Synaptotagmin Regulates Ca 2+ -dependent vesicle fusion 6

7 Calmodulin is an intracellular Ca 2+ sensor Upon Ca 2+ binding, calmodulin changes conformation exposing two binding surfaces that participate in protein-protein interactions 7

8 Calmodulin is an intracellular Ca 2+ sensor 4 Ca 2+ Target protein 8

9 Calmodulin-Ca 2+ binding regulates the activity of many signaling proteins Displacement of autoinhinitory domain e.g., CaM kinase II, MLCKs Active site remodeling CaM induced rearragement of thetarget and creates an active site CaM-induced oligomerization e.g., small conductance Ca 2+ - activated K + channel 9

10 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) is a membrane associated second messenger 10

11 Protein kinase C family (PKC) PKC:s are a family of serine/threonine kinases The subdivision into subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements for activation Activated downstream of PLC Classical; DAG and Ca 2+ Novel; DAG Atypical 11

12 PKC are translocated to the membrane by their C1 and C2 domain interacting with DAG and Ca 2+, respectively Membrane localization driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions C1 basic Polar head groups DAG hydrophobic Hydrocarbon core DAG 12

13 PKC is activated by translocation from cytoplasm to membrane via displacement of pseudosubstrate C2 C1B C1A Activated Extracellular classical space PKCs are membrane associated 13

14 Examples of pathways involving PKC

15 Review: G-protein coupled receptor activation Lysosomal degradation Internalization (clathrin-coated pits) 15

16 G-protein cycle and regulatory proteins The activity state of a G-protein can be regulated by: GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) GAP (GTPase activating protein) GDI (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor) 16

17 Biochemistry of GTP hydrolysis GTP GDP Energy 17

18 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) induced-signal transduction PLCb-PKC pathway camp PKA pathway 18

19 PLCb is activated by G-protein coupled receptors G-protein coupled receptors activate PLCb Membrane recruitment depends on interaction with activated G-proteins (both G a and G bg subunits) 19

20 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) induced-signal transduction PLCb-PKC pathway camp PKA pathway 20

21 Activated Ga interact with and stimulate adenylate cyclase activity Adenylate cyclase 21

22 Adenylate cyclase is a large enzyme with 12 transmembrane helices camp is a very important second messenger 22

23 camp is a powerful second messenger camp regulates the function of several effector proteins Protein kinase A (PKA) 23

24 The intracellular concentration of camp must be carefully regulated The balance between adenylate cyclase and campphosphodiesterase determine the intracellular concentration of camp 10 isoforms > 20 isoforms Different adenylate cyclases and camp-phosphodiesterases can be regulated in different allowing for high degree of fine tuning of camp levels 24

25 Adenylate cyclases (AC) can be differentially regulated by different types of G-proteins AC are transmembrane proteins that produce camp from ATP all are activated by G sa -GTP some are inhibited by G ia -GTP some are modulated by G bg, Ca 2+ /calmodulin or kinases (PKC, PKA) Adenylate cyclases function as an integration point of inputs from several hormones 25

26 Smell involves GPCR activation and production of camp that opens an ion channel Membrane depolarization and generation of action potential 26

27 Protein kinase A is activated by camp 27

28 Downstream events provoked by PKA activation: CREB-mediated gene expression PKA can regulate gene expression by phosphorylating CREB Activated PKA can move into the nucleus Inside the nucleus PKA phosphorylates CREB (camp-response element binding protein) Phosphorylated CREB binds to CRE and recruits CBP and activates transcription 28

29 PKA have an important role in regulation of glucose blood levels Glucose storage Can be used for energy production 29

30 PKA have an important role in regulation of glucose blood levels Gluconeogenesis PEPCK 30

31 PKA activation promote glycogen breakdown PKA phosphorylate and thereby inactivate glycogen synthase (this will inhibit glycogen production) PKA phosphorylates and activte glycogen phosphorylase kinase Active glycogen phosphorylase kinase phosphorylates and thereby activate glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylates promoteglycogen degradation (release of glucose 1-phosphate) PKA activation stimulate glykogen breakdown and glucose release into blood stream (in liver cells) 31

32 PKA activation promote glucose synthesis

33 AKAP proteins and regulation of PKA signaling A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) bind PKA and determines its local concentration as well as access to substrates Different AKAPs are target to different intracellular structures Example makap co-localizes PKA and PDE at the nuclear membrane (heart cells) and this result in self-termination of the rise in camp levels (giving only a pulse) 33

34 Different cell types respond differently to PKA activation Different cell types express different subsets of PKA substrates and anchoring proteins (AKAPs) due to the differentiation process. The physiological response to PKA activation depends on which substrates get phosphorylated Epinephrine (adrenalin)-induced PKA activation in different cell types result in: Liver Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Adipose tissue Intestinal tissue increased convertion of glycogen to glucose and increased glucose synthesis from amino acids increased conversion of glycogen to glucose increased contraction increased hydrolysis of triglycerides increased fluid secretion 34

35 G-protein coupled receptors can also activate the Erk MAP kinase pathway 35

36 Signal transduction by cytokine receptors Cytokine receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases Stat pathway 36

37 Review: Cytokine receptor activation Cytokine receptor often contain several protein chains 37

38 Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) STAT proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors STAT proteins have to be tyrosine phosphorylated for nuclear localization Stat1, no stimulation Stat1, IFN stimulation Biology of Reproduction (1999) 61:

39 Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) STAT proteins contain SH2-domain and tyrosine phosphorylation site and this allows them to dimerize Stat protein 1 Stat protein 2 SH2 SH2 39

40 STAT signaling pathway 40

41 Activated STAT bind directly to DNA 41

42 STAT signaling pathway Stat1; IFNa/b/g-response Stat2; IFNa/b-response Stat3; several cytokines and growth factors Important for growth regulation Abnormal overactivation of Stat3 correleated with cancer Stat4; IL12-response Stat5a/b; several growth factors and cytokines Regulates expression of milk proteins in breast tissue in response to prolactin Stat6; IL6-response 42

43 TGFb receptor-induced Smad signal transduction Smad pathway 43

44 TGFb receptor activation Figure 14-22a

45 TGFb receptor activation (Serine phosphorylation) TGFb induce clustering of two type I receptors with two type II The type I receptor acts as a substrate for the type II receptor

46 TGFb receptor activation and signaling SARA Figure 14-22c

47 Smad domain structure 47

48 TGFb receptor activation and signaling Figure 14-22d

49 TGFb receptor superfamily consist of TGFb-R, Activin-R and BMP-R 49

50 Receptors and signaling pathways involving proteolysis Wnt pathway involved in many developmental processes critical regulator of stem cells Hedgehog pathway essential for proper embryonic development Notch pathway essential for proper embryonic development regulates cell fate determination 50

51 The Wnt signaling pathway 51

52 Proteins can be marked for degradation by ubiquitin chains (poly-ubiquitination) E1 and E2 activates ubiquitin for attachement to target protein E3 ligase responsible for substrate selection Protein are proteolyticall degraded in the proteasome 52

53 Proteasome is a large complex with multiple protease active sites Selects protein with K48 poly-ubiquitin chains for entry Barrel-like structure with multiple active sites 53

54 Phosphorylation of b-catenin by GSK3b creates a binding site for an E3 ubiquitin ligase E1+E2+E3 complex 54

55 The Wnt signaling pathway 55

56 Role of Wnt signaling for colon epithelium When cell are to far away From Wnt source they stop proliferate Wnt Wnt Wnt Wnt Wnt Wnt Wnt enterocytes : the absorptive cells enteroendocrine cells: hormone-secreting cells goblet cells: mucus-secreting cells Paneth cells: secreting antimicrobial toxins

57 The Hedgehog signaling pathway 57

58 The Notch signaling pathway Proteases g-secretase TACE Presenilin Cell cycle progression (e.g. cyclin D & Myc) Inhibition of apoptosis (e.g. Bcl-2)

Receptor mediated Signal Transduction

Receptor mediated Signal Transduction Receptor mediated Signal Transduction G-protein-linked receptors adenylyl cyclase camp PKA Organization of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases From G.M. Cooper, The Cell. A molecular approach, 2004, third

More information

Cell Signaling part 2

Cell Signaling part 2 15 Cell Signaling part 2 Functions of Cell Surface Receptors Other cell surface receptors are directly linked to intracellular enzymes. The largest family of these is the receptor protein tyrosine kinases,

More information

Signal Transduction Pathways. Part 2

Signal Transduction Pathways. Part 2 Signal Transduction Pathways Part 2 GPCRs G-protein coupled receptors > 700 GPCRs in humans Mediate responses to senses taste, smell, sight ~ 1000 GPCRs mediate sense of smell in mouse Half of all known

More information

Signal Transduction Cascades

Signal Transduction Cascades Signal Transduction Cascades Contents of this page: Kinases & phosphatases Protein Kinase A (camp-dependent protein kinase) G-protein signal cascade Structure of G-proteins Small GTP-binding proteins,

More information

Signal Transduction: G-Protein Coupled Receptors

Signal Transduction: G-Protein Coupled Receptors Signal Transduction: G-Protein Coupled Receptors Federle, M. (2017). Lectures 4-5: Signal Transduction parts 1&2: nuclear receptors and GPCRs. Lecture presented at PHAR 423 Lecture in UIC College of Pharmacy,

More information

G-Protein Signaling. Introduction to intracellular signaling. Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D

G-Protein Signaling. Introduction to intracellular signaling. Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D G-Protein Signaling Introduction to intracellular signaling Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D Cell signaling Cells communicate via extracellular signaling molecules (Hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters

More information

Chapter 15: Signal transduction

Chapter 15: Signal transduction Chapter 15: Signal transduction Know the terminology: Enzyme-linked receptor, G-protein linked receptor, nuclear hormone receptor, G-protein, adaptor protein, scaffolding protein, SH2 domain, MAPK, Ras,

More information

Introduction! Introduction! Introduction! Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 2

Introduction! Introduction! Introduction! Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 2 Chem 452 - Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 2 Questions of the Day: How does the hormone insulin trigger the uptake of glucose in the cells that it targets. Introduction! Signal transduction

More information

Membrane associated receptor transfers the information. Second messengers relay information

Membrane associated receptor transfers the information. Second messengers relay information Membrane associated receptor transfers the information Most signals are polar and large Few of the signals are nonpolar Receptors are intrinsic membrane proteins Extracellular and intracellular domains

More information

Principles of Genetics and Molecular Biology

Principles of Genetics and Molecular Biology Cell signaling Dr. Diala Abu-Hassan, DDS, PhD School of Medicine Dr.abuhassand@gmail.com Principles of Genetics and Molecular Biology www.cs.montana.edu Modes of cell signaling Direct interaction of a

More information

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

Mechanisms of Hormone Action Mechanisms of Hormone Action General principles: 1. Signals act over different ranges. 2. Signals have different chemical natures. 3. The same signal can induce a different response in different cells.

More information

Lecture 9: Cell Communication I

Lecture 9: Cell Communication I 02.05.10 Lecture 9: Cell Communication I Multicellular organisms need to coordinate cellular functions in different tissues Cell-to-cell communication is also used by single celled organisms to signal

More information

Lecture: CHAPTER 13 Signal Transduction Pathways

Lecture: CHAPTER 13 Signal Transduction Pathways Lecture: 10 17 2016 CHAPTER 13 Signal Transduction Pathways Chapter 13 Outline Signal transduction cascades have many components in common: 1. Release of a primary message as a response to a physiological

More information

Biosignals, Chapter 8, rearranged, Part I

Biosignals, Chapter 8, rearranged, Part I Biosignals, Chapter 8, rearranged, Part I Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A Ligand-Binding Ion Channel Classes of Receptor Proteins in Eukaryotes, Heterotrimeric G Proteins Signaling View the Heterotrimeric

More information

Sarah Jaar Marah Al-Darawsheh

Sarah Jaar Marah Al-Darawsheh 22 Sarah Jaar Marah Al-Darawsheh Faisal Mohammad Receptors can be membrane proteins (for water-soluble hormones/ligands) or intracellular (found in the cytosol or nucleus and bind to DNA, for lipid-soluble

More information

Lipids and Membranes

Lipids and Membranes Lipids and Membranes Presented by Dr. Mohammad Saadeh The requirements for the Pharmaceutical Biochemistry I Philadelphia University Faculty of pharmacy Membrane transport D. Endocytosis and Exocytosis

More information

Propagation of the Signal

Propagation of the Signal OpenStax-CNX module: m44452 1 Propagation of the Signal OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section,

More information

Chapter 20. Cell - Cell Signaling: Hormones and Receptors. Three general types of extracellular signaling. endocrine signaling. paracrine signaling

Chapter 20. Cell - Cell Signaling: Hormones and Receptors. Three general types of extracellular signaling. endocrine signaling. paracrine signaling Chapter 20 Cell - Cell Signaling: Hormones and Receptors Three general types of extracellular signaling endocrine signaling paracrine signaling autocrine signaling Endocrine Signaling - signaling molecules

More information

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 19: Cell Signaling Pathways and Gene Expression

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 19: Cell Signaling Pathways and Gene Expression Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 19: Cell Signaling Pathways and Gene Expression Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about cell signaling is correct? Question #1 (A) Cell signaling involves receiving

More information

Revision. camp pathway

Revision. camp pathway االله الرحمن الرحيم بسم Revision camp pathway camp pathway Revision camp pathway Adenylate cyclase Adenylate Cyclase enzyme Adenylate cyclase catalyses the formation of camp from ATP. Stimulation or inhibition

More information

The Tissue Engineer s Toolkit

The Tissue Engineer s Toolkit The Tissue Engineer s Toolkit Stimuli Detection and Response Ken Webb, Ph. D. Assistant Professor Dept. of Bioengineering Clemson University Environmental Stimulus-Cellular Response Environmental Stimuli

More information

BCOR 011 Lecture 19 Oct 12, 2005 I. Cell Communication Signal Transduction Chapter 11

BCOR 011 Lecture 19 Oct 12, 2005 I. Cell Communication Signal Transduction Chapter 11 BCOR 011 Lecture 19 Oct 12, 2005 I. Cell Communication Signal Transduction Chapter 11 External signal is received and converted to another form to elicit a response 1 Lecture Outline 1. Types of intercellular

More information

Regulation of cell function by intracellular signaling

Regulation of cell function by intracellular signaling Regulation of cell function by intracellular signaling Objectives: Regulation principle Allosteric and covalent mechanisms, Popular second messengers, Protein kinases, Kinase cascade and interaction. regulation

More information

MCB*4010 Midterm Exam / Winter 2008

MCB*4010 Midterm Exam / Winter 2008 MCB*4010 Midterm Exam / Winter 2008 Name: ID: Instructions: Answer all 4 questions. The number of marks for each question indicates how many points you need to provide. Write your answers in point form,

More information

Cell Biology Lecture 9 Notes Basic Principles of cell signaling and GPCR system

Cell Biology Lecture 9 Notes Basic Principles of cell signaling and GPCR system Cell Biology Lecture 9 Notes Basic Principles of cell signaling and GPCR system Basic Elements of cell signaling: Signal or signaling molecule (ligand, first messenger) o Small molecules (epinephrine,

More information

Biochemie 4. Cell communication - GPCR

Biochemie 4. Cell communication - GPCR Biochemie 4 Cell communication - GPCR 1 Lecture outline General principles - local and long-distance signaling - classes of receptors - molecular switches and second messengers Receptor tyrosine kinases

More information

Enzyme-coupled Receptors. Cell-surface receptors 1. Ion-channel-coupled receptors 2. G-protein-coupled receptors 3. Enzyme-coupled receptors

Enzyme-coupled Receptors. Cell-surface receptors 1. Ion-channel-coupled receptors 2. G-protein-coupled receptors 3. Enzyme-coupled receptors Enzyme-coupled Receptors Cell-surface receptors 1. Ion-channel-coupled receptors 2. G-protein-coupled receptors 3. Enzyme-coupled receptors Cell-surface receptors allow a flow of ions across the plasma

More information

Vets 111/Biov 111 Cell Signalling-2. Secondary messengers the cyclic AMP intracellular signalling system

Vets 111/Biov 111 Cell Signalling-2. Secondary messengers the cyclic AMP intracellular signalling system Vets 111/Biov 111 Cell Signalling-2 Secondary messengers the cyclic AMP intracellular signalling system The classical secondary messenger model of intracellular signalling A cell surface receptor binds

More information

BL 424 Chapter 15: Cell Signaling; Signal Transduction

BL 424 Chapter 15: Cell Signaling; Signal Transduction BL 424 Chapter 15: Cell Signaling; Signal Transduction All cells receive and respond to signals from their environments. The behavior of each individual cell in multicellular plants and animals must be

More information

The elements of G protein-coupled receptor systems

The elements of G protein-coupled receptor systems The elements of G protein-coupled receptor systems Prostaglandines Sphingosine 1-phosphate a receptor that contains 7 membrane-spanning domains a coupled trimeric G protein which functions as a switch

More information

Lecture 15. Signal Transduction Pathways - Introduction

Lecture 15. Signal Transduction Pathways - Introduction Lecture 15 Signal Transduction Pathways - Introduction So far.. Regulation of mrna synthesis Regulation of rrna synthesis Regulation of trna & 5S rrna synthesis Regulation of gene expression by signals

More information

Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction

Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction Chem 452 - Lecture 10 Signal Transduction 111130 Here we look at the movement of a signal from the outside of a cell to its inside, where it elicits changes within the cell. These changes are usually mediated

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

2013 W. H. Freeman and Company. 12 Signal Transduction

2013 W. H. Freeman and Company. 12 Signal Transduction 2013 W. H. Freeman and Company 12 Signal Transduction CHAPTER 12 Signal Transduction Key topics: General features of signal transduction Structure and function of G protein coupled receptors Structure

More information

Biol220 Cell Signalling Cyclic AMP the classical secondary messenger

Biol220 Cell Signalling Cyclic AMP the classical secondary messenger Biol220 Cell Signalling Cyclic AMP the classical secondary messenger The classical secondary messenger model of intracellular signalling A cell surface receptor binds the signal molecule (the primary

More information

Signal-Transduction Cascades - 2. The Phosphoinositide Cascade

Signal-Transduction Cascades - 2. The Phosphoinositide Cascade Signal-Transduction Cascades - 2 The Phosphoinositide Cascade Calcium ion as a second messenger Tyrosine kinase and receptor dimerization scribd.com Faisal Khatib JU The Phosphoinositide Cascade Used by

More information

Cellular Signaling Pathways. Signaling Overview

Cellular Signaling Pathways. Signaling Overview Cellular Signaling Pathways Signaling Overview Signaling steps Synthesis and release of signaling molecules (ligands) by the signaling cell. Transport of the signal to the target cell Detection of the

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

1. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) phosphorylates themselves

1. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) phosphorylates themselves Enzyme-coupled receptors Transmembrane proteins Ligand-binding domain on the outer surface Cytoplasmic domain acts as an enzyme itself or forms a complex with enzyme 1. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases

More information

Chapter 11. Cell Communication

Chapter 11. Cell Communication Chapter 11 Cell Communication Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication Is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms Concept 11.1: External signals are converted into responses

More information

General Principles of Endocrine Physiology

General Principles of Endocrine Physiology General Principles of Endocrine Physiology By Dr. Isabel S.S. Hwang Department of Physiology Faculty of Medicine University of Hong Kong The major human endocrine glands Endocrine glands and hormones

More information

Signaling Through Immune System Receptors (Ch. 7)

Signaling Through Immune System Receptors (Ch. 7) Signaling Through Immune System Receptors (Ch. 7) 1. General principles of signal transduction and propagation. 2. Antigen receptor signaling and lymphocyte activation. 3. Other receptors and signaling

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition. Lectures by Chris Romero. Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition. Lectures by Chris Romero. Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication Is absolutely

More information

What would you observe if you fused a G1 cell with a S cell? A. Mitotic and pulverized chromosomes. B. Mitotic and compact G1 chromosomes.

What would you observe if you fused a G1 cell with a S cell? A. Mitotic and pulverized chromosomes. B. Mitotic and compact G1 chromosomes. What would you observe if you fused a G1 cell with a S cell? A. Mitotic and pulverized chromosomes. B. Mitotic and compact G1 chromosomes. C. Mostly non-compact G1 chromosomes. D. Compact G1 and G2 chromosomes.

More information

Receptors and Drug Action. Dr. Subasini Pharmacology Department Ishik University, Erbil

Receptors and Drug Action. Dr. Subasini Pharmacology Department Ishik University, Erbil Receptors and Drug Action Dr. Subasini Pharmacology Department Ishik University, Erbil Receptors and Drug Action Receptor Receptor is defined as a macromolecule or binding site located on the surface or

More information

Cell Communication. Local and Long Distance Signaling

Cell Communication. Local and Long Distance Signaling Cell Communication Cell to cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation providing more evidence for the evolutionary relatedness of all life

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Signaling

Chapter 9. Cellular Signaling Chapter 9 Cellular Signaling Cellular Messaging Page 215 Cells can signal to each other and interpret the signals they receive from other cells and the environment Signals are most often chemicals The

More information

Effects of Second Messengers

Effects of Second Messengers Effects of Second Messengers Inositol trisphosphate Diacylglycerol Opens Calcium Channels Binding to IP 3 -gated Channel Cooperative binding Activates Protein Kinase C is required Phosphorylation of many

More information

BIOLOGY. Cell Communication CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson. Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick

BIOLOGY. Cell Communication CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson. Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 11 Cell Communication Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Cellular Messaging Cells can signal to

More information

Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5

Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5 Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5 Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD University of Jordan 1 PKC Phosphorylates many substrates, can activate kinase pathway, gene regulation PLC- signaling pathway

More information

KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION Signal Transduction - Part 2 Key Concepts - Receptor tyrosine kinases control cell metabolism and proliferation Growth factor signaling through Ras Mutated cell signaling genes in cancer cells are called

More information

Signaling. Dr. Sujata Persad Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy & Health research

Signaling. Dr. Sujata Persad Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy & Health research Signaling Dr. Sujata Persad 3-020 Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy & Health research E-mail:sujata.persad@ualberta.ca 1 Growth Factor Receptors and Other Signaling Pathways What we will cover today: How

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

Hormones and Signal Transduction. Dr. Kevin Ahern

Hormones and Signal Transduction. Dr. Kevin Ahern Dr. Kevin Ahern Signaling Outline Signaling Outline Background Signaling Outline Background Membranes Signaling Outline Background Membranes Hormones & Receptors Signaling Outline Background Membranes

More information

Plasma membranes. Plasmodesmata between plant cells. Gap junctions between animal cells Cell junctions. Cell-cell recognition

Plasma membranes. Plasmodesmata between plant cells. Gap junctions between animal cells Cell junctions. Cell-cell recognition Cell Communication Cell Signaling Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Communicate by chemical messengers Animal and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect

More information

Ayman Mesleh & Leen Alnemrawi. Bayan Abusheikha. Faisal

Ayman Mesleh & Leen Alnemrawi. Bayan Abusheikha. Faisal 24 Ayman Mesleh & Leen Alnemrawi Bayan Abusheikha Faisal We were talking last time about receptors for lipid soluble hormones.the general mechanism of receptors for lipid soluble hormones: 1. Receptors

More information

Signal Transduction: Information Metabolism. Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Signal Transduction: Information Metabolism. Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Signal Transduction: Information Metabolism Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Introduction Information Metabolism How cells receive, process and respond

More information

Cell Communication. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

Organization of lectures: Cell Signaling I: Sex, Drugs and Violence. Cell signaling is central to modern medicine. Forms of Cell Signaling

Organization of lectures: Cell Signaling I: Sex, Drugs and Violence. Cell signaling is central to modern medicine. Forms of Cell Signaling Cell Signaling I: Sex, Drugs and Violence Joe W. Ramos jramos@crch.hawaii.edu www.crch.org/profiles/jramos Organization of lectures: General Principles of signaling cascades Hormone Signaling Signaling

More information

Enzymes Part III: regulation II. Dr. Mamoun Ahram Summer, 2017

Enzymes Part III: regulation II. Dr. Mamoun Ahram Summer, 2017 Enzymes Part III: regulation II Dr. Mamoun Ahram Summer, 2017 Advantage This is a major mechanism for rapid and transient regulation of enzyme activity. A most common mechanism is enzyme phosphorylation

More information

GPCR. General Principles of Cell Signaling G-protein-Coupled Receptors Enzyme-Coupled Receptors Other Signaling Pathways. G-protein-Coupled Receptors

GPCR. General Principles of Cell Signaling G-protein-Coupled Receptors Enzyme-Coupled Receptors Other Signaling Pathways. G-protein-Coupled Receptors G-protein-Coupled Receptors General Principles of Cell Signaling G-protein-Coupled Receptors Enzyme-Coupled Receptors Other Signaling Pathways GPCR G-protein-coupled receptors Figure 15-30 Molecular Biology

More information

Signal Transduction I

Signal Transduction I Signal Transduction I Prof. Tianhua Zhou Department of Cell Biology Zhejiang University School of Medicine Email:tzhou@zju.edu.cn Website:http://www.cmm.zju.edu.cn/chinese/scholar.php?uid=17 Signal transduction:

More information

Signal Transduction I

Signal Transduction I Signal Transduction I Prof. Tianhua Zhou Department of Cell Biology Zhejiang University School of Medicine Office hours by appointment tzhou@zju.edu.cn Signal transduction: Key contents for signal transduction:

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

Tuesday, Sept. 14, Is an enzyme a rigid system?

Tuesday, Sept. 14, Is an enzyme a rigid system? Tuesday, Sept. 14, Is an enzyme a rigid system? Early researchers thought of enzymes as rigid entities, recognizing their substrates the way a lock would recognize a key. Today's researchers, however,

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology. Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology. Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

Tala Saleh. Ahmad Attari. Mamoun Ahram

Tala Saleh. Ahmad Attari. Mamoun Ahram 23 Tala Saleh Ahmad Attari Minna Mushtaha Mamoun Ahram In the previous lecture, we discussed the mechanisms of regulating enzymes through inhibitors. Now, we will start this lecture by discussing regulation

More information

BIOLOGY. Cell Communication CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson. Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick

BIOLOGY. Cell Communication CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson. Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 11 Cell Communication Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Cellular Messaging Cells can signal to

More information

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 11 Cell Communication Lectures

More information

PHSI3009 Frontiers in Cellular Physiology 2017

PHSI3009 Frontiers in Cellular Physiology 2017 Overview of PHSI3009 L2 Cell membrane and Principles of cell communication L3 Signalling via G protein-coupled receptor L4 Calcium Signalling L5 Signalling via Growth Factors L6 Signalling via small G-protein

More information

Chapter 11. Cell Communication. Signal Transduction Pathways

Chapter 11. Cell Communication. Signal Transduction Pathways Chapter 11 Cell Communication Signal Transduction Pathways Signal-Transduction Pathway Signal on a cell s surface is converted into a specific cellular response Local signaling (short distance) - Paracrine

More information

Computational Biology I LSM5191

Computational Biology I LSM5191 Computational Biology I LSM5191 Aylwin Ng, D.Phil Lecture 6 Notes: Control Systems in Gene Expression Pulling it all together: coordinated control of transcriptional regulatory molecules Simple Control:

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY - CLUTCH CH. 6 - CELL COMMUNICATION.

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY - CLUTCH CH. 6 - CELL COMMUNICATION. !! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: CELL-TO-CELL CONNECTIONS AND SIGNALING Gap and Tight Junctions: Adjacent cells communicate and hold on to each other via junctions. Two important kinds: Gap Junctions are

More information

INTERACTION DRUG BODY

INTERACTION DRUG BODY INTERACTION DRUG BODY What the drug does to the body What the body does to the drug Receptors - intracellular receptors - membrane receptors - Channel receptors - G protein-coupled receptors - Tyrosine-kinase

More information

Receptors Families. Assistant Prof. Dr. Najlaa Saadi PhD Pharmacology Faculty of Pharmacy University of Philadelphia

Receptors Families. Assistant Prof. Dr. Najlaa Saadi PhD Pharmacology Faculty of Pharmacy University of Philadelphia Receptors Families Assistant Prof. Dr. Najlaa Saadi PhD Pharmacology Faculty of Pharmacy University of Philadelphia Receptor Families 1. Ligand-gated ion channels 2. G protein coupled receptors 3. Enzyme-linked

More information

Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5

Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5 Receptors Functions and Signal Transduction- L4- L5 Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD University of Jordan 1 Receptors superfamilies: Ionotropic receptors (ligand-gated channels) Metabotropic receptors (G protein-coupled

More information

Cell Communication. Cell Communication. Communication between cells requires: ligand: the signaling molecule

Cell Communication. Cell Communication. Communication between cells requires: ligand: the signaling molecule Cell Communication Cell Communication Communication between cells requires: ligand: the signaling molecule receptor protein: the molecule to which the ligand binds (may be on the plasma membrane or within

More information

Cell Biology (BIOL 4374 and BCHS 4313) Third Exam 4/24/01

Cell Biology (BIOL 4374 and BCHS 4313) Third Exam 4/24/01 Cell Biology (BIOL 4374 and BCHS 4313) Third Exam 4/24/01 Name SS# This exam is worth a total of 100 points. The number of points each question is worth is shown in parentheses. For multiple choice questions,

More information

Cell Physiology Final Exam Fall 2008

Cell Physiology Final Exam Fall 2008 Cell Physiology Final Exam Fall 2008 Guys, The average on the test was 69.9. Before you start reading the right answers please do me a favor and remember till the end of your life that GLUCOSE TRANSPORT

More information

Cell Signaling 2. The components of signaling pathways

Cell Signaling 2. The components of signaling pathways Cell Signaling 2. The components of signaling pathways A simple intracellular signaling pathway The first step of the pathway is the binding of the ligand (first messenger) to the receptor (a G protein-coupled

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology. Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Biology. Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

More information

Zaid sarhan. Osama Al-Ghafri ... Dr.nayef karadsheh

Zaid sarhan. Osama Al-Ghafri ... Dr.nayef karadsheh 16 Zaid sarhan Osama Al-Ghafri... Dr.nayef karadsheh ALL THE FIGUERS IN THIS SHEET ARE VERY IMPORTANT AND USEFUL, PLEASE DON T SKIP THEM. Glycogen phosphorylase kinase = GPK // glycogen phosphorylase=gp

More information

By the name of Allah

By the name of Allah By the name of Allah Receptors function and signal transduction ( Hormones and receptors Types) We were talking about receptors of the neurotransmitters; we have 2 types of receptors: 1- Ionotropic receptors

More information

Cell Signaling and Communication - 1

Cell Signaling and Communication - 1 Cell Signaling and Communication - 1 Just as we communicate with other humans in a number of different ways, cells communicate with other cells and with their external environment with a set of cell signal

More information

Lecture 36: Review of membrane function

Lecture 36: Review of membrane function Chem*3560 Lecture 36: Review of membrane function Membrane: Lipid bilayer with embedded or associated proteins. Bilayers: 40-70% neutral phospholipid 10-20% negative phospholipid 10-30% cholesterol 10-30%

More information

Pharmacodynamics. OUTLINE Definition. Mechanisms of drug action. Receptors. Agonists. Types. Types Locations Effects. Definition

Pharmacodynamics. OUTLINE Definition. Mechanisms of drug action. Receptors. Agonists. Types. Types Locations Effects. Definition Pharmacodynamics OUTLINE Definition. Mechanisms of drug action. Receptors Types Locations Effects Agonists Definition Types Outlines of Pharmacodynamics Antagonists Definition Types Therapeutic Index Definition

More information

Asma Karameh BAHAA NAJJAR. Ebaa' Alzayadneh

Asma Karameh BAHAA NAJJAR. Ebaa' Alzayadneh 26 Asma Karameh BAHAA NAJJAR Ebaa' Alzayadneh Generally speaking, all cells have been programmed during development to response to specific set of extracellular signals produced by other cells.these signals

More information

Leen Osama, Lujain Hamdan, Osama Mohd, Razi Kittaneh... Faisal Mohammad

Leen Osama, Lujain Hamdan, Osama Mohd, Razi Kittaneh... Faisal Mohammad 23 Leen Osama, Lujain Hamdan, Osama Mohd, Razi Kittaneh... Faisal Mohammad Revision of previous lectures G-proteins coupled receptors mechanism: When a hormone binds to G-protein coupled receptor, GTP

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Overview: The Cellular Internet

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Overview: The Cellular Internet Chapter 11 Cell Communication Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation

More information

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Key Concepts in Chapter 11. Cellular Messaging. Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms

Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Key Concepts in Chapter 11. Cellular Messaging. Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Chapter 11 Cell Communication Dr. Wendy Sera Houston Community College Biology 1406 Key Concepts in Chapter 11 1. External signals are converted to responses within the cell. 2. Reception: A signaling

More information

G protein-coupled Signal Transduction

G protein-coupled Signal Transduction Theresa Filtz, hd har 735, Winter 2006 G protein-coupled Signal Transduction Main Objectives (the big chunks) Describe in molecular detail the cascades of events in a generalized G protein-coupled signaling

More information

Cell Cell Communication

Cell Cell Communication IBS 8102 Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Cell Cell Communication January 29, 2008 Communicate What? Why do cells communicate? To govern or modify each other for the benefit of the organism differentiate

More information

Cell Communication CHAPTER 11

Cell Communication CHAPTER 11 Cell Communication CHAPTER 11 What you should know: The 3 stages of cell communication: reception, transduction, and response. How a receptor protein recognizes signal molecules and starts transduction.

More information

AP Biology Cells: Chapters 4 & 5

AP Biology Cells: Chapters 4 & 5 AP Biology Cells: Chapters 4 & 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The was the first unifying principle of biology. a. spontaneous generation

More information

G-Protein Coupled Receptors GPCRs. GPCRs

G-Protein Coupled Receptors GPCRs. GPCRs 2 type of ligands 1 G-Protein Coupled Receptors GPCRs One of the largest protein families: > 1000 type of GPCRs in mammals >3% of the human genes Major drug targets: ~ 60 % of approved drugs interact with

More information

2402 : Anatomy/Physiology

2402 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Lecture 2 2402 : Anatomy/Physiology The Endocrine System G proteins and Adenylate Cyclase /camp TextBook Readings Pages 405 and 599 through 603. Make use of the figures in your textbook

More information

Cell responses to environment-- Signals

Cell responses to environment-- Signals Cell responses to environment-- Signals Signal transduction can coordinate: Development Formation of tissues Timing of cell division Direction of cell enlargement Size and shape of organs Responses to

More information

Model Answer. M.Sc. Zoology (First Semester) Examination Paper LZT 103 (Endocrinology)

Model Answer. M.Sc. Zoology (First Semester) Examination Paper LZT 103 (Endocrinology) Model Answer M.Sc. Zoology (First Semester) Examination-2013 Paper LZT 103 (Endocrinology) Section A 1. (i) d (ii) b (iii) b (iv) c (v) c (vi) a (vii) c (viii) a (ix) d (x) b Section B Q.2 Answer Hormonal

More information

RAS Genes. The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes.

RAS Genes. The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes. ۱ RAS Genes The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes. Oncogenic ras genes in human cells include H ras, N ras,

More information

Physiology Unit 1 CELL SIGNALING: CHEMICAL MESSENGERS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS

Physiology Unit 1 CELL SIGNALING: CHEMICAL MESSENGERS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS Physiology Unit 1 CELL SIGNALING: CHEMICAL MESSENGERS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS In Physiology Today Cell Communication Homeostatic mechanisms maintain a normal balance of the body s internal environment

More information