Structure of the Mitochondrion. Cell Respiration. Cellular Respiration. Catabolic Pathways. Photosynthesis vs. Cell Respiration ATP 10/14/2014

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1 Structure of the Mitochondrion Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Pgs Enclosed by a double membrane Outer membrane is smooth Inner, or cristae, membrane is folded - this divides the mitochondrion into two internal compartments Outer compartment Matrix: where the Krebs cycle occurs The electron transport chain takes place in the cristae membrane Catabolic Pathways Catabolic pathways occur when molecules are broken down and their energy is released Fermentation: partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen Cellular respiration: most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway; breaks down sugar to form ATP Also termed aerobic respiration as oxygen is required along with organic fuel Cellular Respiration Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be broken down to release energy in this process Glucose is the high-energy molecule that is used as the primary nutrient molecule Equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy kcal/mol of glucose Exergonic Release of energy is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP life processes constantly consume ATP and cell respiration burns fuels to regenerate it Occurs in all eukaryotes and some bacteria ATP Photosynthesis vs. Cell Respiration Energy from food is not used directly, but is transferred in the form of ATP Food is broken down, releasing the energy that forms ATP by forming bonds between phosphate groups ATP-ADP Cycle When ATP is used, a phosphate group is removed by breaking a phosphate bond. This converts ATP to ADP. To recharge the molecule, ADP is joined by P i (inorganic phosphate) to form ATP. Photosynthesis Occurs in only chlorophyllcontaining organisms Stores light energy as chemical energy in the bonds of glucose Produces glucose and oxygen Endergonic reaction Cell Respiration Occurs in all organisms Breaks down glucose Releases carbon dioxide, water, and ATP Exergonic reaction 1

2 Other Starting Molecules Proteins and fats can also be used to generate ATP through cellular respiration. These should not be relied on all the time it can result in damage to the cell. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an allosteric enzyme that acts as a regulator of respiration. If the cell contains ATP, it bonds to PFK, which inhibits glycolysis. As the amount of ATP decreases, less of it is able to inhibit PFK and glycolysis continues, producing more ATP. This is an important example of how a cell regulates ATP production through allosteric inhibition (and it sounds like a great free response question!). Electron Carrying Molecules NAD and FAD are required for normal cell respiration, and they come from vitamins. NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) are coenzymes that carry protons or electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the ETC NAD + is the oxidized form; NADH is the reduced form. NADH carries 1 proton and 2 electrons. FAD is the oxidized form; FADH 2 is the reduced form. Without NAD+ to accept protons and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, both processes would cease the cell would die. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions In cell respiration, the redox reactions occur when electrons are transferred from glucose to oxygen. Oxidation: atom loses electrons and thus energy. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is oxidized, forming carbon dioxide (6CO 2 ) Reduction: atom gains electrons and thus energy. Oxygen (6O 2 ) is reduced, forming water (6H 2 O) The energy released from the movement of these electrons is used to make ATP. NADH, FADH 2, and ATP help transport electrons to make this reaction possible. Overview At key steps in cell respiration, electrons are stripped from glucose. Each electron travels with a proton, thereby forming a hydrogen atom. Electrons are carried through the steps by highenergy electron carriers like NADH and FADH 2. Why so many steps? Glucose contains lots of energy! If all the energy was released at once, it would be an explosion lots of energy is lost as light and heat, and that isn t efficient. 3 Steps of Cell Respiration Glycolysis Glucose is oxidized into pyruvate Some ATP and NADH are made Krebs cycle Decomposes pyruvate to carbon dioxide Some ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 are made ETC/oxidative phosphorylation Produces lots of ATP from NADH and FADH 2 2

3 Glycolysis Overview Occurs in the cytosol (cytoplasm) no mitochondria required yet! Glucose is broken down into two pyruvate (pyruvic acid) molecules The 6-carbon glucose molecule is split into two 3-carbon sugars through a series of steps Glycolysis literally means sugar splitting Overall reaction: glucose 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH Two steps ATP-consuming phase ATP-producing phase Net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules Phases of Glycolysis ATP-consuming phase 2 ATP are consumed this destabilizes glucose and makes it more reactive ATP-producing phase 4 ATP are produced (net gain of 2 ATP) These ATP are generated by substrate-level phosphorylation; phosphate groups from sugar convert ADP ATP 2 NADH are produced These are utilized in the electron transport system to create more ATP 2 pyruvates Most of glucose s potential energy still resides in these molecules. They will enter the citric acid cycle. Acetyl CoA When glycolysis is complete, pyruvate is oxidized (electrons added) to acetyl CoA. A transport protein moves pyruvate from the cytosol into the matrix of the mitochondria. In the matrix, an enzyme complex removes a CO 2, strips away electrons to convert NAD + to NADH, and adds coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA. Two acetyl CoA molecules are produced per glucose. This molecule then enters the citric acid cycle. Transition Step Krebs Cycle Overview Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix Completes breaking down glucose CO 2 is released as a waste product Each turn of the citric acid cycle requires the input of one acetyl CoA It must make two turns before the glucose is completely oxidized The reason in glycolysis, glucose is broken down into TWO molecules of pyruvic acid, and thus TWO molecules of acetyl CoA 3

4 Products Each turn of the citric acid cycle produces 2 CO 2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH 2, 1 ATP Because each glucose yields two pyruvates, the total products of this step are listed as the result of two cycles: 4 CO 2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH 2, 2 ATP By the end of this cycle, the 6 original carbons in glucose have been released as CO 2. Only 2 ATP molecules have been produced where is all that energy? It is held in electrons in the electron carriers, NADH and FADH 2. These electrons will be utilized by the electron transport system. So far Accounting Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs cycle 2 ATP Life takes a lot of energy to run, so we need a lot more than just 4 ATP. Electron Transport Chain Overview Occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane A series of proteins through which electrons pass; each time they are passed, they give off a little energy NADH and FADH 2 drop off their electrons at different points. Each time an electron moves, H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, creating a gradient. H+ ions diffuse back through ATP synthase, which generates enough energy to convert ADP ATP. Chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation Also called the proton-motive force Electrons are eventually passed to oxygen, where they form water as a by-product. Total ATP yield from one molecule of glucose is ATP. This last step on its own produces ATP. Summary of Cell Respiration Where did the glucose come from? From food you ate. Where did O 2 come from? You breathed it in. Where did CO 2 come from? Oxidized carbon cleaved off from sugar during the Krebs cycle. Where did the CO 2 go? It is exhaled. Where did the H 2 O come from? From O 2 after it accepts electrons in the last step, the ETC. Where did the ATP come from? Mostly from the electron transport chain. What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? NAD (NADH), FAD (FADH 2 ), heat 4

5 Process Location Type of FADH 2 Phosphorylation produced NADH produced ATP Yield Glycolysis Cytosol Substrate-level 2 ATP Glycolysis Cytosol Oxidative 2 NADH = 4 ATP Pyruvate to acetyl CoA Krebs cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Total matrix matrix inner membrane inner membrane Oxidative 2 NADH = 6 ATP Substrate-level 2 ATP Oxidative 6 NADH = 18 ATP Oxidative 2 FADH 2 = 4 ATP The theoretical yield of ATP from one molecule of glucose is 36 ATP. However, the actual yield hovers somewhere around 30 based on variations in mitochondrial efficiencies and competing metabolic reactions. 36 ATP Efficiency Cell respiration is incredibly efficient. 40% of the energy in this process is converted to ATP. Although this may sound low, it is VERY HIGH. Cars, at the most, convert about 25% of their fuel to usable energy. In both cases, the rest of the energy is lost as heat as per the 2 nd law of thermodynamics (entropy). Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism Aerobic metabolism Enough oxygen reaches cells to support energy needs Maximum energy production Occurs in mitochondria Includes the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (ETC) Anaerobic metabolism Demand for oxygen outweighs the body s ability to deliver it Low energy production Occurs in the cytoplasm Allows glycolysis to continue repeatedly Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration by certain prokaryotes generates ATP without oxygen using an electron transport chain. Fermentation is an expansion of glycolysis in which ATP is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation. Consists of glycolysis (2 net ATP molecules) and reactions that regenerate NAD +. In glycolysis, O 2 is not needed to accept electrons NAD+ is the electron acceptor Therefore, the pathways of fermentation must regenerate NAD +. Types of Fermentation Alcohol fermentation Pyruvate acetaldehyde and CO 2 ethanol and 1 NAD + Releases CO 2 and oxidizes NADH to create more NAD + 2 ATP are made Where is it found? Lactic acid fermentation Pyruvate lactate + NADH (NAD + is formed in the process) 2 ATP are made Where is it found? Uses of Fermentation Alcohol fermentation Yeast is commonly used in baking breads, dough, brewing beer, and other food-related uses. Yeast eats the sugar, and releases alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. When baked, the alcohol and CO 2 evaporate. In beer, the alcohol and CO 2 remain, making it bubbly. Lactic acid fermentation When muscle cells cannot get oxygen fast enough, lactic acid buildup occurs, making your muscles burn and feel tired. It is carried to the liver where pyruvate can be regenerated to help give you energy. Lactic acid is important in making cheese and yogurt. Lactic acid is also responsible for rigor mortis. 5

6 Types of anaerobic organisms Evolution of Glycolysis Facultative anaerobes make ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but can switch to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. Many plant and animal cells are capable of this. Obligate anaerobes cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Mostly just bacteria. Glycolysis evolved early how do we know? It doesn t require oxygen, so it could have been used before oxygen was present in the atmosphere. All cells undergo glycolysis. Though aerobic respiration provides much more ATP, some organisms can survive only by fermentation. Some organisms can switch between fermentation and aerobic cell respiration

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