Chapter Seven (Cellular Respiration)

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1 Chapter Seven (Cellular Respiration) 1 SECTION ONE: GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Cellular respiration is the process in which cells make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by breaking down organic compounds. The energy in ATP is then used by cells to do work. Overview of Cellular Respiration Autotrophs and heterotrophs use carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water from organic compounds and oxygen (O 2 ). ATP is also produced during cellular respiration. Autotrophs then use the CO 2 and water to produce O 2 and organic compounds. CELLULAR RESPIRATION by autotrophs and heterotrophs Organic compounds and oxygen Carbon dioxide and water PHOTOSYNTHESIS by autotrophs Cellular respiration can be divided into two stages: 1. Glycolysis Organic compounds are converted into three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier molecule). Since glycolysis does not require the presence of oxygen, it is an anaerobic process. 2. Aerobic Respiration If oxygen is present in the cell s environment, pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP through the process known as aerobic respiration. Pyruvic acid can enter other pathways if there is no oxygen present in the cell s environment. The combination of glycolysis and these anaerobic pathways is called fermentation.

2 GLYCOLYSIS 2 Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. All of the reactions of glycolysis take place in the cytosol. Step (1) Two phosphate groups are attached to one molecule of glucose. The two phosphate groups come from two molecules of ATP, which then become ADP. Step (2) ( The six-carbon compound is split into two three-carbon molecules of G3P, the same molecule produced by the Calvin Cycle in photosynthesis. Step (3) ( The two G3P molecules are oxidized and receive a new phosphate group. The two electrons that they lost are accepted by NAD +, which turns into NADH. NAD + and NADH are similar to NADP + and NADPH which are used in photosynthesis. Remember that the two with a P are used by Plants for Photosynthesis. Step (4)( The phosphate groups detach from the two three-carbon molecules, and combine with ADP to make ATP. Since four phosphate groups were attached, four molecules of ATP are made. The two three-carbon molecules are now two molecules of pyruvic acid. Notice that two ATP molecules were used in the first step, but four ATP molecules were produced in the last step. Therefore, glycolysis has a net yield of two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. FERMENTATION In anaerobic conditions, when oxygen is absent, some cells can convert pyruvic acid into other compounds through additional biochemical pathways. The combination of glycolysis and these additional pathways regenerate NAD +, and are known as fermentation. Even though these processes do not produce ATP, they are important for recycling NAD + from NADH. Two common fermentation pathways result in the production of lactic acid and ethyl alcohol.

3 Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, an enzyme converts pyruvic acid made during glycolysis into another threecarbon compound, called lactic acid. It involves the transfer of one hydrogen atom from NADH and the addition of one H + to pyruvic acid. NADH is oxidized to form NAD +, which is used in glycolysis, where it is again reduced to NADH. Lactic acid fermentation by microorganisms plays an important role in manufacturing many dairy products such as cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt. Only harmless microorganisms are used in the fermentation of dairy products. During very strenuous exercise, lactic acid fermentation can take place in muscle cells. When muscle cells use up oxygen more rapidly than can be delivered to them, they switch from cellular respiration to lactic acid fermentation. When lactic acid accumulates, it causes the cells cytosol to become more acidic, which may result in muscle fatigue, pain, and even cramps. Alcoholic Fermentation Some plant cells and unicellular organisms use a process called alcoholic fermentation to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol. In the first step, a CO 2 molecule is removed from pyruvic acid, which leaves a two carbon compound. In the second step, two hydrogen atoms are added to form ethyl alcohol. These hydrogen atoms come from NADH and H +, which regenerates NAD + for glycolysis. EFFICIENCY OF GLYCOLYSIS Energy is often measured in units of kilocalories (kcal). The efficiency of glycolysis is 2%, which means it is not very efficient in transferring energy from glucose to ATP. By themselves, the anaerobic pathways provide enough energy for many present-day organisms. However, most of these are unicellular, and do not need a large amount of energy. Larger organisms have greater energy requirements, which are met with the more efficient pathways of aerobic respiration. 3

4 4 SECTION 1 REVIEW 1. Explain the role of organic compounds in cellular respiration. 2. For each six-carbon molecule that begins glycolysis, identify how many molecules of ATP are used and how many molecules of ATP are produced. 3. Distinguish between the products of the two types of fermentation discussed in this section. 4. Calculate the efficiency of glycolysis if 12 kcal of energy are required to transfer energy from glucose to ATP. CRITICAL THINKING 5. A large amount of ATP in a cell inhibits the enzymes that drive the first steps of glycolysis. How will this inhibition of enzymes eventually affect the amount of ATP in the cell? 6. How might the efficiency of glycolysis change if this process occurred in only one step? Explain your answer. 7. In what kind of environment would you expect to find organisms that carry out fermentation? SECTION TWO: AEROBIC RESPIRATION OVERVIEW OF AEROBIC RESPIRATON The two major stages of aerobic respiration are the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, which is associated with chemiosmosis. The reactions of cellular respiration occur only if oxygen is present in the cell. In prokaryotes, the reaction of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place in the cytosol of the cell, since they have no membrane-bound organelles. In eukaryotic cells, these reactions take place inside mitochondria. The pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis diffuses across the double membrane of a mitochondrion and enters the mitochondrial matrix, the space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The mitochondrial matrix contains the enzymes needed to catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle. When pyruvic acid enters the mitochondrial matrix, it reacts with a molecule called coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). So far, glucose has been converted into pyruvic acid, and now pyruvic acid has formed acetyl coenzyme A in order to enter the Krebs cycle.

5 THE KREBS CYCLE 5 The Krebs cycle is a biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA, producing CO 2, hydrogen atoms, and ATP. The reactions that make up the cycle were identified by Hans Krebs ( ), a German biochemist. Step (1) A two-carbon molecule of acetyl CoA combines with a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetic acid, to produce a six-carbon compound, citric acid. This reaction regenerates coenzyme A. Step (2) ( Citric acid releases a CO 2 molecule and a hydrogen atom to form a five-carbon compound. By losing a hydrogen atom with its electron, citric acid is oxidized. The electron in the hydrogen atom is transferred to NAD +, reducing it to NADH. Step (3) ( The five-carbon compound formed in (2) releases another CO 2 molecule and hydrogen atom, forming a four-carbon compound. Once again, NAD + is reduced to NADH. This time, however, ATP is also synthesized from ADP. Step (4) ( The four-carbon compound formed in (3) releases a hydrogen atom, which is used to reduce FAD to FADH 2. FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide, is similar to NAD +, and also accepts electrons during redox reactions. Step (5) ( The four-carbon compound releases a hydrogen atom to regenerate oxaloacetic acid to keep the Krebs cycle operating. The electron in the hydrogen atom reduces NAD + to NADH. For the steps described above, use the diagram below (if you need to see it larger, use the book). To easily understand the end products of the Krebs cycle see the diagram to the right.

6 Remember that during glycolysis, two pyruvic acid molecules were produced, and then two molecules of acetyl CoA were produced. Therefore, it takes two turns of the Krebs cycle for one molecule of glucose to be completely broken down. These two turns produce four CO 2 molecules, two ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms used to make six NADH and two FADH 2 molecules. The carbon dioxide is given off as waste and the two ATP can be used for energy. Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle together produce a total of 10 NADH molecules and two FADH 2 molecules for every glucose molecule that is oxidized. They drive the next stage of aerobic respiration, where most of the energy transfer from glucose to ATP actually occurs. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN AND CHEMIOSMOSIS The electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of molecules in a membrane that transfer electrons from one molecule to another. In eukaryotic cells, the ETC and ATP synthase are embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion in folds called cristae. ATP is produced when NADH and FADH 2 release hydrogen atoms, regenerating NAD + and FAD. Step (1) NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons to the electron transport chain at different parts. NADH donates at the beginning and FADH 2 donates them farther down the chain. Step (2)( The electrons are passed down the chain, losing energy as they are passed from molecule to molecule. Step (3) ( The lost energy is used to pump protons from the matrix, building a high concentration of protons between the inner and outer membranes. An electrical gradient as well as a concentration gradient is created, since the protons carry a positive charge. Step (4) The concentration and electrical gradients of protons drive the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis. As protons move through ATP synthase and down their concentration and electrical gradients, ATP is made from ADP and phosphate. Step (5) ( Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons that pass down the chain, and also accepts protons that were part of the hydrogen atoms supplied by NADH and FADH 2. They all combine to form water. 6

7 The Importance of Oxygen Since oxygen accepts electrons from the last molecule in the ETC, it allows additional electrons to be passed along the chain. Without it, the last molecule could not unload the electrons it accepts, and no more electrons could enter the ETC. EFFICIENCY OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION There is a maximum yield of 38 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose with glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain/chemiosmosis. The actual number of ATP generated varies from cell to cell. In most eukaryotic cells, the NADH made during glycolysis cannot diffuse through the inner membrane, and must be actively transported into the mitochondrial matrix, which uses ATP. As a result, most eukaryotic cells produce only about 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. The efficiency when 38 ATP are generated is 39%, which means that cellular respiration is nearly 20 times more efficient than glycolysis alone. 7

8 A SUMMARY OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION 8 Cellular respiration occurs in two stages 1. Glycolysis Glucose is converted into pyruvic acid, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH. 2. Aerobic Respiration Pyruvic acid is converted into CO 2 and water in the presence of oxygen, producing a large amount of ATP. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (ATP) The above equation summarizes the complete oxidation of glucose in cellular respiration. Many other compounds can be used as fuel in cellular respiration, in addition to glucose. Another Role of Cellular Respiration Not only does cellular respiration provides the ATP that all cells need to support the activities of life, but they also need specific organic compounds. The molecules formed at different steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are often used by cells to make the compounds that are missing in food. Compounds formed during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle can be diverted into other biochemical pathways for the cell to make the molecules it requires.

9 9 SECTION 2 REVIEW 1. In what part of a mitochondrion does the Krebs cycle occur? 2. IN what part of a mitochondrion is the electron transport chain located? 3. What four-carbon compound is regenerated at the end of the Krebs cycle? 4. What molecule does oxygen become a part of at the end of the electron transport chain? 5. Is cellular respiration more or less efficient than fermentation? 6. List the two processes that together result in cellular respiration. CRITICAL THINKING 7. Sometimes protons leak out of a cell or are used for purposes other than ATP production. How would this loss of protons affect the production of ATP in aerobic respiration? 8. How does the arrangement of the cristae in the inner membrane of the mitochondria affect the rate of aerobic respiration? Explain your answer. 9. Calculate the efficiency of cellular respiration if a cell generates 32 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS Section 1: Glycolysis and Fermentation Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP. Cellular respiration begins with glycolysis, which takes place in the cytosol of cells. During glycolysis, one glucose molecule is oxidized to form two pyruvic acid molecules. Glycolysis results in a net production of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules. If oxygen is not present, glycolysis may lead to anaerobic pathways in which pyruvic acid is converted into other organic molecules in the cytosol. Glycolysis combined with these anaerobic pathways is called fermentation. Fermentation does not produce ATP, but it does regenerate NAD +, which helps keep glycolysis operating. In lactic acid fermentation, an enzyme converts pyruvic acid into lactic acid. In alcoholic fermentation, other enzymes convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and CO 2. Through glycolysis, only about 2 percent of the energy available from the oxidation of glucose is captured as ATP.

10 Section 2: Aerobic Respiration In eukaryotic cells, the processes of aerobic respiration occur inside the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The electron transport chain is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis is converted into acetyl CoA. Then, acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle. Each turn of the Krebs cycle generates three NADH, on FADH 2, one ATP, and two CO 2 molecules. NADH and FADH 2 donate electrons to the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. These electrons are passed from molecule to molecule in the transport chain. As electrons pass along the electron transport chain, protons donated by NADH and FADH 2 are pumped into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. This pumping creates a concentration gradient of protons and a charge gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. As protons move through ATP synthase, down their concentration and charge gradients, and back into the mitochondrial matrix, ATP is produced. During aerobic respiration, oxygen accepts both protons and electrons from the electron transport chain. As a result, oxygen is converted into water. Cellular respiration can produce up to 38 ATP molecules from the oxidation of a single molecule of glucose. Thus, up to 39 percent of the energy released by the oxidation of glucose can be transferred to ATP. However, most eukaryotic cells produce only about 36 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. Cellular respiration uses the processes of glycolysis and aerobic respiration to obtain energy from organic compounds. 10

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