Five Features of Fighting the Flu

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1 Five Features of Fighting the Flu Public Health Emergency Preparedness Pandemic Influenza Prevention Curriculum Grades

2 Day One Understand the Flu Virus 2

3 Five Features of Flu Fighting Code 1: Understand the flu virus Code 2: Know what a flu pandemic is Code 3: Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu Code 4: Know what to do if you get sick with the flu Code 5: Know what to expect during a flu pandemic 3

4 The Flu The flu is a disease caused by the influenza virus 4

5 Virus A virus is a simple structure that can cause a disease when it grows and reproduces in living things 5

6 Bacteria Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can cause illness and infection 6

7 Viruses vs. Bacteria Viruses and bacteria are like apples and oranges. They are similar in that they both can cause disease, but they are different in their makeup 7

8 Viruses vs. Bacteria Virus Bacteria Can it live on its own? Can you use antibiotics to cure it? Can it cause disease? Can you get a vaccine to protect yourself from it? Examples: NO NO YES YES Flu, chickenpox, HIV, or the common cold YES YES YES Sometimes Staph, bacteria in cuts (redness/puss), food poisoning 8

9 Antibiotics Treat Only Bacteria Antibiotics cannot treat the flu The flu is a virus that is normally prevented through the use of vaccines and personal hygiene measures Antibiotics treat bacteria and are not effective in treating viruses like the flu 9

10 Symptoms of the Flu Chills Fever Headache Muscle aches Runny nose Cough Sore throat 10

11 The Flu on the Move The flu can travel from one person to another when a virus is coughed or sneezed into the air The virus can land on a person, or object and then be picked up by someone new 11

12 Know What a Flu Pandemic Is Day Two The 1918 Influenza Pandemic 12

13 Review Five Features of Flu Fighting Code 1: Understand the flu virus Code 2: Know what a flu pandemic is Code 3: Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu Code 4: Know what to do if you get sick with the flu Code 5: Know what to expect during a flu pandemic 13

14 No Ordinary Flu 14

15 Flu Pandemic A pandemic is when people from all over the world become sick with the same new strain of flu at the same time 15

16 1918 Influenza Pandemic In little over a year, the 1918 flu pandemic killed between 20 and 50 million people world-wide, including more than 500,000 in the United States 16

17 1918 Pandemic in Context 600 Deaths from wars or flu Deaths (100,000s) Civil War WWI 1918 flu WWII Korea Vietnam 17

18 1918 Flu Clinical Features Letter from Camp Devens, Massachusetts: Two hours after admission they have mahogany spots over the cheek bones, and a few hours later Cyanosis (Blue coloration of the skin, not enough oxygen in blood) from ears spreading over face Only a matter of a few hours before death comes. 18

19 Differences Between 1918 and Now The increase in international travel means a new virus can spread quickly around the world Advances in medicine mean better treatment Better hygiene may help prevent the spread of disease We can use our knowledge of past pandemics to prepare 19

20 The Ever-changing Flu The flu virus is very changeable The parts that make up the flu are always changing This is why it is important to get a flu shot or nasal flu mist every year 20

21 The Ever-changing Flu Did you know that every year about 36,000 people in the United States die of complications from influenza? 21

22 The Ever-changing Flu Most of the time the changes in the flu are small and the available vaccines provide good protection Sometimes the changes are very big and vaccine is not yet available for the new type of flu 22

23 Animals That Get the Flu 23

24 Natural Hosts for Influenza A Different animals are susceptible to different flu viruses H1N1 H1N2 H1N8 H2N1 H2N2 H2N8 H3N1 H3N2 H3N7 H3N8 H4N7 H5N1 H7N7 H7N8 H1-16/N1-9 *Not all virus types are active

25 Re-assortment Gerberding, J. L. et al. N Engl J Med 2004;350: Mixing to make a new type of flu: With swine as hosts, bird flu viruses can morph over time and become a danger to humans 25

26 Drift and Shift Drift = small changes This is why you can get the flu every year Vaccines need to be changed often to work 26

27 Drift and Shift Virus X New Virus X 27

28 Drift and Shift Shift = big changes For example, when a nonhuman virus like a bird or pig flu starts affecting humans This can lead to a flu pandemic, such as the current H1N1 outbreak 28

29 Drift and Shift Virus X New Virus Y 29

30 The Ever-changing Flu Since people may have no immunity and it takes a long time to develop a vaccine for a new flu virus, many people may become ill If the new flu travels easily from person to person, it may become a pandemic If it causes severe symptoms, many people may die 30

31 Flu Pandemic During a flu pandemic life will be different The best way to get ready for a pandemic is to learn about the flu This week you are going to learn how to protect yourself and others from the flu 31

32 Choose Your Assignment 1. Family history: Everyone is descended from (related to) someone who survived the flu pandemic of 1918 Your assignment is to do research on how the pandemic affected your family 2. Research the flu: If you love science, this is a great project for you Do more research on the flu virus 32

33 Choose Your Assignment 3. Create a family pandemic flu preparedness plan and emergency kit: The best way to protect yourself from harm during a pandemic is to be prepared Creating an emergency kit will help prepare you and your family 4. Create a commercial or public service announcement that would help prevent the spread of the flu 33

34 Day Three Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu 34

35 Review Five Features of Flu Fighting Code 1: Understand the flu virus Code 2: Know what a flu pandemic is Code 3: Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu Code 4: Know what to do if you get sick with the flu Code 5: Know what to expect during a flu pandemic 35

36 Ways to Protect Yourself Wash your hands Get a flu shot or nasal flu mist Avoid close contact with those who are ill DHS: PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION Avoid touching your face

37 Protect Yourself Get a flu shot or nasal flu mist every year because the flu virus is always changing 37

38 Protect Yourself Always wash your hands for seconds: After using the bathroom After blowing your nose Before eating If soap and water are not available, use a waterless hand cleaner 38

39 Protect Yourself Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth: Things you touch are covered with germs that can cause illness 39

40 Protect Yourself Try to avoid close contact with people who are sick 40

41 Protect Yourself Maintain a healthy lifestyle Eat good foods Exercise regularly 41

42 Prepare for a Pandemic No one knows how serious the H1N1 flu pandemic will be It is important to be prepared 42

43 Prepare for a Pandemic Be ready to stay home for at least a week Store health and medical supplies Decide who will take care of children if schools are closed 43

44 Prepare for a Pandemic Plan how you can study from home, if possible Be ready to help neighbors during a pandemic 44

45 Day Four Know what to do if you get sick with the flu 45

46 Review Five Features of Flu Fighting Code 1: Understand the flu virus Code 2: Know what a flu pandemic is Code 3: Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu Code 4: Know what to do if you get sick with the flu Code 5: Know what to expect during a flu pandemic 46

47 Stay home from school Cover your coughs and sneezes Get lots of rest Drink plenty of water or juice Wash your hands after blowing your nose When You are Sick

48 Protect Others Stay home when you are sick: By staying home you help prevent others from getting sick 48

49 Protect Others Always cover your cough with a tissue or your sleeve to avoid spreading flu to others If you cough on your hands be sure to wash them right away Properly dispose of used tissues 49

50 Take Care of Yourself Be sure to get plenty of rest 50

51 Take Care of Yourself Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid getting dehydrated, especially if you have a fever 51

52 Take Care of Yourself Don t smoke! Flu is a respiratory illness and smoking will make all of your symptoms worse and make it harder for you to recover 52

53 Take Care of Yourself If you have a headache or fever your parents may give you an overthe-counter medicine, but children and teenagers with the flu should never take aspirin or other products containing aspirin 53

54 Caring for Those Who are Sick Have one caregiver for the people who are sick The patient or the caregiver should wear a surgical mask to protect the caregiver from becoming ill The caregiver should monitor the health of those who are ill 54

55 Caring for Those Who are Sick Everyone in the house, especially the caregiver, should wash their hands frequently with soap and water It is important to keep the area around the patients clean 55

56 Symptoms to Watch For If the ill person develops any of the following complications, seek medical attention immediately: Signs of dehydration (increased thirst, dry mouth, urinating less than three times a day) Difficulty breathing Fever with a rash Difficulty responding Dizziness or confusion Feeling worse after having felt better Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen 56

57 Are you smarter than the flu? Rules of the Game: Teams take turns picking questions The team that chose the question has one minute to answer the question Each student can answer only two questions in a row If the team that chose the question does not answer it correctly in one minute the other team has a chance to steal the points Each question is worth one point The team with the most points wins 57

58 Day Five Life during a flu pandemic 58

59 Review Five Features of Flu Fighting Code 1: Understand the flu virus Code 2: Know what a flu pandemic is Code 3: Know how to protect yourself and others from the flu Code 4: Know what to do if you get sick with the flu Code 5: Know what to expect during a flu pandemic 59

60 Life During a Flu Pandemic In your group have one person who writes, and have one person who will be the presenter. Answer the following questions: How are things likely to be different in a pandemic? What might you and others in your life (parents, family members, friends, doctors, teachers, etc.) need to do differently? 60

61 Life During a Flu Pandemic The best way to keep from getting sick during a flu pandemic is to maintain a safe distance between you and those who are sick During a pandemic: Classes may be cancelled or schools may close Sporting events and other school activities may be cancelled 61

62 Life During a Flu Pandemic Food, fuel and medical care may be in short supply Every family needs to store extra supplies and have a plan in place for coping during a pandemic 62

63 Life During a Flu Pandemic Many people you know may be sick and some people may die It is normal to feel anxious and concerned Be sure to talk to someone about your feelings 63

64 Life During a Flu Pandemic What other things might be different during a flu pandemic? If schools are closed is it a good idea for you to hang out with your friends? Why or why not? 64

65 Life During a Flu Pandemic Think of a time someone helped you with something important Did you ask them to help you? How did them helping you make a difference in your life? What would have happened if they had not helped you? 65

66 Life During a Flu Pandemic What could you do to help others during a flu pandemic without putting yourself at risk of getting sick? 66

67 Life During a Flu Pandemic Talk with your family about what you will do during a pandemic 67

68 Congratulations! You now know all five features of fighting the flu! 68

69 For More Information: Oregon Public Health Division Public Health Emergency Preparedness Program 800 NE Oregon St., Suite 465B Portland, OR

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