AxessPointe. Community Health Centers CASE STUDY

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "AxessPointe. Community Health Centers CASE STUDY"

Transcription

1 CASE STUDY AxessPointe Community Health Centers The Case for Video Remote Interpreting and Improved Access to Medically Qualified Interpreters in Community Health Clinical Environments to Improve Compliance and Patient-Provider Satisfaction

2 Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Study Methodology Results Conclusion References page 2

3 CASE STUDY Executive Summary This study examined the adoption of video remote interpreting (VRI) at AxessPointe Community Health Centers, Inc. in Akron, Kent and Barberton, Ohio, to better meet the needs of its limited English proficient (LEP), Deaf and hard of hearing patients. Partnering with InDemand Interpreting, a technology-enabled medical interpreting company, AxessPointe gained access to medically qualified interpreters in 28 languages over video, including American Sign Language (ASL) and Certified Deaf Interpreters, in addition to 200 languages via voice interpreting through the VRI application. Prior to the use of VRI, AxessPointe used employees, phone interpreters, other community organizations and family members where requested and appropriate to meet their interpreting needs. This study examined 12 months of historical language access data prior to the VRI implementation (August 2016 August 2017) and language access data compiled from August 2017 March 2018 following the VRI implementation. The goal of the study was to evaluate the total number of interpreter encounters, the length of those encounters, the top languages served and whether or not providers were satisfied with VRI. Following the VRI implementation at AxessPointe, nearly three and a half times the number of interpreter encounters per month were reported using VRI compared to the pre-vri study period. Further, the use of near instant, on-demand access to medically qualified interpreters using InDemand VRI, resulted in staff and clinicians ranking their satisfaction with the InDemand service 4.2 out of 5 stars. Finally, the risk of miscommunication between clinicians, patients and their family members was reduced. VRI reduced the average length of encounters with LEP patients by 26.8% compared to previous interpreting methods, improving efficiency and patient-provider communication. Additionally, interpreting encounters were 26.8% shorter with LEP patients using VRI. page 3

4 CASE STUDY Introduction One in five people in the United States speaks a language other than English at home and 41 percent of these individuals, or 25.1 million people, are considered LEP. 1 The growing limited English proficient population across the nation is creating an increased demand for language access. Healthcare providers are feeling the impact of the increasing LEP population and are seeking effective solutions to provide interpreting services to these patient populations. AxessPointe provides affordable, high-quality and compassionate healthcare to families and individuals in Summit and Portage counties in Ohio. The name AxessPointe stands for the point where community and care meet and strives to provide access to healthcare for all patients. AxessPointe has six clinics within five locations, in Northeast Ohio, and is committed to serving its communities, including three in Akron, one in Kent and one in Barberton. As a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC), the health center delivers primary medical and dental care in medically underserved areas. AxessPointe also provides behavioral health, women s health and pharmacy services. AxessPointe employs more than 100 care providers throughout its locations. While AxessPointe had solutions in place, it was facing several challenges in fully meeting the language needs of its LEP and Deaf patient populations. The health center was using two Spanish speaking employees who were regularly being pulled away from their full-time positions to interpret for patients. Many patients requested to use family members to interpret for them, but clinicians were concerned about whether or not the information was accurately being relayed to patients. The health center also used over-the-phone interpreters, however, the phone lines would often drop during the conversation or clinicians could not find the cordless phone as there was only one available phone per facility. When there was a need for an American Sign Language (ASL) interpreter, AxessPointe partnered with community organizations but struggled to effectively coordinate patient and provider schedules in order to utilize an on-site interpreter. These challenges led site managers to approach senior leadership about the problem and proposed a potential solution to increase compliance and improve the patient/provider experience. The site managers recommended the implementation of VRI to better meet the needs of its LEP, Deaf and hard of hearing patients. AxessPointe partnered with InDemand Interpreting to provide immediate access to medically qualified interpreters through VRI. It started with a shared vision: to ensure every patient has access to high quality healthcare regardless of language, cultural background or disability. Today VRI devices are in use throughout eight AxessPointe clinics, immediately connecting patients and providers to medically qualified interpreters. This study examines 12 months of language access data prior to the VRI implementation and language access data compiled from August 2017 March 2018 following the VRI implementation. page 4

5 The Case for Video Remote Interpreting and Improved Access to Medically Qualified Interpreters Patient Safety as Priority It s not uncommon for health care providers to use an untrained bilingual employee or a family member of the patient who speaks the patient s language. However, in addition to an increased liability for the health care organization and potential HIPAA violations, this can also create a challenge in accurately communicating important information to patients. As providers, it is essential that patients clearly understand such things as their condition, treatment plan, medication needs and discharge instructions. A study by the Health Research and Educational Trust 2, Do Professional Interpreters Improve Clinical Care for Patients with Limited English Proficiency, examine whether or not professional medical interpreters have a positive impact on clinical care for LEP patients. According to the research, in all four areas examined, the use of professional interpreters is associated with improved clinical care more than the use of ad hoc interpreters and professional interpreters appear to raise the quality of clinical care for LEP patients to approach or equal that for patients without language barriers. The findings report that the benefits of using professional interpreters for communication includes (errors on comprehension), utilization, clinical outcomes and satisfaction with care. Another study published by The Joint Commission 3, Language proficiency and adverse events in U.S. hospitals: a pilot study, examined the differences in the characteristics of adverse events between English speaking patients and LEP patients in U.S. hospitals. According to the study results, nearly 50% of LEP patient adverse events involved some physical harm whereas only 24.4% of adverse events for patients who speak English resulted in physical harm. Of those adverse events resulting in physical harm, 46.8% of the LEP patient adverse events had a level of harm ranging from moderate temporary harm to death, compared with 24.4% of English speaking patient adverse events. The adverse events that occurred to LEP patients were also more likely to be the result of communication errors (52.4%) than adverse events for English speaking patients (35.9%). The study concluded that language barriers do, in fact, increase the risk to patient safety, recommending patients with language barriers have immediate access to competent language services. The study also recommends that providers collect reliable language data at the point of care and document those services provided during a patientprovider encounter. page 5

6 CASE STUDY It s the Law Health care organizations are legally required to provide access to healthcare in a patient s preferred language. If a healthcare organization receives Medicare, Medicaid or reimbursement from Federal health programs, they have a legal obligation to provide language access services to LEP, Deaf or hard of hearing patients. In addition, healthcare organizations that receive Medicare, Medicaid or other sources of Federal funds have an obligation to provide oral interpreters and written translated documents 4. In fact, failing to provide language access services to LEP patients is a form of national origin discrimination. There is case law going all the way up to the United States Supreme Court (Lau v. Nichols. 1974) 5 that establishes that basic principle. This regulation requires covered entities to take reasonable steps to provide meaningful access to each individual with limited English proficiency eligible to be served or likely to be encountered. Federal law, state law in all 50 states, as well as multiple judicial decisions, make reference to the need for health care organizations to provide language access services. Additionally, the major language access provisions of Section 1557 of the ACA require the use of qualified interpreters and significantly restricts the use of untrained family members and friends, minor children and untrained bilingual staff as medical interpreters. 4 page 6

7 The Case for Video Remote Interpreting and Improved Access to Medically Qualified Interpreters Video Remote Interpreting as a Language Access Solution It is nearly impossible to have a staff interpreter, or even a third party onsite interpreter, available for every unique language request. On-site agency interpreters can be costly, requiring payment regardless of whether or not a patient appears for an appointment, and this could mean a minimum of two hours of work plus travel time even when an appointment is delayed or cancelled. Over-the-phone interpretation is another option, though studies indicate between 55-93% of all communication is non-verbal. Dr. Albert Mehrabian, author of Silent Messages, conducted several studies on nonverbal communication. Through his research, he discovered that just 7% of any message is conveyed through words, 38% through certain vocal elements and 55% through nonverbal elements (facial expressions, gestures, posture, etc.). 6 VRI provides both verbal and non-verbal means of communication at a fraction of the cost of on-site interpretation. VRI is a viable alternative to on-site and over the phone interpreting. Partnering with InDemand, AxessPointe gained access to 28 languages over video, including American Sign Language (ASL) and Certified Deaf Interpreters. For more diffuse languages, InDemand provides more than 200 languages via voice interpreting through the VRI application. The immediacy of VRI improved the provider s ability to immediately reach a medically qualified interpreter at any time while remaining compliant with federal and state regulations. And, by providing a more provider and patientcentric interpreting capability, staff and clinicians ranked their satisfaction very high, posting an average satisfaction 4.2 out of 5 stars. Staff and clinicians concluded that VRI reduced the risk of miscommunication between clinicians, patients and their family members and proved to fit better in the clinical workflow. From August 2017 March 2018, approximately 95% of AxessPointe encounters were met through VRI. The remaining 5% were met using the use of voice interpreters through the VRI application. page 7

8 CASE STUDY The Study Prior to the use of VRI, AxessPointe used family members, employees and phone interpreters to meet their interpreting needs. The only change they made to their interpreting services program was adopting InDemand as their main language services provider. This study examined the interpreting services program at AxessPointe Community Health, both prior to the use of video remote interpreting (VRI), and after the VRI program was implemented. The study examines these questions: Does VRI support increased access to medically qualified interpreters and increased compliance at AxessPointe? Does VRI improve communication between patients and providers? Does VRI improve the patient and provider experience? Baseline data on the number of encounters and minutes per encounter prior to InDemand VRI was provided by AxessPointe. The post data VRI/voice interpreters minutes per month, number of encounters, minutes by language, encounters by language and Star-Ratings, was provided via the InDemand Clarity platform over an eight-month period (August 1, 2017-March 31, 2018). Study Methodology This study explored historical data, the number of encounters and minutes per encounter both prior to VRI usage and following the VRI implementation. This included exploring the number of encounters, the length of those encounters and top languages served. page 8

9 The Case for Video Remote Interpreting and Improved Access to Medically Qualified Interpreters Results Increase in the Number of LEP Encounters Number of Encounters Through the use of VRI, the total number of LEP encounters increased nearly three and a half times the previous number of monthly encounters. AxessPointe data indicated approximately 47 patient encounters each month were facilitated by overthe-phone interpreters. Once the health center implemented VRI, AxessPointe was able to facilitate LEP encounters on average each month, an increase of interpreter encounters notwithstanding AxessPointe seeing fewer LEP patients during the study period. According to Census data from , the non-english speaking populations in Summit and Portage Counties increased to 6.2% from , but leveled off in With the adoption of InDemand interpreting services, AxessPointe has been able to deliver interpreting services to patients on average every month, support all of its most requested languages with VRI and serve 95% of all encounters using VRI versus other interpreting modalities from August 2017 March page 9

10 CASE STUDY Results, Continued Reduction in Length of Interpreter Encounters Minutes Prior to VRI usage at AxessPointe, over-the-phone LEP encounters averaged 19 minutes in length. Following the introduction of VRI, the average encounter for LEP patients dropped 26.8% to an average of 13.9 minutes for combined VRI and voice interpreter encounters, an average reduction of 5.1 minutes per encounter. AxessPointe believes that a reduction in interpreter encounter times may enable the health center to increase the number of patients a clinician can see each day. Satisfaction with VRI has been evaluated through a Star Rating system delivered by InDemand Interpreting through its VRI application. At the conclusion of each video call, clinicians receive a prompt to rate the session on a scale of 1-5 stars (1 star = poor to 5 stars = excellent experience). During the months of August 2017 March 2018, the average star rating was 4.2 out of 5 stars. Adoption of InDemand interpreting services has given our clinicians peace of mind in knowing they are able to accurately understand our patients and provide the best possible care right when it is needed, said Sarah Genet, the Dental Office Manager for AxessPointe Community Health Centers. With VRI, we have the ability to immediately access medically qualified interpreters, things are not getting missed when we are gathering a patient s history, and clinicians are able to establish a bond with the patient by understanding their needs and having a real conversation. We know InDemand interpreters are fluent not only in a patient s language, but they are also culturally competent and understand how to bridge any cultural nuances that may exist with ease. page 10

11 The Case for Video Remote Interpreting and Improved Access to Medically Qualified Interpreters Conclusion This study evaluated whether VRI supported increased access to medically qualified interpreters at AxessPointe without any other change to its language services policy. Following the VRI implementation at AxessPointe, nearly three and a half times the number of interpreter encounters per month were supported by VRI compared to the pre-vri study period despite AxessPointe seeing fewer patients during the study period compared the pre-study time period. AxessPointe reduced the length of encounters with LEP patients by 26.8%. As such, it was concluded that the significant increase in LEP patients being provided access to effective communication and medically qualified interpreters was attributed to VRI. The study further demonstrated high provider satisfaction with an average 5-Star rating of 4.2. page 11

12 REFERENCES 1 Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over (U.S. Census Bureau) 2 Do Professional Interpreters Improve Clinical Care for Patients with Limited English Proficiency? (Karliner, LS., Jacobs, EA., Chen, AH, Mutha, S.) 3 Language proficiency and adverse events in U.S. hospitals: a pilot study examined (Divi C., Koss RG, Schmaltz SP, Leb JM) Interntaional Journal Quality Health Care Apr;19(2):60-7. Epub 2007 Feb Section 1557 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) 5 (Lau v. Nichols. 414 U.S ) 6 Silent Messages (Mehrabian, A.) 7 Non-English speaking population in Summit and Portage Counties, OH (American Census Bureau) Website InDemandInterpreting.com Phone 1 (877)

Language Access Plan Basics

Language Access Plan Basics Language Access Plan Basics What you need to know to build a compliant and effective program InDemand Interpreting 01 Compliance HOW TO COMPLY WITH UPDATED LANGUAGE ACCESS STANDARDS Federal mandates require

More information

Language Access Services

Language Access Services Language Access Services Strategies for Effective Language Access for the AAPI community Valerie Huang, MA, CHI, Language Services Program Manager Objectives Define language access and the role it plays

More information

Solutions for Language Services in Healthcare

Solutions for Language Services in Healthcare Solutions for Language Services in Healthcare We improve communication between patients and providers to enhance patient care and reduce cost, while improving patient outcomes. InDemand partners with today

More information

Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program?

Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program? Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program? PART 3: Leveraging Technology as Part of Your Compliance Strategy Major Changes to the ACA E-book Series: PART 1: What Are the

More information

LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF LANGUAGE SERVICES. Liz Swan, RN, BSN, MBA, CPHRM Marisa Hernandez, BA

LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF LANGUAGE SERVICES. Liz Swan, RN, BSN, MBA, CPHRM Marisa Hernandez, BA LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF LANGUAGE SERVICES Liz Swan, RN, BSN, MBA, CPHRM Marisa Hernandez, BA OBJECTIVES Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ADA requirements for language services The Joint Commission

More information

Expanding Language Access Strategies in Palm Beach County. A Project of the Palm Beach Medical Society. In Collaboration with the:

Expanding Language Access Strategies in Palm Beach County. A Project of the Palm Beach Medical Society. In Collaboration with the: Expanding Language Access Strategies in Palm Beach County A Project of the Palm Beach Medical Society In Collaboration with the: Issued November 2010 The Freimann Initiative: A joint funding venture of

More information

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN MEDICAL SETTINGS

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN MEDICAL SETTINGS EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN MEDICAL SETTINGS HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS MUST ENSURE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH PATIENTS AND THEIR COMPANIONS Begin ADA, Section 504 and Section 1557 REQUIREMENTS The Americans

More information

How to Select a VRI Provider

How to Select a VRI Provider How to Select a VRI Provider 12 Steps to Selecting a VRI Provider for your Organization InDemand Interpreting Introduction THIS WHITE PAPER OUTLINES A PROCESS FOR SELECTING A VIDEO REMOTE INTERPRETING

More information

Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program? Sponsored by InDemand Interpreting

Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program? Sponsored by InDemand Interpreting Major Changes to the ACA How Will They Affect Your Language Access Program? Major Changes to the ACA E-book Series: PART 1: What Are the New Regulations? PART 2: How to Comply With the New Regulations?

More information

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding New ACA Section 1557 Regulations

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding New ACA Section 1557 Regulations RESPONSE TO WEBINAR: Frequently Asked Questions Regarding New ACA Section 1557 Regulations OVERVIEW Providers nationwide continue to have many questions about major language access changes under Section

More information

Illinois Supreme Court. Language Access Policy

Illinois Supreme Court. Language Access Policy Illinois Supreme Court Language Access Policy Effective October 1, 2014 ILLINOIS SUPREME COURT LANGUAGE ACCESS POLICY I. PREAMBLE The Illinois Supreme Court recognizes that equal access to the courts is

More information

Removing Barriers to Justice: It s s More Than Ramps. Office of State Courts Administrator, Access to Justice

Removing Barriers to Justice: It s s More Than Ramps. Office of State Courts Administrator, Access to Justice Removing Barriers to Justice: It s s More Than Ramps Office of State Courts Administrator, Access to Justice Barriers Attitudes (regardless of our knowledge of them) Feelings Beliefs Myths/Stereotypes

More information

Language Assistance Plan

Language Assistance Plan Language Assistance Plan I. Identification of LEP persons II. Language Assistance Measures III. Court Staff and Volunteer Recruitment IV. Training Staff V. Providing Notice to LEP Persons VI. Monitoring

More information

Circuit Court of Buffalo County Language Access Plan

Circuit Court of Buffalo County Language Access Plan Circuit Court of Buffalo County Language Access Plan Section I. Policy Directive It is the policy of the Circuit Court of Buffalo County to provide meaningful access for all Limited English Proficient

More information

South Carolina General Assembly 122nd Session,

South Carolina General Assembly 122nd Session, South Carolina General Assembly 1nd Session, 01-01 S. STATUS INFORMATION General Bill Sponsors: Senator Shealy Document Path: l:\s-res\ks\0sign.dmr.ks.docx Introduced in the Senate on March 1, 01 Currently

More information

CIRCUIT COURT OF DUNN COUNTY LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN NARRATIVE

CIRCUIT COURT OF DUNN COUNTY LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN NARRATIVE CIRCUIT COURT OF DUNN COUNTY LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN NARRATIVE I. Legal basis & purpose 4 II. Needs assessment 4 III. Court responsibilities 6 IV. Resources available 7 V. Public input 8 VI. Training

More information

Found in Translation. Legislation Surrounding Language Access for the Limited English Proficiency Population of the United States

Found in Translation. Legislation Surrounding Language Access for the Limited English Proficiency Population of the United States Found in Translation Legislation Surrounding Language Access for the Limited English Proficiency Population of the United States Found in Translation Legislation Surrounding Language Access for the Limited

More information

City of Encinitas Housing Division Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan

City of Encinitas Housing Division Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan I. General Plan Statement City of Encinitas Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan The City of Encinitas created and adopted this plan to provide meaningful access to its programs and activities to individuals

More information

2018 Limited English Proficiency Plan for the City of West Palm Beach

2018 Limited English Proficiency Plan for the City of West Palm Beach 2018 Limited English Proficiency Plan for the City of West Palm Beach Who is a LEP Individual? Individuals who have Limited English Proficiency (LEP) are those who do not speak English as their primary

More information

In this chapter, you will learn about the requirements of Title II of the ADA for effective communication. Questions answered include:

In this chapter, you will learn about the requirements of Title II of the ADA for effective communication. Questions answered include: 1 ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State and Local Governments Chapter 3 In this chapter, you will learn about the requirements of Title II of the ADA for effective communication. Questions answered include:

More information

AUXILIARY AIDS PLAN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

AUXILIARY AIDS PLAN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AUXILIARY AIDS PLAN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY PURPOSE This plan provides the policies and procedures for Directions for Living to ensure: A. That all clients and/or

More information

Limited English Proficiency: Accommodating Persons with Limited English Proficiency

Limited English Proficiency: Accommodating Persons with Limited English Proficiency Lapeer County Community Mental Health Sanilac County Community Mental Health St. Clair County Community Mental Health Limited English Proficiency: Accommodating Persons with Limited English Proficiency

More information

29 th Judicial District Language Access Plan

29 th Judicial District Language Access Plan 29 th Judicial District Language Access Plan Section I. Legal Basis and Purpose This Language Access Plan (LAP) is the plan for the 29 th Judicial District to ensure meaningful access to court services

More information

Auxiliary Aids Plan Okaloosa County Sheriff s Office And Domestic Violence Programs

Auxiliary Aids Plan Okaloosa County Sheriff s Office And Domestic Violence Programs O Auxiliary Aids Plan Okaloosa County Sheriff s Office And Domestic Violence Programs OCSO shall comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794, as implemented by 45 C.F.R. Part

More information

Dade Legal Aid Auxiliary Aids Plan

Dade Legal Aid Auxiliary Aids Plan Dade Legal Aid Auxiliary Aids Plan Dade Legal Aid (hereinafter referred to as DLA) shall comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794, as implemented by 45 C.F.R. Part 84 (hereinafter

More information

48th Judicial District LANGUAGE ACCESS PLAN

48th Judicial District LANGUAGE ACCESS PLAN 48th Judicial District LANGUAGE ACCESS PLAN Section I. Legal Basis and Purpose This Language Access Plan (LAP) is the plan for the judicial district to ensure meaningful access to court services for persons

More information

Number: D420. Ethics Policy Procedure Title: Interpreter/Translation Services Current Content Expert: Darice Hudman

Number: D420. Ethics Policy Procedure Title: Interpreter/Translation Services Current Content Expert: Darice Hudman Section: Patient Rights and Organizational Ethics Policy Procedure Current Content Expert: Darice Hudman Department Head: Katie Leyva, Service Line Director Acute Care Executive Management Team Member:

More information

TITLE: LANGUAGE ACCESS SERVICES

TITLE: LANGUAGE ACCESS SERVICES Administrative Policy Number: 9.05 TITLE: LANGUAGE ACCESS SERVICES PURPOSE To outline the resources and procedures to ensure meaningful access to quality and culturally appropriate care for patients with

More information

LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) AND LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN POLICY

LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) AND LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN POLICY 675 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 www.cambridge-housing.org TDD 800 545 1833 x112 LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) AND LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN POLICY The following policy applies to the Leased

More information

tation DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMS BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTIVE DATE: April 8, 2014 BY:

tation DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMS BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE EFFECTIVE DATE: April 8, 2014 BY: tation DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMS BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE DATE OF ISSUE: April 8, 2014 EFFECTIVE DATE: April 8, 2014 NUMBER 00-14-04 SUBJECT: Accessibility of Intellectual

More information

Limited English Proficiency Training

Limited English Proficiency Training Limited English Proficiency Training Limited English Proficiency There is no single law that covers Limited English Proficiency (LEP). It is the combination of several existing laws that recognize and

More information

POLICY and PROCEDURE

POLICY and PROCEDURE POLICY and PROCEDURE Interpreter Services Policy Number: ADM-1014 Administration Manual: Administration Reviewed/Revised: 9/21/2016 Effective: I. PURPOSE: To define Martin Luther King, Jr. Community Hospital

More information

SARASOTA MEMORIAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM CORPORATE POLICY

SARASOTA MEMORIAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM CORPORATE POLICY PS1013 SARASOTA MEMORIAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM CORPORATE POLICY TITLE: INTERPRETER SERVICES HEARING IMPAIRED/FOREIGN LANGUAGE EFFECTIVE DATE: REVIEWED/REVISED DATE: POLICY TYPE: Job Title of Responsible Owner:

More information

CLINICAL PRACTICE PROVIDING CARE. Approved: Department Director, Senior Leader

CLINICAL PRACTICE PROVIDING CARE. Approved: Department Director, Senior Leader CLINICAL PRACTICE PROVIDING CARE Approved: Department Director, Senior Leader Policy Policy & Procedure Standardized Procedure Title: Formerly: Interpreting Services: Foreign Language, Limited English

More information

Language Services Program

Language Services Program Language Services Program Objectives Understand the importance of language services and its role in attaining equitable health. Improve patient care and safety and boost patient satisfaction. Understand

More information

PROVISION OF CULTURALLY COMPETENT & EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TO PATIENTS (Interpreter Services)

PROVISION OF CULTURALLY COMPETENT & EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TO PATIENTS (Interpreter Services) Title: PROVISION OF CULTURALLY COMPETENT & EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TO PATIENTS (Interpreter Services) Manual: Human Resources/ Employee Health Policy Number: HR 512 Origin Date: 3/1/92 Policy approved

More information

Subject COMMUNICATING WITH INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING. 1 July By Order of the Police Commissioner

Subject COMMUNICATING WITH INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING. 1 July By Order of the Police Commissioner Subject COMMUNICATING WITH INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE Date Published Page 1 July 2016 1 of 9 By Order of the Police Commissioner POLICY It is the policy of the Baltimore Police Department (BPD) to ensure that

More information

The Canadian Hearing Society gratefully acknowledges The Law Foundation of Ontario for its financial support of this project.

The Canadian Hearing Society gratefully acknowledges The Law Foundation of Ontario for its financial support of this project. The Canadian Hearing Society gratefully acknowledges The Law Foundation of Ontario for its financial support of this project. THE CANADIAN HEARING SOCIETY HEAD OFFICE 271 Spadina Road, Toronto, Ontario

More information

Limited English Proficiency Plan

Limited English Proficiency Plan Limited English Proficiency Plan September 2017 Limited English Proficiency Policy The Town follows Executive Order 13166 in identifying and engaging Limited English Proficiency (LEP) populations to ensure

More information

OVERVIEW. Denver International Airport 1

OVERVIEW. Denver International Airport 1 OVERVIEW Introduction Denver International Airport ( DEN or Airport ) is a large hub airport serving 58.3 million passengers each year through 572,520 (2016) operations (landings and takeoffs). It is the

More information

Language Access Guidance Statutes

Language Access Guidance Statutes 9th Annual Domestic Violence Symposium UNDERSTANDING YOUR RIGHTS AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PROVIDING LANGUAGE ACCESS Seattle 2017 Language Access Guidance Statutes 1. Title Vi 2. Executive Order 13166 3.

More information

Evaluation Survey Report

Evaluation Survey Report Evaluation Survey Report Court Interpreter Services in Nevada Courts NEVADA SUPREME COURT, ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE COURTS May 2011 Andrea Krlickova, Certified Court Interpreter Program Coordinator

More information

ADA Business BRIEF: Communicating with People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Hospital Settings

ADA Business BRIEF: Communicating with People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Hospital Settings U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division Disability Rights Section Americans with Disabilities Act ADA Business BRIEF: Communicating with People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Hospital Settings

More information

Accessibility. Reporting Interpretation and Accommodation Requests

Accessibility. Reporting Interpretation and Accommodation Requests A presentation by: The WorkSmart Network Accessibility Reporting Interpretation and Accommodation Requests Version 2.2018 Overview As subrecipients and contractors of Federally-funded programs and activities,

More information

participating in a court proceeding, cannot be guaranteed due process of law or

participating in a court proceeding, cannot be guaranteed due process of law or IN THE TIDRD JUDICIAL CIRCUIT OF FLORIDA ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 2017 -c:c:,\ Replaces 2015-003 COURT INTERPRETER PROGRAM Whereas, pursuant to the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution, no

More information

Limited English Proficiency Plan 10/04/2017

Limited English Proficiency Plan 10/04/2017 Limited English Proficiency Plan 10/04/2017 WSOS Community Action Commission, Inc. 109 S. Front St., Fremont, OH 43420 419-334-8911 Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION... 1 II. PLAN SUMMARY... 1 III. FOUR-FACTOR

More information

Interpreter Services. Diversity & Inclusion Division

Interpreter Services. Diversity & Inclusion Division Interpreter Services Diversity & Inclusion Division Interpreter Services What are interpreter services and who are they for? The use of trained, qualified interpreters ensures meaningful access to all

More information

Appendix E: Limited English Proficiency Plan What s in our LEP Plan?

Appendix E: Limited English Proficiency Plan What s in our LEP Plan? Appendix E: Limited English Proficiency Plan What s in our LEP Plan? Content related to planning for LEP populations from the Title VI Nondiscrimination Plan (2018 Update) Limited English Proficient Households

More information

Limited English Proficiency Plan

Limited English Proficiency Plan Limited English Proficiency Plan ALAMO AREA COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS BEXAR AREA AGENCY ON AGING October 1, 2015 TITLE VI COORDINATOR Siena Lindemann, Regional Mobility Manager 8700 Tesoro Dr., Suite 700,

More information

LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) PLAN

LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) PLAN LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) PLAN 1. PLAN STATEMENT The Housing Authority of the County of Stanislaus (HACS) has adopted this plan to provide meaningful access to its programs and activities by persons

More information

1.3. Regional standards are in place to support the delivery of qualified interpreter services to members, patients, and caregivers.

1.3. Regional standards are in place to support the delivery of qualified interpreter services to members, patients, and caregivers. Page: 1 of 16 1.0 Policy Statement 1.1. Qualified interpreter services are provided during all hours of operation at no cost to members/patients, their medical decision makers, and their companions. For

More information

Limited English Proficiency Plan

Limited English Proficiency Plan Limited English Proficiency Plan City of Waterloo, Iowa Community Development July 2016 620 Mulberry Street, Waterloo, IA 319-291-4429 1 Table of Contents I. Introduction Page 3 II. Meaningful Access:

More information

Auxiliary Aids Plan Orlando Police Department InVEST/STOP Program

Auxiliary Aids Plan Orlando Police Department InVEST/STOP Program Auxiliary Aids Plan Orlando Police Department InVEST/STOP Program The Orlando Police Department (OPD) shall comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794, as implemented by 45

More information

Disclosure Information. Working Effectively with Interpreters 1/5/2015. Disclosures and Acknowledgements. Anne Kinderman, MD

Disclosure Information. Working Effectively with Interpreters 1/5/2015. Disclosures and Acknowledgements. Anne Kinderman, MD Disclosure Information Working Effectively with Interpreters Anne Kinderman, MD Continuing Medical Education committee members and those involved in the planning of this CME Event have no financial relationships

More information

Question & Answer (Q&A): Identifying and Meeting the Language Preferences of Health Plan Members

Question & Answer (Q&A): Identifying and Meeting the Language Preferences of Health Plan Members Question & Answer (Q&A): Identifying and Meeting the Language Preferences of Health Plan Members Webinar participants asked these questions during the Q&A portion of the Identifying and Meeting the Language

More information

Mechanicsburg, Ohio. Policy: Ensuring Effective Communication for Individuals with Disabilities Policy Section: Inmate Supervision and Care

Mechanicsburg, Ohio. Policy: Ensuring Effective Communication for Individuals with Disabilities Policy Section: Inmate Supervision and Care Tri-County Regional Jail Policy & Procedure Policy: Ensuring Effective Communication for Individuals with Disabilities Policy Section: Inmate Supervision and Care Tri-County Regional Jail Mechanicsburg,

More information

Limited English Proficiency Services

Limited English Proficiency Services Policy 366 Limited English Proficiency Services 366.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This policy provides guidance to members when communicating with individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) (42 USC 2000d).

More information

WE RE HERE TO HELP ESTAMOS AQUÍ PARA AYUDARLE ACCORDING TO THE 2010 UNITED STATES CENSUS, approximately 25.1 million people (or 8% of the total U.S. population) are limited English proficient (LEP). Limited

More information

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Policy Number: P-WIOA-LEP-1.A Effective Date: November 13, 2018 Approved By: Nick Schultz, Executive Director Limited English Proficiency (LEP) PURPOSE The purpose of the policy is to provide guidance

More information

A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Patients

A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Patients A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Patients It is important for your health and well-being that you communicate clearly with your doctors and staff. Asking questions can avoid mistakes and

More information

Safety Shelter of St. Johns County, Inc Auxiliary Aids Plan

Safety Shelter of St. Johns County, Inc Auxiliary Aids Plan Safety Shelter of St. Johns County, Inc Auxiliary Aids Plan Safety Shelter of St. Johns County, Inc. shall comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794, as implemented by 45

More information

ODP Deaf Services Overview Lesson 2 (PD) (music playing) Course Number

ODP Deaf Services Overview Lesson 2 (PD) (music playing) Course Number (music playing) This webcast includes spoken narration. To adjust the volume, use the controls at the bottom of the screen. While viewing this webcast, there is a pause and reverse button that can be used

More information

Language Access Services Policy and Health Care Interpreters. David Cardona, MD, MPH Language Access Services Coordinator

Language Access Services Policy and Health Care Interpreters. David Cardona, MD, MPH Language Access Services Coordinator Language Access Services Policy and Health Care Interpreters David Cardona, MD, MPH Language Access Services Coordinator Equity and Inclusion Presentation Overview Language Access Services Policy Definition

More information

b. Entities that lease or rent space for their events but have no permanent public office or facility must also follow Title III of the ADA.

b. Entities that lease or rent space for their events but have no permanent public office or facility must also follow Title III of the ADA. To Whom it May Concern: The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) seeks to ensure that all theaters, concert halls, or other places of exhibition or entertainment understand their legal obligations with

More information

Pasco Sheriff s Office Plan for. Auxiliary Aids and Services

Pasco Sheriff s Office Plan for. Auxiliary Aids and Services Pasco Sheriff s Office Plan for Auxiliary Aids and Services All Pasco Sheriff s Office (PSO) personnel shall comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794, as implemented by

More information

Linguistic Competence and Implicit/Explicit Bias Crosswalk. Linguistically Competent Practice Implicit & Explicit Bias

Linguistic Competence and Implicit/Explicit Bias Crosswalk. Linguistically Competent Practice Implicit & Explicit Bias Linguistic Competence and Implicit/Explicit Bias Crosswalk Component of Linguistic Competence: Provide language interpretation and translation services. Beliefs That Reflect - I don t like treating patients

More information

Hearing Impaired/Disabled Communications

Hearing Impaired/Disabled Communications Policy 371 Ramsey County Sheriff's Office 371.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE Individuals who suffer from deafness, hearing impairment, blindness, impaired vision, mental or other disabilities may encounter difficulties

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC ) ) ) ) SECOND REPORT AND ORDER AND THIRD FURTHER NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC ) ) ) ) SECOND REPORT AND ORDER AND THIRD FURTHER NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554 In the Matter of Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services WC Docket No. 12-375 SECOND REPORT AND ORDER AND THIRD FURTHER NOTICE OF

More information

1) Title III of the ADA applies to all private health care providers. See 42 U.S.C (7)(F).

1) Title III of the ADA applies to all private health care providers. See 42 U.S.C (7)(F). To Whom it May Concern: The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) seeks to ensure that all healthcare providers, including doctor s offices and hospitals, understand their legal obligations with respect

More information

A Framework for Language Access Systems. Cynthia E. Roat,, MPH for the Governor s s Interagency Council on Language Access

A Framework for Language Access Systems. Cynthia E. Roat,, MPH for the Governor s s Interagency Council on Language Access A Framework for Language Access Systems Cynthia E. Roat,, MPH for the Governor s s Interagency Council on Language Access A little history... Before 1980, almost all health and social service interpreting

More information

Jewish Family & Children s Service of the Suncoast, Inc. APPROVED BY: BOARD December 19, 2013 SUPERCEDES: n/a REVISED: n/a PAGE(S): 4

Jewish Family & Children s Service of the Suncoast, Inc. APPROVED BY: BOARD December 19, 2013 SUPERCEDES: n/a REVISED: n/a PAGE(S): 4 Jewish Family & Children s Service of the Suncoast, Inc. SUBJECT: Provision of services to the deaf and REFERENCE: Client Rights & Access hard-of-hearing clients EFFECTIVE DATE: December 19, 2013 ISSUED

More information

Littleton Housing Authority. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan

Littleton Housing Authority. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan I. PLAN STATEMENT The Housing Authority of the City of Littleton (LHA) has adopted this plan to provide meaningful access to its programs and activities by persons

More information

The Salvation Army Brevard County Domestic Violence Program Auxiliary Aids & Services Plan

The Salvation Army Brevard County Domestic Violence Program Auxiliary Aids & Services Plan The Salvation Army Brevard County Domestic Violence Program Auxiliary Aids & Services Plan Policy: The Salvation Army DVP shall make every effort to provide services to eligible individuals regardless

More information

SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETER Job Description

SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETER Job Description CATEGORY: INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT POSITION STATUS: FULL-TIME FLSA STATUS: NON-EXEMPT SALARY CODE: 52 The incumbent in this job is expected to assist the College in achieving its vision and mission of student

More information

Language Assistance to Persons with Limited English Proficiency and Persons with Hearing and Visual Impairment PURPOSE:

Language Assistance to Persons with Limited English Proficiency and Persons with Hearing and Visual Impairment PURPOSE: Current Status: Active PolicyStat ID: 4405812 Effective: 8/1/2004 Final Approved: 1/2/2018 Last Revised: 1/2/2018 Next Review: 1/2/2019 Owner: Policy Area: References: Applicability: Carolyn Nazabal: Coord

More information

Informational Memo. Communication Assistance Compliance Standards for Individuals who are Deaf. ODP Communication Number: Memo

Informational Memo. Communication Assistance Compliance Standards for Individuals who are Deaf. ODP Communication Number: Memo Informational Memo Communication Assistance Compliance Standards for Individuals who are Deaf ODP Communication Number: Memo 018-15 The mission of the Office of Developmental Programs is to support Pennsylvanians

More information

National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program Application

National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program Application Removing communication barriers for people who are Deaf Hard of Hearing Late-Deafened Deaf-Blind Speech Disabled National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program Application The National Deaf Blind Equipment

More information

Linguistics (Interpreter) Services

Linguistics (Interpreter) Services Linguistics (Interpreter) Services Pg Service Category Definition State Services 1 Lost in Translation. Language Barriers Pose Hurdle to Doctor & Patients The National Law Review, 04/03/17 3 Medical Interpreters

More information

Cache Valley Transit District

Cache Valley Transit District Cache Valley Transit District Limited English Proficiency Plan (LEP Plan) Page 1 of 5 Introduction This Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan has been prepared to address the responsibilities of the Cache

More information

Language Access Plan

Language Access Plan Language Access Plan Real Estate Department 08/31/2018 Real Estate Language Access Designee Tawny Klebesadel KlebesadelTM@muni.org (907) 343-7534 Table of Contents I. Introduction Page 3 II. Meaningful

More information

Video/telephonic Interpretation - Interpretation that occurs through video and telephone.

Video/telephonic Interpretation - Interpretation that occurs through video and telephone. Page 1 of 5 PURPOSE: To define methods used by Sierra View Medical Center (SVMC) to accommodate the interpretive needs of patients and family members/significant others, and to delineate the mechanisms

More information

Position Statement on VRI Services in Hospitals

Position Statement on VRI Services in Hospitals nad.org Position Statement on VRI Services in Hospitals Overview The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Rehabilitation Act of 1973 require hospitals and medical providers to ensure effective communication

More information

TENNESSEE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN (LAP)

TENNESSEE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN (LAP) TENNESSEE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE PLAN (LAP) **Tennessee thanks Washington State AOC for sharing its template for its LAP and the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. Tennessee

More information

3/8/2017. Presentation Objectives. How Five Health Systems are Improving their Language Access Programs to Address the New ACA Regulation

3/8/2017. Presentation Objectives. How Five Health Systems are Improving their Language Access Programs to Address the New ACA Regulation How Five Health Systems are Improving their Language Access Programs to Address the New ACA Regulation MODERATOR: David B. Hunt, J.D., Critical Measures Panelists: Joe Valenzuela, Baylor Scott & White

More information

With Auslan I am Equal!

With Auslan I am Equal! With Auslan I am Equal! National Week of Deaf People 14 23 October 2016 With Auslan, I am Equal! draws upon the principle of basic human rights in relation to Auslan (Australian Sign Language) for deaf

More information

Working with Court Interpreters. Language Access Services Available to North Carolina Magistrates. Goals of the Session. Goals of the Session (cont d)

Working with Court Interpreters. Language Access Services Available to North Carolina Magistrates. Goals of the Session. Goals of the Session (cont d) Working with Court Interpreters Language Access Services Available to North Carolina Magistrates Updated November 2012 Prepared by Brooke A. Bogue & Kellie Z. Myers Using a properly trained court interpreter

More information

INFORMED CONSENT AND PATIENTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

INFORMED CONSENT AND PATIENTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY INFORMED CONSENT AND PATIENTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY Alicia Fernandez, MD Professor of Clinical Medicine Arnold P. Gold Foundation Professorship University of California, San Francisco San Francisco

More information

A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Providers

A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Providers A Guide for Effective Communication in Healthcare Providers This Guide will help healthcare providers establish and maintain best practices in ensuring effective communication for hard-of-hearing and deaf

More information

980 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, Florida T TDD Toll Free

980 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, Florida T TDD Toll Free This document discusses the North Florida Transportation Planning Organization s approach to meeting the needs of persons with limited English Proficiency in executing the TPO s transportation planning

More information

Current through Chapter 199 and Chapters of the 2015 Legislative Session

Current through Chapter 199 and Chapters of the 2015 Legislative Session 26-21-101. Short title. 26-21-101. Short title This article shall be known and may be cited as the "Colorado Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Act". Cite as C.R.S. 26-21-101 History. L. 2000:

More information

Limited English Proficiency Plan. Development Services Department. June 26, 2018

Limited English Proficiency Plan. Development Services Department. June 26, 2018 Limited English Proficiency Plan Development Services Department June 26, 2018 Development Services Language Access Designee Tana Klunder klundertg@muni.org (907) 343-8301 Table of Contents I. Introduction

More information

Hill Country Transit District

Hill Country Transit District Hill Country Transit District Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan Hill Country Transit District (HCTD) has developed tis Limited English Proficiency Plan to help identify reasonable steps for providing

More information

2013 AUXILIARY AIDS AND SERVICE PLAN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND PERSONS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

2013 AUXILIARY AIDS AND SERVICE PLAN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND PERSONS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY Legal Aid Society of Palm Beach County, Inc. Domestic Violence Project 423 Fern Street, Ste. 200 West Palm Beach, FL 33401 (561) 655-8944 ext. 238 Toll-free: (800) 403-9353, ext. 238 Fax: (561) 655-5269

More information

A qualified interpreter is one who, via an onsite appearance or a video remote interpreting service (VRI), can:

A qualified interpreter is one who, via an onsite appearance or a video remote interpreting service (VRI), can: CHAPTER: Page 1 of 6 12.0 Introduction Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination in the services, programs, and activities of all state and local governments on the

More information

easy read Your rights under THE accessible InformatioN STandard

easy read Your rights under THE accessible InformatioN STandard easy read Your rights under THE accessible InformatioN STandard Your Rights Under The Accessible Information Standard 2 1 Introduction In July 2015, NHS England published the Accessible Information Standard

More information

[LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY PLAN] Table of Contents

[LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY PLAN] Table of Contents [LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY PLAN] December 2007 [LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY PLAN] Table of Contents Introduction. 3 Executive Order 13166. 3 Plan Summary. 3 Four Factor Analysis. 4-5 Limited English

More information

NOPD CONSENT DECREE MONITOR NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA

NOPD CONSENT DECREE MONITOR NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA NOPD CONSENT DECREE MONITOR NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA May 23, 2017 202.747.1904 direct ddouglass@sheppardmullin.com File Number: 37PA-191555 Deputy Superintendent Danny Murphy Compliance Bureau, New Orleans

More information

Language Assistance Plan (LAP) for Puyallup Municipal Court

Language Assistance Plan (LAP) for Puyallup Municipal Court Language Assistance Plan (LAP) for Puyallup Municipal Court I. PURPOSE Language Access Plan of Puyallup Municipal Court This LAP sets forth Puyallup Municipal Court s policy and procedures for the provision

More information

Civil Rights Compliance for Patients

Civil Rights Compliance for Patients Civil Rights Compliance for Patients What You Need to Know and How to Help Your Facilities Comply Objectives At the end of this session the participant will: Identify Civil Rights law as it pertains to

More information

5/6/2016. Interpreters, Translators, and Auxiliary Aids: Provider Obligations. Important Information. Preliminaries

5/6/2016. Interpreters, Translators, and Auxiliary Aids: Provider Obligations. Important Information. Preliminaries Interpreters, Translators, and Auxiliary Aids: Provider Obligations Lauren Prew Important Information This presentation is similar to any other seminar designed to provide general information on pertinent

More information