BINE ATI VENIT LA CATEDRA DE FIZIOPATOLOGIE! Asist. Dr. ORASAN MEDA SANDRA

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1 BINE ATI VENIT LA CATEDRA DE FIZIOPATOLOGIE! Asist. Dr. ORASAN MEDA SANDRA

2 Vom parcurge in acest semestru 14 lucrari practice: 20% din ele.. 3 absente posibile, dar care a) trebuie recuperate! b) trebuie platite, daca nu aveti motivare de la Decanat

3 NOTA FINALA EXAMEN SCRIS.. 70% EXAMEN PRACTIC.. 20% ACTIVITATE DIN SEMESTRU..10% = = o prezentare powerpoint de slides, cu durata: 10 minute, un subiect legat de cursuri sau de lucrarile practice. Puteti alege dintr-o lista de titluri posibile, care va fi trimisa prin .

4 TITLURILE LUCRARILOR PRACTICE Studiul actiunii agentilor chimici asupra organismului Studiul actiunii agentilor fizici asupra organismului Inflamatia si reactia febrila experimentala Algoritm de diagnostic al tulburarilor hemostazei (2 sedinte) Algoritm de diagnostic al tulburarilor functiei cardiovasculare ( 3labs) Algoritm de diagnostic al anemiilor Algoritm de diagnostic al tulburarilor functiei respiratorii Algoritm de diagnostic al tulburarilor metabolismului - lipidic - glucidic - proteic

5 1) Carte Lucruri necesare LUCRARI PRACTICE DE FIZIOPATOLOGIE STUDENTI DE ANUL III Editia a III sub redactia Prof Dr Luminita Plesca Manea Tipografia UMF ) Caiet / foi indosariate - protocolul experimentului - cazurile clinice 3) Vaori normale pentru investigatiile de laborator

6 EXPERIMENTUL O metoda des folosita in fiziopatologie IN VIVO: pe animale experimentale IN VITRO: pe culturi de celule

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16 PROTOCOLUL EXPERIMENTAL 1. Scop 2. Materiale 3. Metoda 4. Rezultate 5. Discutii 6. Concluzii

17 Inainte & dupa experiment evaluam parametrii biologici 1. Frecventa respiratorie 2. Frecventa cardiaca 3. Tonusul muscular (Crescut, scazut, contractii, frison) 4. Temperatura rectala 5. Pupile (mioza/midriaza) - comportament - stare de veghe/ somn - culoarea tegumentului - salivatie / secretie lacrimala

18 FACTORI CHIMICI

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20 FIRST EXPERIMENT 1. TASK: Observation of the organism s response to barbiturates 2. MATERIALS: RAT, i.m. phenobarbital 0,2g/kg body. 3. METHOD: before and after injection (after 20 min) record: heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, muscular tone, pupils diameter and reflexes. 4. RESULTS: sleepy/deep sleep, decreased heart, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, muscle tone, reflexes of pupils and miosis 5. DISCUTION: barbiturates = GABA receptor agonists and inhibit the CNS from confusion to death (coma in two steps) 6. CONCLUSION: Poisoning with barbiturates produces: hipnotic, sedative, tranquillizer, anticonvulsive effect.

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22 SECOND EXPERIMENT 1. TASK: Observation of the organism s response to organophosphates 2. MATERIALS: RAT,s.c. neostigmine 0,01%, 1ml/100g body. 3. METHOD: before and after injection (after 10 min) record: heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, muscular tone, pupils diameter and reflexes. Atropine 0,1% is injected to prevent death. 4. RESULTS: After ATROPINE: M1 effects: nausea, dyspnoea, miosis mydriasis M2 effects: bradicardia, hypotension tahycardia M3 effects: sweating, salivation, shadding tears hiposalivation N effects: twitching, fasciculations CNS: anxiety, convusions, coma 5. DISCUTION: organophosphates = causes accumulation of Acetylcholine in the synapses and produces M si N effects 6. CONCLUSION: organophosphates are absorbed by skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, distributed in the tissues, slowly eliminated by the liver.

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24 THIRD EXPERIMENT 1. TASK: Observation of the organism s response to ethanol 2. MATERIALS: Sobolan, i.p. 1ml/ 100g body weight, alcool etilic 33% 3. METHOD: Before and after 5-10min from the administration have to be assessed: respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, musculature tone, pupil s diameter and pupil s reflex. 4. RESULTS: Uncoordinatedly movements and reduced muscular tone Redness of the ears, tail and paws, Agitation/ sleep, Mydriasis Rise of the respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature Mydriasis. 5. DISCUTION: Ethanol is a CNS depressant that decreases activity of neurones. The mechanisms of action of alcohol on nervous tissues are not fully understood because even modest doses simultaneously change many neurotransmitters and increase the fluidity of neuronal cell membranes. 6. CONCLUSION: Effects of alcohol on the body:euphoria, Lethargy, Confusion, Stupor, Coma

25 FACTORI FIZICI

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27 FOURTH EXPERIMENT 1. TASK: Observation of the organism s response to hypothermia 2. MATERIALS: 2 RATS, at 4 degrees, for 30 minutes - TEST: i.m. phenobarbital 2% plegomaxin 0,5% + Romergan Flaxedyl 0.04% ( the temperature regulating system is blocked) - CONTROL: 3. METHOD: before and after injection, record: heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, muscular tone, skin color 4. RESULTS: - TEST: decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, muscle tone, cyanosis - CONTROL: tahycardia, shivering, normal rectal temperature, restlessness 5. DISCUTION: when the temperature regulating system is blocked or the physiological mechanism is outrun, hypothermia appears due to low environmental temperature. 6. CONCLUSION: Lowering of body temperature depresses organs and system functions.

28 HYPOBARISMUS

29 FIFTH EXPERIMENT 1. TASK: Observation of the organism s response to hypobarismus 2. MATERIALS: 1 RATS, in chamber with vacuum pump 3. METHOD: before and after, record: behavior, heart rate, respiratory rate, muscular tone, skin color 4. RESULTS: restlessness, tahypneea, tachycardia(irregular), cyanotic skin, reduced muscle tone. 5. DISCUTION: at altitude the hypoxia increases the respiratory rate as compensatory and signs appear: mental fatigue, headache, fatigue, convulsions, coma 6. CONCLUSION: the effects of hypobarismus lead to: hypoxic hypoxia, decreases of gases solubility in the organisms tissues, dilatation of natural cavities volumes. Compensatory mechanisms: increased heart rhythm, respiratory rate, cardiac debit, RBC mobilization from storage organs (spleen contraction)

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