Stage 4 - Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

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1 WELCOME

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4 Stage 4 - Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

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6 University of Baghdad College of Nursing Department of Basic Medical Sciences Overview of Anatomy and Physioloy II Second Year Students Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D. Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology

7 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - II Brief Contents 1- Cardiovascular System 2- Blood 3- Lymphatic System 4- Urinary System 5- Male Reproductive System 6- Female Reproductive System 7- Sensory Function Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology College of Nursing University of Baghdad /

8 Text book Martini FH. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001.

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10 References: 1.Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 23rd ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, Drake RL, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM. Gray's Anatomy for Students. Elsevier, Philadelphia, Goldberger,E A Primer of Water Electrolyte and Acid-Base Syndromes. 5th ed., Lea and Febiger,Philadelphia. 4. Martini, FH and Welch K. Applications Manual Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology,4th ed., Prentice Hall, NewJersey, Maxwell, MH and Kleeman CR Clinical Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 6.McKinley M, and O'Loughlin VD. Human Anatomy, McGraw Hill, Boston, Nutrition Foundation.1984.Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 5th ed., Nutrition Foundation, Inc, Washington, D.C. 8.Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D., Human Physiology, 7th ed., McGraw Hill, Boston, 1998.

11 THIRTEENTH LECTURE Physiology of Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive Hormones Ovarian Cycle Uterine Cycle (Menstrual Cycle) Sexual Response Pathways Pregnancy and Lactation Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology College of Nursing University of Baghdad /

12 Female Reproductive Hormones GnRH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone LH - Luteinizing Hormone Estrogenic hormones Progesteron Inhibin

13 Hypothalamic Feedback

14 Functions of Reproductive Hormones 1- GnRH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: Stimulate pituitary gland to release FSH and LH 2- FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone a- stimulates growth and maturity of graafian follicles in the ovary 3- LH - Luteinizing Hormone a- with FSH stimulate cause ovulation of mature follicles b- secretion of estrogen by thecal and granulosa cell of the ovary c- corpus luteum formation

15 Continue: Functions of reproductive Hormones 4- Estrogenic hormones: secreted by ovarian follicles, it is the main hormone in follicular phase 5- Progesteron: secreted by corpus luteum, it is the main hormone in luteal phase 6- Inhibin: secreted by granulosa cells of ovaries during follicular phase Function: Negative feedback (inhibition) to pituitary gland to inhibit FSH secretion

16 TYPES OF BLOOD CIRCULATING ESTROGEN 1- Estradiol 2- Estrone 3- Estriol a- Estradiol is the most abundant estrogen b- Estradiol is the dominant hormone prior to ovulation

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18 TOTAL RATES OF SECRETION OF GONADOTROPIC HORMONES THROUGHOUT THE SEXUAL LIVES OF FEMALE AND MALE HUMAN BEING

19 ESTROGEN SECRETION THROUGHOUT THE SEXUAL LIFE OF FEMALE HUMAN BEING

20 BIOSYNTHESIS OF STEROID HORMONES

21 FUNCTIONS OF ESTROGEN p Stimulate of bone and muscles growth 2- Maintaining female secondary sex characteristics. 3- Affecting CNS (e.g. increase sexual drive ) 4- Maintaining functions of accessory and organ of reproductive system 5- Initiate repair and growth of endometrium

22 OVARIAN CYCLE

23 OVARIAN CYCLE Ovarian Cycle divided into two phases 1- Follicular Phase 2- Luteal Phase

24 STEPS OF OVARIAN CYCLE I- FOLLICULAR PHASE 1- Primordial follicles 2- Formation of primary follicles 3- Formation of secondary follicles 4- Formation of a tertiary follicle II567- LUTEAL PHASE Ovulation Formation corpus luteum Degeneration of corpus luteum, unless fertilization occurs 8- Corpus albicans

25 OVARIAN CYCLE p.1038

26 Continue: OVARIAN CYCLE p.1039

27 MECHANISM OF OVULATION

28 TYPES OF CELLS AND HORMONES IN OVARIAN FOLLICLE 1- Follicle cell 2- Zona pellucida 3- Thecal cells produce Androgen Estrogen s 4- Granulosa cells produce Inhibin and enzyme called Aromatase 5- Cells of corpus luteum produce Progesteron and estrogen

29 STAGES OF FOLLICULAR GROWTH IN OVARY AND FORMATION OF CORPUS LUTEUM

30 UTERINE CYCLE (Menstrual Cycle)

31 UTERINE CYCLE (Menstrual Cycle) Average of uterine cycle is 28 days Range of uterine cycle are days Uterine cycle divided into three phases 1- Menses 2- Proliferative phase 3- Secretory phase

32 APPEARANCE OF ENDOMETRIUM DURING UTERINE CYCLE p.1044

33 PHASES OF ENDOMETRIAL GROWTH AND MENSTRUATION DURING EACH MONTHLY FEMALE SEXUAL CYCLE

34 PLASMA CONCENTRATION OF GONADOTROPINS AND OVARIAN HORMONES DURING NORMAL FEMALE SEXUAL CYCLE

35 MENSTRUAL CYCLE

36 Component of Menstrual Cycle Ovulation Menstrual Cycle Concentration of LH and FSH Concentration of Estrogens and Progesteron Basal Body Temperature Ovarian Follicle Development Endometrium

37 MENSTRUAL CYCLE

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46 Sexual Response Pathways

47 SEXUAL RESPONSE PATHWAYS

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49 Pregnancy and Lactation

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52 BIRTH CONTROL P Sterilization a- Vasectomy (male) b- Tubal ligation (female) 2- Oral contraception 3- Condom 4- Vaginal barrier (diaphragm and cervical cap) 5- Intrauterine device 6- Rhythmic method

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54 SECRETION OF ESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE AND CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF PREGNANCY

55 SECRETION OF ESTROGEN, PROGESTERONE AND PROLACTIN BEFORE AND AFTER PARTURITION

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57 EFFECT OF PREGNANCY TO INCREASE THE MOTHER`S BLOOD VOLUME

58 NUTRITION OF THE FETUS

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61 OVULATION, FERTILIZATION OF OVUM IN FALLOPIAN TUBE, AND IMPLANTATION OF THE BLASTOCYST IN UTERUS. SHOWING TROPHOBLASTIC DIGESTION AND INVASION OF ENDOMETRIUM

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67 ORGANIZATION OF MATURE PLACENTA

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69 THEORY FOR THE ONSET OF INTENSELY STRONG CONTRACTIONS DURING LABOR

70 Physiology of Lactation (Milk Let-Down Reflex) Stimulation of nipples Impulses to spinal cord Stimulation of hypothalamus Oxytocin released Milk ejected

71 MILK LET-DOWN REFLEX

72 COMPOSITION OF THE MILK

73 INFERTILITY

74 MAJOR CAUSE OF INFERTILITY Hormonal imbalance Un coordination of the hormonal secretion related with ovarian cycle and uterine cycle

75 CLINICAL DISORDERS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

76 CLINICAL DISORDERS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTION SYSTEM 1- Ovrian cancer 2- Pelvic inflammatory disease 3- Myofibrosis 4- Leiomyoma uteri 5- Endometritis 6- Endometriosis 7- Breast cancer 8- Fibrocystic disease of breast 9- Premenstrual syndrome 10- Sexual transmitted diseases e.g. AIDS, syphlis 11- Follicular cyst in ovary 12- Polycystic ovaries 13- Abortion 14- Other

77 Hormonal Disturbances

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82 SIMPLE FOLLICULAR CYST IN OVARY

83 BILATERAL POLYCYSTIC OVARIES

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85 FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE OF BREAST

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87 CARCINOMA OF LEFT BREAST

88 PAGETS DISEASE OF NIPPLE

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90 THANK YOU

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