1 1. Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom Asexual reproduction involves the formation of individuals whose genes all come from one parent. There is no fusion of sperm and egg. Sexual reproduction is the formation of offspring by the fusion of haploid gametes. Ovum: female gamete - usually large and nonmotile. Spermatozooan: male gamete - usually small and motile. Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation among offspring.
2 Advantages of asexual reproduction: Can reproduce without needing to find a mate Can have numerous offspring in a short time In stable environments, allows for the perpetuation of successful genotypes. Sexual reproduction s advantage occurs in changing environments where variation provides the natural selection process with adaptive choices.
3 1. Human reproduction involves intricate anatomy and complex behavior Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male. The scrotum and the penis are the external components of the reproductive system. The internal reproductive organs consist of gonads, accessory sex glands, and ducts. Here we see many examples of how structure is related to function. Let s watch
4 So let s get a blank piece of paper and test your artistic ability. Draw and label these: Penis Testes Scrotum Epididymis Urethra Vas deferens (sperm ducts) Prostate gland and seminal vesicle
5 Fig. 46.8
6 Fig. 46.8
7 Testes are the male gonads. Consist of many highly coiled seminiferous tubules surrounded by layers of connective tissue. Sperm form inside seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells (aka interstitial cells), scattered between seminiferous tubules produce androgens, mainly testosterone.
8 Testes are located in the scrotum, outside the body cavity. This keeps testicular temperature cooler than the body cavity, which is best for sperm production. The testes develop in the body cavity and descend into the scrotum just before birth.
9 From the seminiferous tubules sperm pass to the coiled tubules of the epididymis. It takes about 20 days for sperm to pass through the tubules of the epididymis. In the epididymis sperm become motile (but not fully) and gain the ability to fertilize.
10 Ejaculation propels sperm from the epididymis to the vas deferens (aka - sperm ducts). The vas deferens run from the scrotum and behind the urinary bladder. Here each vas deferens joins with a duct from the seminal vesicle to form an ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory ducts open into the urethra. The urethra drains both the excretory and reproductive systems.
11 Accessory sex glands add secretions to semen. A pair of seminal vesicles contribute about 60% of total semen volume. Seminal fluid is alkaline. It contains mucus, fructose, a coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acid, and prostaglandins.
12 The prostate gland secretes directly into the urethra. Prostatic fluid contains anticoagulant enzymes and citrate. Prostate problems are common in males over 40. Prostate enlargement occurs in nearly all males over 70. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.
13 So let s get a blank piece of paper and test your artistic ability. Draw and label these: Penis Testes Scrotum Epididymis Urethra Vas deferens (sperm ducts) Prostate gland and seminal vesicle
14 Let s try the blank paper art work again. Here are the EOC female parts Vagina Cervix Uterus Oviducts (Fallopian tubes) Ovaries
15 Fig. 46.9
16 Fig. 46.9
17 Ovaries are the female gonads, homologous to testes. Located in the abdominal cavity. Let s watch Flanking, and attached by mesentery to, the uterus. Each ovary is enclosed in a tough protective capsule. Each ovary contains follicles.
18 Each follicle consists of one egg cell surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells. Follicles produce the primary female sex hormones: estrogens. Follicle cells nourish and protect the developing egg cell. A woman is born with about 400,000 follicles. Only several hundred will release eggs during a female s reproductive years.
19 Usually one follicle matures and releases its egg during each menstrual cycle. After ovulation the remaining follicular tissue develops into the corpus luteum, Latin for yellow body. It secretes estrogens and progesterone. This maintains the lining during pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur the corpus luteum disintegrates. uterine Fig
20 At ovulation the egg is released into the abdominal cavity near the opening of the oviduct. Let s watch The cilia-lined funnel-like opening of the oviduct draws in the egg. Cilia convey the egg through the oviduct to the uterus. Endometrium: highly vascularized inner lining of the uterus. The neck of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina. The vagina is a thin-walled chamber that forms the birth canal and is the repository for sperm during copulation.
21 Let s try the blank paper art work again. Here are the EOC female parts Vagina Cervix Uterus Oviducts (Fallopian tubes) Ovaries
22 2. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis both involve meiosis but differ in three significant ways Spermatogenesis is the production of mature sperm cells from spermatogonia. This is a continuous and prolific process in the adult male. Each ejaculation contains million sperm. Occurs in seminiferous tubules. As spermatogenesis progresses the developing sperm cells move from the wall to the lumen of a seminiferous tubule.
24 Sperm structure: Haploid nucleus. Tipped with an acrosome. Contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate to the egg. A large number of mitochondria provide ATP to power the flagellum. Fig
25 Oogenesis is the production of ova from oogonia. Differs from spermatogenesis in three major ways: At birth an ovary contains all of the primary oocytes it will ever have. Unequal cytokinesis during meiosis results in the formation of a single large secondary oocyte and three small polar bodies. The polar bodies degenerate. Oogenesis has long resting periods. Meiosis starts in all cells before a woman is born, but it stops in Prophase I, and doesn t continue until the menstrual cycle starts.
27 4. Embryonic and fetal development occur during pregnancy in humans and other eutherian (placental) mammals From Conception to Birth. In placental mammals, pregnancy is the condition of carrying one or more embryos. Pregnancy is preceded by conception (fertilization) and continues until birth. A human pregnancy averages 266 days.
28 Human gestation is divided into three trimesters. First trimester. Fertilization occurs in the oviduct. 24 hours later the zygote begins cleavage. 3-4 days after fertilization it reaches the uterus; the embryo is a ball of cells called a morula. It takes about 1 week past fertilization for the blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells, to form. After 5 more days it implants in the endometrium.
30 Items may refer to the early stages of development (implantation, morula, blastocyst, gastrulation, neurulation) but will not assess the definition of these terms.
31 For the first 2 4 weeks of development the embryo obtains nutrients from the endometrium. Then the placenta provides for the diffusion of material between maternal and embryonic circulations. Amnion? Umbilical cord? All three are on the EOC list. Fig
32 Organogenesis occurs during the first trimester. By week 4: the heart is beating. By the end of week 8: all of the major structures of the adult are present in rudimentary form. The rapidity of development makes this a time when the embryo is especially sensitive to environmental insult.
33 Here s my first grandchild, Lilly, at the end of the first trimester.
34 Second trimester. Fetus grows rapidly, but not MOST rapidly, and is very active. Cartilage begins to be replaced by bone. Placenta now takes over the secretion of progesterone, which maintains the pregnancy.
35 Third trimester. Period of MOST RAPID growth. Fetal activity may decrease as the fetus fills the space available to it. Maternal abdominal organs become compressed and displaced. Terminates with parturition (fancy name for birth). A decrease in progesterone levels triggers the release of oxytocin, then this POSITIVE feedback starts
36 Hormonal regulation of birth. Fig
37 Parturition occurs as a result of labor. First stage: opening up and thinning of the cervix. Ending in complete dilation. Second stage: Expulsion of the baby as a result of strong uterine contractions. Third stage: Expulsion of the placenta. Fig
38 Pregnancy is divided into periods called trimesters. Which of the following occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy? A. The blastula forms B. The fetus begins to move C. The major organs begin to develop D. The fetus has regular breathing motions
39 The main function of the male reproductive system is to produce and deliver sperm for fertilization. Which of the following gives the path of sperm cells through the male reproductive system? a. testicle, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra b. Epididymis, testicle, vas deferens, urethra c. Testicle, epididymis, urethra, vas deferens d. Testicle, vas deferens, epididymis, urethra
40 Eggs are the female reproductive cells. Where in the body are egg cells stored? A. Cervix B. Uterus C. Ovaries D. Fallopian tubes
41 A female egg undergoes several stages before it is successfully implanted. In which structure of the female human reproductive system is the egg fertilized by a sperm? A. Ovary B. Uterus C. Vagina D. Fallopian tube
42 A fertilized egg undergoes several stages before it is successfully implanted. The diagram below shows these stages as the fertilized egg travels through the female human reproductive system. In which of the following structures of the female human reproductive system is the blastocyst implanted during normal human development? A. ovary B. uterus C. vagina D. amniotic sac
43 Which structure of the male reproductive system produces sperm? A. Ovaries B. Testicles C. Scrotum D. Penis
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