Complete breakdown of Glucose: + Light + 6 H 2 O = C 6 H 12 O 6 6 CO O 2. + Energy = 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6. What is Glucose Metabolism?

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1 Chapter 8: Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration What is Metabolism? Answer: The breakdown of glucose to release energy from its chemical bonds Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 Carbon Dioxide + 6 H 2 O + Light Energy = C 6 H 12 O O 2 Oxygen Metabolism: C 6 H 12 O O 2 = 6 CO H 2 O + Energy Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Chemical (40%) Heat (60%) Complete breakdown of : Almost all free energy released as heat breakdown by burning (combustion) 1

2 But burning is not useful in cells Cellular respiration is needed in cells to obtain energy. Occurs in steps Some free energy conserved as ATP The resulting ATP is later used in other metabolic functions. Major Steps of Metabolism Mitochondria 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Cytoplasm Oxygen present (Aerobic) No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation (2 ATP) Carbon Dioxide Ethanol Lactate Major Steps in Metabolism: 1. Glycolysis Always occurs in healthy cells 2. Fermentation Occurs only if oxygen is NOT present. 3. Krebs cycle/cellular respiration Occurs only if oxygen IS present. (Figure 8.1) 2

3 1) Glycolysis (Greek: To break down a sweet ) Ancient biochemical pathway (all organisms do it...) Occurs in the cytoplasm; Does not require oxygen Two Major Components: A) Activation: Initiate the reaction (takes energy) 2 ATP 2 ADP C C C C C C (Activation Energy) P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) 1) Glycolysis (Greek: To break down a sweet ) Ancient biochemical pathway (all organisms do it...) Occurs in the cytoplasm; Does not require oxygen Two Major Components: A) Activation: Initiate the reaction (takes energy) B) Energy Harvesting: Complete the reaction (makes energy) 4 ADP 4 ATP P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 2 NAD + 2 NADH Glycolysis in Review: Net ATP Gain = 2 ATP Makes 4 ATP, but uses 2 ATP in reaction (similar to Figure 8.2) 3

4 Major Steps of Metabolism 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Oxygen present (Aerobic) No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation Carbon Dioxide Ethanol OR Lactate 2) Fermentation: Process for regenerating NAD + for glycolysis Occurs in organisms which live where oxygen is rare Intestines / stomach; soils / sediments / bogs Two Types of Fermentation: A) Lactate Fermentation: converted to lactate (lactic acid) 2 NADH 2 NAD + (Back to glycolysis) Lactate Lactate Fermentation: 4

5 2) Fermentation: Process for regenerating NAD + for glycolysis Occurs in organisms which live where oxygen is rare Intestines / stomach; soils / sediments / bogs Two Types of Fermentation: A) Lactate Fermentation: converted to lactate (lactic acid) B) Alcoholic Fermentation: converted to ethanol and CO 2 2 NADH 2 NAD + (Back to glycolysis) C C x 2 + C x 2 Ethanol Carbon Dioxide Alcohol Fermentation: 5

6 Yeast Major Steps of Metabolism 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Oxygen present (Aerobic) No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation Carbon Dioxide Ethanol Lactate 3) Cellular Respiration: Series of reactions producing ATP Occurs in mitochondria / requires oxygen + O 2 = CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Chemical Energy From Glycolysis reaction 6

7 Recall from Chapter 5: Mitochondria has two membranes: 1) Outer Membrane (smooth) 2) Inner Membrane (folded - cristae) Recall from Chapter 5: The two membranes provide two separate compartments: 1) Intermembrane Compartment Lies between inner and outer membrane 2) Matrix (lies within inner membrane) 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: A) Formation of Acetyl CoA: diffuses into mitochondrial matrix Down concentration gradient (via pores) ( C ) Coenzyme A CO 2 C C - CoA x 2 NAD + NADH Acetyl CoA 7

8 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: B) Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle): C C - CoA (x 2) Acetyl CoA 3 NAD + (x 2) 3 NADH (x 2) ATP ADP Krebs Cycle FAD (x 2) ( C C ) 2 CO 2 (x 2) FADH 2 The True Story: DO NOT COPY! This figure won t be on the exam, I promise! But you still need to know what goes in and what comes out Review: Where did this come from? (Figure 8.5) 8

9 3) Cellular Respiration - Energy Checklist: What energy molecules have we produced so far: 1) 2 ATP (from glycolysis) 2) 2 ATP (from Krebs cycle) 3) Multiple Electron-carrier Molecules: 2 NADH (from glycolysis) 8 NADH (from Krebs cycle) 2 FADH 2 (from Krebs cycle) Know these they are products from Glycolysis or Krebs cycle reactions. 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: C) Electron Transport System Place where electron-carrier molecules unload their electrons Located in inner mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane Compartment Outer Membrane 2e - ETS Inner Membrane Matrix NADH FADH 2 NAD + FAD 1/2 O H 2 O Electron Transport Chain: cyanide (Figure 8.6) 9

10 Sequence of Events in Cellular Respiration: 4) Chemiosmosis: Captures energy stored in hydrogen ion gradient and produces ATP Located in inner mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane Compartment Outer Membrane H + H+ ETS H+ ion channel Inner Membrane ADP ATP Matrix 32 ATP Chemiosmosis: ATP diffuses out of mitochondria to provide energy for cellular processes Final Tally of Energy Production: One Molecule of Yields ATP YUM! (Figure 8.1) 10

11 Respiration movies /home.htm How Various Biomolecules Yield Energy: Fats: Glycerol glycolysis Fatty Acids Krebs cycle Proteins: Enter at multiple stages Reversal true as well: Fats Epo: blood doping in athletic events Epo: Erthropoietin A natural hormone (a glycoprotein) that boost red blood cell production. Increase in red blood cells results in greater oxygen content (due to increase in hemoglobin) Used to treat patients with anemia, but use has fallen off due to sometimes deadly side effects. Blood clots, strokes, pulmonary embolism 11

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