1 Grade 7 Reproduction Learner Outcomes W-7.3 Examine the human reproductive process, and recognize misunderstandings associated with sexual development How To Use This lesson plan contains several activities to achieve the learner outcome above. You may choose to do some or all of the activities, based on the needs of your students and the time available. Some of the activities build on the ones that come before them, but all can be used alone. For a quick lesson, combine activities A, B and F. Classroom Activities & Timing See also the Differing Abilities lesson plans on Reproduction. A. Ground Rules (5-10 minutes) B. Reproductive System Diagrams (20-30 minutes) C. Reproduction Process (20-40 minutes) D. Reproductive System Infographics (20-30 minutes) E. Sexual Reproduction Kahoot! Quiz (15-20 minutes) F. Question Box (5-10 minutes) Required Materials HANDOUT and ANSWER KEY: Male Reproductive System HANDOUT and ANSWER KEY: Female Reproductive System CARDS: Reproduction Process DIAGRAMS: Menstrual Cycle, Sperm Production, Fertilization, Implantation
2 Grade 7 Reproduction 2 KAHOOT! QUIZ and ANSWER KEY: Grade 7 Reproduction HANDOUT: Infographics All the diagrams are also available as PDFs in Grade 7 Diagrams. Background Information for Teachers This lesson deals with the biological processes of sexual intercourse and reproduction. There are many additional ways that families are created, including in vitro fertilization, adoption, surrogacy, fostering, and using donor eggs or sperm. Students need to be able to identify the basic components of the human reproductive systems and to describe how they function in order to discuss human sexual reproduction. This lesson provides students with an overview of human sexual anatomy and physiology, menstruation, sperm production, fertilization and implantation. This material is part of the Grade 5 learning outcomes, so for many students it will be a review rather than new information. Inclusive Language Language is complex, evolving, and powerful. In these lessons, genderneutral language is used to be inclusive of all students, including those with diverse gender identities and sexual orientations. This includes the use of they as a singular gender-neutral pronoun. The lesson plans use the terms male and female when referring to biological sex (sex assigned at birth), such as when discussing reproductive anatomy. A person s reproductive system can be male, female or intersex (not clearly defined as either male or female). People are assigned a sex at birth based on their reproductive anatomy. Sex assigned at birth is independent of gender identity. Gender identity is a person s internal sense of identity as female, male, both or neither, regardless of their biological sex assigned at birth. For many people, their gender matches the sex they were assigned at birth (cisgender). Others may identify as being transgender or gender diverse if their gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. A person s gender identity can be girl, woman, boy, man, transgender, gender fluid, gender queer, agender or others. The intention in this material is to use language that reflects these many possibilities.
3 Grade 7 Reproduction 3 Reproduction The following are some key concepts regarding reproduction. More detailed information about the female and male reproductive systems and sexual reproduction can be found in the Grade 5 lesson plans. Egg (ovum) The egg is produced and stored in the ovaries. An egg is released once a month after puberty begins (ovulation). Occasionally two or more eggs (ova) are released. The egg travels down the fallopian tubes to reach the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized in a day or so, it dissolves. Ovulation Ovulation may alternate from one ovary to the other each month, may be mostly from one ovary, or may be random from one month to the next. People can experience varying degrees of sensation during ovulation from nothing at all to pain similar to that of menstrual cramps. Menstruation Menstruation is the part of the menstrual cycle where the uterine lining is shed through the vagina. The uterus prepares for growth of a baby each month, in case fertilization occurs. Hormones from ovaries send a message to the uterus to grow a thick, soft lining of tissue and blood. If the egg is not fertilized in the fallopian tube, the lining is not needed to nourish the baby, so the uterus will shed the lining. It takes 2-7 days to shed the lining. Five days is the average. A cycle of 28 days is most common; however it can vary from days. Some people have regular cycles, and some do not. It is common for periods to be irregular in the first few years. Menstruation is a normal part of puberty. It is not dirty or bad. Menstruation is not a sickness. People can participate in their regular daily activities during their period. If menstrual symptoms are severe, a person can speak with a health care provider. Sperm The male reproductive cells are made every day in the testicles. The sperm mature in the epididymis, travel up the vas deferens and mix with fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate to form a white sticky fluid called semen. Semen The combination of sperm and fluid from the seminal vesicle and prostate that is ejaculated from the penis.
4 Grade 7 Reproduction 4 Erection The brain sends a message to the body to increase blood flow to the penis which fills the spongy area in the penis making it hard (erect) and often stand out from the body. People may have erections at any age. During puberty, they may occur more often. Erections are sometimes due to a sexy thought or feeling and sometimes because of hormone changes or as a reflex reaction to certain sights, sounds, smells, thoughts or touch. Erections are a normal process of growing up. Erections can go away by themselves or after ejaculation. Ejaculation Ejaculation is the release of semen and sperm from the penis, usually as a result of an orgasm. Although people may experience erections at any age, they do not ejaculate until puberty, when their bodies begin producing sperm and semen. Nocturnal emissions Nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) occur when a person ejaculates in their sleep. This is the body s way of adapting to the start of sperm and semen production. Some people have wet dreams and others do not. Wet dreams usually end later in puberty once the body is used to producing sperm and semen. A. Ground Rules Ensure ground rules are established before beginning this lesson. For classes that have already established ground rules, quickly reviewing them can help ensure a successful lesson. B. Reproductive System Diagrams To help students understand body and genital diversity, note that not everyone s genitals look the same, or like what is shown in diagrams and pictures. Variation in size and shape is normal. Students identify the basic parts of the human reproductive systems and describe how they function. 1. Show students the Reproductive Systems diagrams, which show the location of the reproductive systems in the body and help students to understand the more abstract internal diagrams that come after. 2. Distribute the Male Reproductive System handout.
5 Grade 7 Reproduction 5 3. Ask students to label the diagram according to the instructions. You may choose to do this activity together with the students using a projector while student volunteers read from the handout. 4. If you didn t do the activity together, ask students to correct their diagrams using the answer key. 5. Repeat the same process using the Female Reproductive System handout and answer key. C. Reproduction Process To do this activity individually, print the cards 9-to-a-page, and give each student their own set of cards. Ask them to draw the Y on a blank page and place or glue each card in the correct order. Students demonstrate a basic understanding of the process of reproduction. This is a review of grade 5 Human Sexuality. 1. Print the Reproduction Process cards onto separate sheets of paper. 2. Make a large Y shape on the wall or floor using masking tape, about 2-3 m tall. Label one part of the top of the Y Male, and the other Female, and label the bottom of the Y Pregnancy, as shown below. 3. Give out the Reproduction Process cards that belong on the Male and Female arms (see below for answers) to six students. 4. Have the students with cards arrange the events that occur during menstruation and sperm production in the proper order along each of the top lines of the Y. 5. Instruct the students that did not have cards to rearrange the order if they think there are any cards misplaced. 6. Go through the cards together, and make corrections according to the answer key provided. 7. Now distribute the remaining cards, having to do with sexual intercourse, fertilization and implantation, to seven other students. 8. Have students with cards arrange the events in the correct order, along the bottom line leading to Pregnancy. 9. Instruct the students that did not have cards to rearrange the order if they think there are any cards misplaced. 10. Go through the cards together, and make corrections according to the answers below.
6 Grade 7 Reproduction Use the Menstrual Cycle, Sperm Production, Fertilization and Implantation diagrams as needed to review the concepts. Male Female Answers Female Pregnancy 1. Lining of uterus thickens with blood 2. Ovulation occurs (egg released from ovary) 3. Egg enters fallopian tube Male 1. Sperm is made in the testicles 2. Sperm exit the testicles and travel up the vas deferens 3. Sperm cells mix with semen Pregnancy 1. Erect penis is inserted into vagina (sexual intercourse) 2. Sperm cells leave the penis (ejaculation) and enter vagina 3. Sperm travel through the cervix, uterus, and into fallopian tubes 4. One sperm cell attaches to an egg and forms one cell (fertilization) 5. Cell starts to divide 6. Cells travel through fallopian tube to uterus 7. Cells attach to wall of uterus (implantation) Debrief this activity using the following questions: What else do you know about menstruation? Menstruation usually begins sometime between ages 8 and 16. Usually one egg is released each menstrual cycle. If more than one egg is released, and if they are fertilized, it means there may be a multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets, etc.). If two eggs are released and each one is fertilized by a sperm, the result is fraternal twins. Identical twins happen when a fertilized egg (zygote) splits into two in the first few days after fertilization. Eggs can live hours from the time of ovulation.
7 Grade 7 Reproduction 7 People can use tampons, pads or menstrual cups to deal with menstrual flow. People can still shower or bathe during their period. Some people get cramps before or during menstruation. Exercise, a warm bath, gentle massage, hot compress or over the counter medications such as ibuprofen may help with menstrual cramps and discomfort. Do not take any medication without asking a parent or guardian first. If you take pain medications be sure not to take more than the recommended amount. Getting enough sleep, eating a balanced diet according to Canada s Food Guide, reducing caffeine intake and quitting smoking may also help relieve or prevent cramps. Severe cramping or very heavy or long periods can be a sign of a problem so it is important to talk to a health care provider The menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days; however it can vary from days. It is common for periods to be irregular in the first few years. The first day of bleeding is considered the first day of the menstrual cycle. What else do you know about sperm production? Sperm production begins in puberty. Ejaculation can occur once sperm production begins. Males usually start puberty sometime between ages Some people don t ejaculate until later in puberty. Nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) are ejaculations that occur while sleeping. It is normal to experience these, or not to experience these. As many as million sperm can be released during each ejaculation. Sperm can live inside the uterus and fallopian tubes for 3-5 days from the time of ejaculation. Will a pregnancy occur every time sexual intercourse occurs? No. Pregnancy only happens if a sperm fertilizes an egg and if the fertilized egg implants in the uterine wall. People often do not know when they are ovulating, and some people ovulate more than once in a cycle. A person can get pregnant from sex that happens up to a week before they ovulate.
8 Grade 7 Reproduction 8 People can reproduce, or make babies, once they start periods and ejaculation. But most people wait until they are much older. Why? Discuss issues surrounding the need to be emotionally, educationally or financially ready to parent. Babies born to teen mothers are more likely to have health problems. D. Reproductive System Infographics Students will summarize their understanding of the male and female reproductive systems by creating infographics - highly visual representations of information. 1. Provide students with a paper or digital copy of the two-page Reproductive Systems Infographic handout. 2. For a simple review assignment, ask students to complete the graphic by labelling each of the four numbered elements with the correct name, on the male and female diagrams. 3. For a more complex assignment, ask students to include notes about the function of each labelled part on their infographic, or add additional labels. 4. Answers/exemplars can be found in the Grade 7 Diagrams file. E. Sexual Reproduction Kahoot! Quiz This quiz can be a great review, wrap-up of the unit, or a fun energizer in between other activities. For more information on using Kahoot!, visit getkahoot.com 1. Open the Kahoot! Quiz: Grade 7 Reproduction As a class, answer the quiz questions and discuss the answers together. You can play the quiz in individual or team mode. F. Question Box Answer any questions from the question box in the previous lesson. Have students submit any new questions and address them next class.
9 Grade 7 Reproduction 9 Addressing the questions at the next class allows you time to review the questions and prepare responses. Self-Reflection During the lesson, were: ground rules being followed? good practices established regarding group work and discussion? What will you change for future classes with this group? What will you change for future use of this lesson? Student Assessment During the lesson, did students: Knowledge: Skills: Attitudes: identify the basic parts of the human reproductive systems? describe the process of sperm production? describe the process of menstruation? describe how pregnancy can occur? identify misunderstandings associated with sexual development? participate in class discussion and exhibit appropriate listening and speaking skills? accept that menstruation and sperm production are positive, healthy aspects of puberty?
10 Name: Grade 7 Reproduction Male Reproductive System On the diagrams of the male reproductive system, label the internal and external organs according to the instructions below. Vocabulary words that need to be written on the diagram are in italics. Start at Figure 1, the external anatomy. The scrotum is a sac of loose skin that holds the testicles. The scrotum contains muscles that can move the testicles closer to or farther away from the body in response to changing temperatures. Label the penis and the scrotum. Now move to Figure 2, the internal anatomy. At the bottom of the diagram is the scrotum. The scrotum contains two testicles and each one has an epididymis, which sits on top of each testicle. Each testicle contains tiny tubes that are continuously creating sperm, and the sperm move to the epididymis to mature. Label the epididymis, testicle and scrotum on your diagram. The vas deferens are tubes that allow the sperm to move up to the seminal vesicle. Follow the vas deferens tube from the testicle up to the top of the diagram. The large organ near the top of the diagram is the bladder. The bladder stores urine until it can be expelled from the body. It is not considered part of the reproductive system. Label the bladder. On the right side are the rectum and anus, parts of the digestive system. The rectum is where stool is held, and the anus is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where feces comes out of the body. Label the rectum and anus. As the vas deferens curves around the top of the bladder and back down again, it passes the seminal vesicles. This gland is located to the right of the bladder on the diagram. The seminal vesicles produce fluids that feeds and protects sperm. Label the seminal vesicle. The prostate gland is located just below the bladder. It supplies most of the liquid that combines with the sperm to make semen. When a person is sexually aroused to the point of ejaculation, the fluid from the prostate gland combines with the sperm. Strong muscle contractions in and around the prostate gland contract rapidly to force the semen out of the urethra. Label the prostate gland. The tube down the length of the penis is called the urethra. The urethra is the tube that allows urine out of the bladder, and allows semen to travel out of the body during ejaculation. Urine and semen cannot be in the urethra at the same time. During an erection, a small valve at the entrance from the bladder seals the bladder so that urine cannot get into the urethra. Label the urethra. The urethra is in the penis. The penis has spongy tissues containing small blood vessels and nerves. During sexual arousal, the spongy tissue fills with blood, and the penis hardens. This is called an erection. It allows the penis to be inserted into the vagina, which enables sperm to reach the egg in the fallopian tube. Label the penis.
12 Name: Grade 7 Reproduction Female Reproductive System On the diagrams of the female reproductive system, label the internal and external organs according to the instructions below. Vocabulary words that need to be written on the diagram are in italics. Start with Figure 1, the external anatomy. The external part of the female reproductive system is called the vulva. The vulva consists of the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal opening. The outer fold of flesh is called the labia majora. This outer fold is usually larger than the inner fold. The inner fold, called the labia minora, is made up of mucous membranes. Both of these folds help protect the vagina and urethra. The urethra is a small tube that carries urine outside the body from the bladder, and is not part of the reproductive system. The opening for the urethra is just below the clitoris and above the vagina. The vaginal opening leads to the vagina. The clitoris is a sensitive bump located where the folds meet at the top front part of the vulva. At the bottom of the diagram is the anus, where feces leaves the body. Label the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, urethra and anus. Now move to Figure 2, the internal anatomy. Two egg-shaped organs on either side of the uterus are the ovaries. An ovary is about the size of an almond. When a female is born, the ovaries already contain all the eggs they will ever produce. There are up to 400,000 eggs in the ovaries when a person hits puberty, but only about 500 will ever be released. The ovary releases one egg every month or so. This process is called ovulation. Label each ovary. Follow the tubes from the ovary toward the middle of the diagram. These are the fallopian tubes. The fallopian tube receives the egg released from the ovary. If there is sperm in the fallopian tube, one sperm may fertilize the egg. The fertilized egg then travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. This journey usually takes about three days. If a sperm does not fertilize the egg, the egg will dissolve in the fallopian tube. Label the right fallopian tube. The uterus is a pear shaped organ about the size of a fist that stretches to house the baby, placenta and amniotic fluid during pregnancy. It is very strong, muscular and stretchable. Label the uterus. The cervix is the bottom of the uterus. The cervix has a very small opening to allow sperm to travel from the vagina into the uterus. When a baby is ready to be born, the cervix opens wide to let the baby through. Label the cervix. At the very bottom of the diagram is the vagina. The vagina is a soft, muscular elastic tube. During sexual arousal, the walls of the vagina make a fluid that makes sex more comfortable. The vagina is the birth canal for a baby, and allows menstrual flow to exit the body from the uterus. Label the vagina.
17 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Lining of uterus thickens with blood
18 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Ovulation occurs (egg released from ovary)
19 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Egg enters fallopian tube
20 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Male
21 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Sperm is made in testicles
22 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Sperm exit testicles and travel up vas deferens
23 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Sperm cells mix with semen
24 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Pregnancy
25 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Erect penis inserted into vagina (sexual intercourse)
26 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Sperm cells leave penis (ejaculation) and enter vagina
27 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Sperm travel through cervix, uterus and into fallopian tubes
28 Grade 7 Reproduction Process One sperm cell attaches to an egg and forms one cell (fertilization)
29 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Cell starts to divide
30 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Cells travel through fallopian tube to uterus
31 Grade 7 Reproduction Process Cells attach to wall of uterus (implantation)
32 Kahoot! Quiz Answer Key ANSWER KEY: Grade 7 Reproduction Quiz Correct answers are in bold text. 1. This is a diagram of: the female circulatory system the female reproductive system the male reproductive system the male and female reproductive systems 2. The male reproductive system includes: the penis, scrotum and ovaries the scrotum, stomach and seminal vesicles the vas deferens, vagina, and vagus nerves the testis, scrotum and urethra 3. A body part shown in the diagram but not considered part of the reproductive system is: the scrotum the bladder the stomach the prostate gland 4. The structure where the baby grows is called the: uterus ovary vagina tummy 5. The external parts of the female reproductive system include: the anus, vaginal opening, clitoris and cervix the urethra, vagina, ovary and fallopian tubes the penis, testicles and scrotum the clitoris, labia minora, labia majora and vaginal opening 6. The structure that produces and stores eggs is the: ovary fallopian tube uterus bladder
33 Kahoot! Quiz Answer Key 7. Sperm travels from the: prostate gland through vas deferens and out the rectum urethra past the penis and out the bladder testis through the vas deferens and out the urethra seminal vesicle through the vas deferens and out the urethra 8. The sperm usually meets the egg in the: dance hall fallopian tube vagina uterus 9. After the sperm meets the egg: the uterus sheds its lining the successful sperm dies the ovary releases 7 more eggs the fertilized egg implants in the wall of the uterus 10. If an egg is released but not fertilized by a sperm: the lining of the uterus is shed, which is called a period the egg waits in the uterus until the next month the sperm waits in the uterus until the next month the egg implants in the wall of the uterus
34 Name: Grade 7 Reproduction Female Reproductive System Use your knowledge of the female reproductive system to label and describe the diagram below.
35 Name: Grade 7 Reproduction Male Reproductive System Use your knowledge of the male reproductive system to label and describe the diagram below.
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Reproductive System Where it all begins When it comes the reproductive anatomy of my gender, I would rate my knowledge (1 very poor, 10 excellent) When it comes the reproductive anatomy of the opposite
Male reproductive system I. Sexual reproduction -- overview - production of two types of gametes -- fused at fertilization to form zygote - promotes genetic variety among members of a species -- each offspring
Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 5 Reproductive System Practice Fill in the blanks using the words listed: accessory glands, vas deferens, penis, scrotum, fallopian tube, testes, urethra, vagina,
UNDERSTANDING VASECTOMY Permanent Birth Control for Men Is Vasectomy for You? Vasectomy is a simple, safe procedure that makes a man sterile (unable to father a child). It s the most effective birth control
Human Reproduction: Structures, Functions, and Hormones Human reproduction differs from the mechanisms in lower vertebrates and many invertebrates. We depend on internal fertilization sperm are deposited
g i r l s how your body changes NHS South of Tyne and Wear b o ys Growing Up girls Gateshead Primary Care Trust South Tyneside Primary Care Trust Sunderland Teaching Primary Care Trust 2 boys and girls
Male Reproductive Structures I. Overview A. Main functions: 1. Produce a haploid male gamete (sperm) 2. Deposit sperm in the female so fertilization may occur! A. Scrotum 1. Muscular pouch that holds the
Date: Mark: _/45 Chapter 14 Reproduction Review Assignment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Use the diagram above to answer the next question.
1. Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom Asexual reproduction involves the formation of individuals whose genes all come from one parent. There is no fusion of sperm and egg.
Warm up (3 minutes) 1. Pick up a warm up 2. Pick up the student work from the front table 3. Pick up your binder in the filing cabinet 4. Complete the warm up 5. Secure all handouts in your binder 1. How
Review and Resources Grades 4-6, Lesson #18 Time Needed 50-60 minutes Student Learning Objectives To be able to... 1. Recognize the definitions of at least 90% of the vocabulary introduced in the unit.
THE ANSWER BOX: GRADES 7 AND 8 You may find you are getting a lot of questions from your students about a variety of topics. They are asking these questions because their bodies and minds are changing,
REPRODUCTION 30 JUNE 2014 Checklist Make sure you Can describe different reproductive strategies of vertebrates Are able to identify the structure and function of the male and female reproductive organs
Teaching Human Sexuality Answers to Sample Questions Elementary Grade 4, 5, 6 The inquiry process is an important strategy to use for effective human sexuality classes. Here are some tips when answering
71 ch a p t er 4 Understanding your body These 4 women s bodies may look different from each other, but they all go through the same changes. It is important to understand how your body works. The more
Chapter 6 Study Guide STUDY TIPS Read the chapter objectives. Look up any unfamiliar words. Read the questions below before you read the chapter. As you read the chapter, answer the following questions.
Class X Chapter 8 How do Organisms Reproduce Science Question 1: What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which
Urinary System Chapter 16 1 Urology- the branch of medicine that treats male and female urinary systems as well as the male reproductive system. Nephrology- the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology,
Unit 15 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit
Puberty is the time when a young person s body begins maturing and changing to become like an adult. At puberty, many changes begin. Puberty begins two years earlier for girls than for boys. For most girls,
Unit 7A STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Learn the structures of the male reproductive system. 2. Learn the functions of the male reproductive system. 3. Learn