Consciousness. Chapter 4

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1 Consciousness Chapter 4

2 What is Consciousness? Does it exist? Can it be studied through scientific method? Psychologists did not study Consciousness for a long time The time seems to have come when psychology must discard all references to consciousness Studied more in the past few decades Cannot capture the richness of human experience without studying consciousness

3 4.1 What is Consciousness?

4 Consciousness as a Construct Consciousness is a psychological construct Can t be seen, touched, or measured directly Known for their effects on behavior

5 What is Consciousness? Consciousness = sensory awareness of the environment Vision allows us to see (or be conscious of ) snow Hearing concert

6 What is Consciousness? Selective attention Focusing on a particular stimulus Adaptation to environment What needs attended to and what can be safely ignored Selective attention makes sense keener

7 What is Consciousness? Cocktail party effect Pick out the speech of a single person across a crowded room at a party Selective attention also plays a role in the advertising and marketing ploys we notice TV commercials what stimuli make them front and center in your awareness

8 Meanings of Consciousness Consciousness as Sensory Awareness Aware of things outside yourself Selective attention focusing on a particular stimulus (makes our senses keener) Tend to be very conscious of sudden changes & unusual or intense stimuli

9 What is Consciousness? Sudden Change cool breeze Novel Stimuli dog runs into our classroom Intense stimuli bright colors Repetitive Stimuli same TV commercial a dozen times over

10 What is Consciousness? Close your eyes Imagine spilling a can of bright-red paint across a black tabletop Watch it spread across the floor Is this image vivid? Open your eyes. Neither your eyes nor your other senses experienced this You were conscious of the image through direct awareness

11 Meanings of Consciousness Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness Being aware of things inside yourself, can t use any of your senses, but still know it exists (images, emotions, memories)

12 Meanings of Consciousness Consciousness as Sense of Self Aware of ourselves and our existence Ability to understand that we are unique individuals, separate from others and surroundings

13 Levels of Consciousness 1. Conscious Level 2. Preconscious Level 3. Unconscious Level 4. Nonconscious Level

14 Preconscious Level Ideas aren t in your awareness right now, but are retrievable Readily available What did you eat for breakfast? You weren t thinking of breakfast, but you could recall quickly

15 AKA Subconscious Unconscious Level Unavailable to awareness under most circumstances Use defense mechanisms to push painful or unacceptable ideas out of our consciousness Protect ourselves from guilt, anxiety, and shame Repression allow us to avoid these feelings Suppression choose to stop thinking about unacceptable ideas or distractions

16 Nonconscious Level Many of our basic biological functions exist on this level Hair growing / pupils adjusting / breathing (exchange of CO2 and O2) If we were aware of everything...we d go nuts!

17 Consciousness as Personal Unity Differentiate ourselves from that which is not us Consciousness is self Forms intentions and guides behavior Sense of self

18 Consciousness as the Waking State Conscious is the waking state Opposite is sleep Altered states of consciousness: sleep, meditation, hypnotic trance, distorted perceptions that can accompany use of conscious-altering drugs Rest of this unit will be altered states of consciousness

19 Section 2: Sleep & Dreams

20 Sleep Facts 1/3 of our adult lives are spent in sleep Experts recommend 8 hours of sleep a night A typical US adult gets a little less than 7 hours a night 1/3 of adult Americans get 6 hours or less of sleep a night during the work week 1/3 admit that lack of sleep impairs their ability to function during the day

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23 Circadian Rhythms Biological clocks that control animals / plants / humans Control changes in body temperature, blood pressure, sleepiness & wakefulness, appetite, etc. Sleep-Wake Cycle is most studied circadian rhythm 24 hours (because of Earth s rotation) But really somewhere between when cues are taken away

24 Stages 1-4 of Sleep = NREM Sleep Stage 5 = REM Sleep

25 BrainWave and Sleep Frequencies: # of waves per second Amplitude: height of wave; an index of strength Alpha waves: 8-13 cycles per second Low amplitude; high frequency Theta waves: 6-8 cycles per second Low frequency; low amplitude Delta waves: 1-3 cycles per second Low frequency; high amplitude

26 Stage 1 & 2 Stage 1: brainwaves slow alpha waves Twilight Stage Lightest sleep Brain waves slow to theta waves Brief dreamlike images If woken up, we can usually recall these images & feels like we didn t sleep at all Lose perception of time Stay here for minutes

27 Stage 2 Sleep Spindles Sleep spindle: brief bursts of rapid brain activity: cycles per second Happens in stage 2

28 Stage 3 & 4 Begin delta waves (slowest brain waves) 1-3 cycles per second Stage cycles per second Deepest Sleep Difficult to wake up Lasts for nearly 1 hour Bed-wetting, sleepwalking, talking, eating in sleep usually occur during Stage 4 5 trips through stages of sleep a night

29 REM Sleep Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep First dream may last 10 minutes, lengthen as night progresses, last dream may last 45 min Nearly impossible to wake up Irregular breathing, blood pressure rises, heart beats faster, brain waves similar to Stage 1 waves

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32 Why We Sleep Revive tired body Build up resistance to infection Help us recover from stress Sleep deprivation leads to hallucinations, speech difficulty, memory lapse (really dangerous) Consolidate learning and memories Helps infants brains develop

33 Not Getting Enough Sleep Impairment on concentration and performance Attention, learning, and memory deteriorate Like being intoxicated All nighters are sometimes like this Will show deficiencies after time Dangerous driving 1500 deaths per year

34 How Much Sleep Do You Need Partially genetically determined Sleep helps us recover from stress During episodes of depression, more sleep is needed Newborns 16 hours Teens 12 hours Older people need less sleep myth Often interrupted by the need to go to the bathroom or other physical discomfort

35 Sleep Deprivation REM-Rebound Sleep or jump right into Stage 4 Sleep If deprived of REM Learn slower Forget what you learned easier Slower brain development in infants Not giving the brain exercise in adults

36 Sleep, Learning and Memory REM deprived interferes with memory REM rebounds spend more time in REM sleep during subsequent sleep periods Fetuses have periods of waking and sleeping REM sleep may foster development of the brain before birth

37 Dreams Imagery in the absence of external stimulation but can seem real Most likely to experience vivid imagery in dreams during REM sleep Can have up to 5 dreams per night 5 sleep cycles Nightmares generally during REM sleep

38 Residue of the Day Most dreams involved memories of the activities and problems of the day People and experiences from our daily life Include things we are preoccupied with Death, illness, moral dilemmas Traumatic events can spawn nightmares Frequent nightmare sufferers are more likely to have feelings of anxiety and depression

39 Expression of Unconscious Desires Freud theorized that dream content includes unconscious wishes and urges that we may censor during the day Content of dreams is symbolic of unconscious fantasized objects Freud would spend time interpreting his clients dreams

40 Freud Dreams reflect a person s unconscious wishes and urges Painful or unacceptable wishes would be most likely to appear in dreams Dream in symbols to deal with painful material that we couldn t deal with consciously

41 Freudian Dream Symbols Manifest Teachers police, bosses, etc. Latent - Parents

42 Manifest monsters, wild creatures Latent The id (our animal) nature, anger, aggression and anti-social desires

43 Manifest guns, knives, ties, keys, fish, snakes, etc. Latent Penis, phallic symbol, male sex organ

44 Manifest boxes, caves, doorways, hallways, locks, windows, closets, tunnels, etc. Latent vagina, female sex organ

45 Manifest going up and down steps, ladders, elevators, roller coasters, etc. Manifest diving, swimming, dancing, riding a horse, etc. Latent having sex

46 Manifest money or mud Latent excrement Latent (for money) potty training issues

47 Activation-Synthesis Model of Dreams Scientific approach Acetycholine (neurotransmitter) and pons (part of brain regulating sleep) stimulate response that lead to dreaming Activation of reticular activating system (RAS) arouses us but does not wake us RAS also stimulates parts of the cortex involved in memory and the cortex then synthesizes these memories together Frontal lobes of brain are not active, so dreams tend to be emotional rather than plot-filled Dreams helps us consolidate memories

48 Lucid Dreaming Being aware that you are dreaming May be able to control the dream

49 The Biopsychological Approach Neurons fire in movement and vision areas of the brain while we sleep Brain tries to make sense random neuron bursts May be why we usually dream about events that took place earlier in the day

50 Secrets to Better Sleep

51 Sleep Disorders Nightmares are NOT sleep disorders Sleep disorder other problems that can seriously interfere with our functioning

52 Insomnia Inability to fall asleep Racing mind at bedtime Increases during times of anxiety Sleeping pills could help, but not best method As many as ½ American Adults have this

53 Try the following techniques if you suffer from insomnia: 1. Tense muscles one at a time, then let tension go. This helps to relax the body. 2. Avoid worrying in bed. If worrying persists, get up for a while. 3. Establish a regular routine, particularly for getting up and going to sleep each day. 4. Use pleasant images or daydreams to relax. These may occur naturally, or people may have to focus on creating them.

54 Narcolepsy Rare disorder Fall asleep regardless of time / location 1o&safe=active TwI&safe=active Fall immediately into REM sleep Dangerous!

55 Sleep Apnea Apnea interruption in breathing Don t start breathing again until sit up gasping for air Don t feel like they get a full night s rest Air passages are blocked = snoring

56 Sleep Apnea 10 million Americans have sleep apnea due to obesity and chronic loud snoring Related to high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes Causes may include anatomical deformities that clog air passages and problems in the breathing center of the brain

57 Night Terrors Severe nightmares during Stages 3 & 4 Sleep Heart races, sweat, cry, gasp for air, thrash around Most common among kids Causes: Medication, sleepdeprivation, fever, stress

58 Sleepwalking Common in childhood During deep sleep stages May respond to questions, but won t remember in the morning

59 Deep Sleep Disorders Bed wetting: stems from immaturity of the nervous system Behavior therapy methods help Children often outgrow Half of children talk in their sleep now and then

60 Section 3: Meditation, Biofeedback & Hypnosis

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62 Altered States of Consciousness A person s sense of self or sense of the world changing Sleep, meditation, biofeedback, hypnosis, drugs Involves focusing on stimuli that are not common parts of our daily life

63 Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness where people are highly suggestible and appear to be in a trance Derived from the Greek word for sleep Franz Mesmer (mesmerize) in the 18 th century

64 Franz Mesmer Asserted that everything in the universe was connected by forms of magnetism Claimed people could be drawn by animal Magnetism Not true Used bizarre props to put people under spells Managed to cure people Scientists argue this was the placebo effect

65 Hypnosis Today hypnosis is popular Anesthetic in dentistry, childbirth and surgery Reduce anxiety, overcome fears, lessen perception of chronic pain 241 surgery patients patients who were hypnotized needed less additional pain medicine and experienced less anxiety

66 Hypnosis Enhances the function of immune system Weight loss Stop smoking Prompt memories of witnesses in crime cases

67 Hypnotic Trance Induced by asking people to focus on a small light or spot on the wall or hypnotist voice Suggest your limbs are becoming warm, heavy and relaxed You are becoming very sleepy Hypnosis is not sleep hypnotic trance Research on brains during hypnosis PET scans

68 Hypnotic Suggestibility People who are easily hypnotized Knowledge of what is expected in trance state Prone to fantasy and want to cooperate Pay close attention to instructions Unlikely to be hypnotized against your will

69 Explaining Hypnosis Freud hypnotized adults permit themselves to return to childish modes of responding that emphasize fantasy and impulse rather than fact and logic

70 Explaining Hypnosis Role Theory by Theodore Sabin People allow themselves to enact this role under the hypnotist s direction. Behaviors seen while hypnotized can be easily replicated when people are asked to behave as though they were hypnotized People allow themselves to enact the role

71 Explaining Hypnosis Response set theory: response expectancies play a role in the production of personal experiences A response set is created in which the subject is more likely to follow further suggestions

72 Hypnosis when people respond to suggestions and behave as if they re in a trance Many scientists skeptical (Brain waves don t change while under) Used as an anesthetic, to reduce anxiety, manage pain, overcome fears

73 Meditation Used to narrow consciousness so that the stresses of the outside world fade away Focus on peaceful, repetitive stimulus

74 Meditation Refers to the various ways of focusing one s consciousness to alter one s relationship to the world often within spiritual context Refers to various ways of focusing one s consciousness to alter one s relationship to the world Can also refer to the way people suspend thinking and allow the world to fade away

75 Meditation Rituals, exercises and passive observation Activities that alter the normal relationship between the person and the enviornment Suspend problem solving, planning and worries Alter consciousness Help people cope with stress, anxiety and help people to relax

76 Meditation -TM Transcendental Meditation Maharishi Mahesh Yogi 1959 Mantras words or sounds that claimed to help people achieve an altered state of consciousness Repeat same word or sound

77 Meditation -TM Cannot be assessed scientifically Expanding consciousness to encompass spiritual experiences Reduce anxiety Lower blood pressure

78 Meditation -MM Mindfulness Meditation No pretense of achieving spiritual goals but instead provides clients with techniques they can use to focus on the present moment rather than ruminate about problems Helps cope with depression and stress Brain imaging shows this activates neural structures involved in attention and in control of autonomic nervous system, helping people relax

79 Explaining Hypnosis Freud people return to childish ways of behaving Role Theory part of a play, not faking it because they want to do it

80 Posthypnotic Suggestion Therapist gives instructions during hypnosis that can be carried out after session has ended To quit smoking or overeating

81 Biofeedback Provides information about bodily functions including heart rate Used to combat stress, tension and anxiety Electromyograph (EMG) often used to monitor muscle tension Each of these helps people relax, control anxiety and tension

82 Section 4: Drugs & Consciousness

83 Altering Consciousness Through Drugs Psychoactive drugs: drugs that can distort perceptions and change moods

84 Substance Abuse and Dependence Abuse: repeated use of a substance despite the fact that it is causing or compounding social, occupational, psychological and physical problems Dependence: more severe than abuse; often characterized by loss of control with use, tolerance and/or abstinence syndrome

85 Substance Abuse and Dependence Tolerance: body s habituation to a substance so that higher doses are required Abstinence Syndrome characteristic group of withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug suddenly drops off Anxiety, tremors, shakiness, rapid pulse, sweating

86 Causal Factors in Abuse and Dependence Why experiment with drugs: curiosity; conform to peer pressure; parental use; rebellion; escape from boredom or pressure; seeing excitement Psychological views: Self medicate Social cognitive theory: people may use drugs as suggestions from others Learning theory reinforcement Biological views- genetics

87 Depressants Drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system downers

88 Alcohol Intoxication slurs speech, blurs vision, difficulty concentrating, lose judgment ½ of fatal car wrecks involved alcohol Can lead to addiction Causes liver problems, heart problems, cancer, and beer guts

89 Alcohol Provides relief from anxiety, depression or loneliness million Americans are alcoholics Most abused drug Binge drinking 4 College students are killed each day 44% of college students binge at least twice a month More men than women become alcoholics

90 Narcotics Most derived from opium poppy plant Morphine, heroin, and codeine Morphine known as the soldier s disease Heroin the hero drug to cure morphine addiction Taken intravenously Now use methadone human-made opioid slower acting Awful withdrawal symptoms

91 Narcotics Opioids are similar in structure but synthetically derived Heroin: cause strong euphoric rushes drowsiness and stupor, alter perceptions of time and impair judgment Withdrawal: flu-like symptoms, tremors, cramps, chills, alternating with sweating, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, insomnia, vomiting diarrhea

92 Stimulants Increase activity of the nervous system Uppers Nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine

93 Nicotine Spurs release of adrenaline, reduces appetite Extremely addictive Up to 20x more likely to die from lung cancer Secondhand smoke connected to cancer, breathing problems, etc.

94 Nicotine Stimulant discharge of adrenaline (hormone) and neurotransmitter (dopamine, acetycholine, GABA and endorphins) Enhance memory and attention Improve performance on simple tasks Enhance mood Relax and reduce stress

95 Addictive Nicotine Withdrawal symptoms: nervousness, drowsiness, loss of energy, headaches, irregular bowel movements, lightheadedness, insomnia, dizziness, cramps, palpitations, tremors, sweating 430,000 Americans die from smoking related illnesses each year Hydrocarbons (tar) leads to lung cancer Women who smoke show reduced bone density Pregnant women = low birth weight babies, higher miscarriages, preterm births, stillborn babies

96 Nicotine Second hand smoke inhaled from other people s tobacco products Lung cancer, repertory illnesses, asthma, and other heath issues

97 Nicotine

98 Nicotine

99 Nicotine

100 Amphetamines Help people stay awake / reduce appetite First used by WWII soldiers Highs and crashes Hallucinations perception of an object or a sound that seems real but is not Delusions false idea that seems real Abused because of euphoric rush Ritalin High doeses = restlessness, insomnia, loss of appetite

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104 Cocaine Used by Freud to overcome depression Dangerous, addictive Deadens pain Reduces oxygen levels to heart Raises blood pressure Causes hallucination and delusions

105 Cocaine -Made from coca leaves -Coca-cola put in products until % of teens use regularly

106 Hallucinogens Cause relaxation and/or feelings of panic Marijuana & LSD

107 Marijuana Impairs perception & coordination, memory & learning, anxiety & confusion Increases heartbeat & blood pressure Hallucinations 100 years ago used like aspirin Use increasing in USA

108 LSD (Acid) Intense hallucinations Flashbacks can last for years Memory loss, violent outbursts, nightmares, feelings of panic

109 Treatments for Drug Abuse Detoxification usually used for alcohol and narcotics Maintenance Programs Give smaller dosage Give controlled amounts of a less-addictive drug Provide moral support Counseling treating stimulant and depressant abuse Support Groups members share common experiences and problems

110 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs Students in 2 nd Period

111 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs Students in 3 rd Period

112 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs Students in 6th Period

113 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine (Dr. Pepper) Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs Students in 7 th Period

114 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs Students in all Psych Classes

115 Drug Have tried once Have tried multiple times Use once or twice a week Use regularly Probably addicted Totals # / % Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy Heroin LSD Marijuana Nicotine Prescription Drugs total students took survey in 2012

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