1 Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Dreaming Elaine M. Hull
2 Rhythms of Waking and Sleeping Animals generate 24 hour cycles of wakefulness and sleep. Some animals generate endogenous circannual rhythms (yearly cycles). Birds migration Animals storing food for the winter.
3 Activity record of a flying squirrel kept in constant darkness Thick lines: times of activity in a running wheel Cycle is a bit less than 24 hr.
4 14 The Hypothalamus Houses an Endogenous Circadian Clock The biological clock: in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) above the optic chiasm in the hypothalamus. Lesions of SCN disrupt circadian rhythms. SCNs removed from rats brains maintain the same cycles of electrical activity as in the intact animal.
5 Figure 14.3 The Circadian Rhythm of Metabolic Activity of the SCN Coronal sections of rat brains There is greater metabolic activity in the SCN during the light phase (a) than the dark phase (b).
6 The Retinohypothalamic Pathway in Mammals (Part 1) The SCN generates its own rhythms. However, special axons from the retina project to the SCN to reset the biological clock.
7 Mechanisms of the biological clock The SCN regulates waking and sleeping by controlling activity in other brain areas, especially the pineal gland. The pineal gland: above the brain stem. It secretes melatonin, which increases sleepiness.
9 Melatonin Melatonin secretion begins 2 to 3 hours before bedtime. If taken in the late afternoon, it can promote sleep. If you travel across time zones, it may help you adapt to the new day/night cycles.
10 Setting & resetting the biological clock The purpose of the circadian rhythm: to keep our internal workings in phase with the outside world. A zeitgeber (German for time giver ) is any stimulus that resets the circadian rhythms. Light is the best zeitgeber, but exercise, noise, meals, and temperature are others.
11 14 Human Sleep Exhibits Different Stages Two classes of sleep: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) divided into four stages, characterized by slow-wave EEG activity Rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) small amplitude, fast-eeg waves, no postural tension, and rapid eye movements
12 EEG recordings
13 Alpha waves are present when one begins a state of relaxation. (Blue trace is EEG, red trace is eye movements, bottom black line marks seconds.)
14 Stage 1 sleep is when sleep has just begun. The EEG is dominated by irregular, jagged, low voltage waves. Brain activity begins to decline.
16 Stage 3 and stage 4 make up slow wave sleep (SWS): EEG: slow, large amplitude waves. Slowing of heart rate, breathing rate, and EEG. Highly synchronized neuronal activity.
17 Rapid eye movement sleep (REM): periods of sleep with rapid eye movements. Called paradoxical sleep because it is deep sleep in some ways, but light sleep in other ways. EEG waves are irregular, low-voltage and fast, like in alert wakefulness. But postural muscles are more relaxed than in other stages and a person is harder to awaken.
18 Stages of a night s sleep
19 Analogy: Fast beta waves are like a sonogram of a room full of people carrying on multiple conversations. Slow delta waves are like a sonogram of all of those people singing together.
20 A typical night of young adult sleep: Sleep time: 7 8 hours 45 50% is stage 2 sleep, 20% is REM sleep Cycles: minutes. Early cycles: stage 3 and 4 SWS; later cycles: more REM
21 A Typical Night of Sleep in a Young Adult
22 Early dreams are relatively short and are usually about events of the day. Later dreams are longer and less tied to reality.
23 REM sleep evolved in vertebrates: Nearly all land mammals show both REM and SWS. Birds also display both REM and SWS sleep
24 Amounts of Different Sleep States in Various Mammals
25 14 Our Sleep Patterns Change across the Life Span Mammals sleep more during infancy than in adulthood. Infant sleep is characterized by: Shorter sleep cycles More REM sleep 50%, which may provide essential stimulation to the developing nervous system
26 Figure The Trouble with Babies Dark periods: sleep Babies don t show stable sleep patterns until ~ 16 wks of age.
27 Human Sleep Patterns Change with Age
28 Our Sleep Patterns Change across the Life Span As people age, total time asleep declines, and number of awakenings increases. The most dramatic decline is the loss of time in stages 3 and 4. At age 60 only half as much time in stages 3 & 4 as at age 20 by age 90 stages 3 and 4 have disappeared. That is when growth hormone is released, so wound healing decreases in older people.
29 The Typical Pattern of Sleep in an Elderly Person
30 Effects of sleep deprivation (the partial or total prevention of sleep): Increased irritability Difficulty in concentrating Periods of disorientation Impairs the immune system
31 Biological Functions of Sleep Four functions of sleep: 1. Conserve energy 2. Avoid predators 3. Body restoration 4. Memory consolidation
32 Biological Functions of Sleep Energy is conserved during sleep: muscular tension, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and rate of respiration are reduced Small animals sleep more than large ones, in correlation with their higher metabolic rate.
33 Fig. 9-17, p. 287
34 Biological Functions of Sleep Sleep helps animals avoid predators they sleep during the part of the day when they are most vulnerable. Sleep restores the body by replenishing metabolic requirements, such as proteins. Growth hormone is released only during SWS.
35 Biological Functions of Sleep Sleep also enhances learning and memory. Performance on a newly learned task is often better the next day after a good night s sleep. There is increased brain activity during sleep, especially REM, in brain areas that were activated during learning. Activity also correlates with improvement in the task on the following day.
36 Biological Functions of Sleep Explanations for effects of sleep on memory consolidation: Reduce interfering stimuli REM may actively consolidate the learned material.
37 Why Dreams? The activation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams begin with spontaneous activity in the pons, which activates many parts of the cortex. The cortex synthesizes a story from the pattern of activation. Normal sensory information cannot compete with the self-generated stimulation and hallucinations result.
38 Why Dreams? The pons activates the amygdala, giving the dream an emotional content. Because much of prefrontal cortex is inactive during PGO waves, memory of dreams is weak. Also explains sudden scene changes that occur in dreams.
39 Why Dreams? Since the brain is getting little information from the sense organs, images are generated without constraints or interference. Arousal cannot lead to action, because primary motor cortex and motor neurons in the spinal cord are suppressed. Activity in prefrontal cortex is suppressed, which impairs working memory during dreaming
40 Why Dreams? Activity is high in the inferior parietal cortex, important for visual-spatial perception. Patients with damage there report problems with binding body sensations with vision and have no dreams. Activity is also high in areas outside of V1, explaining the visual imagery of dreams
41 Why Dreams? Activity is high in the hypothalamus and amygdala, which accounts for the emotional and motivational content of dreams. Either internal or external stimulation activates parts of the parietal, occipital, and temporal cortex. Lack of sensory input from V1 and no criticism from the prefrontal cortex creates hallucinatory perceptions.
42 At least 4 neural systems control sleep and waking: 1. A forebrain system SWS 2. A reticular activating system activates the forebrain 3. A system in the pons REM sleep 4. A hypothalamic system affects the other three
43 SWS Activation Area adjacent to LC: REM
44 Slow Wave Sleep: generated by the basal forebrain, which sends axons that release GABA to inhibit brain activity. Arousal: The reticular formation in the brain stem, and a couple of other areas, activate the cortex. Transmitters: acetylcholine, glutamate, norepinephrine
45 An area of the pons REM sleep. It also inhibits spinal motor neurons, thereby disabling the motor system during REM sleep.
46 Sleep Stage Postures This kitten is in SWS. This kitten is in REM (muscles relaxed).
47 The study of narcolepsy revealed a hypothalamic sleep center. Narcolepsy sufferers: Have frequent sleep attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness. Do not go through SWS before REM. May show cataplexy a sudden loss of muscle tone, leading to collapse.
48 Narcolepsy in Dogs A narcoleptic dog becomes excited when offered a treat. He becomes wobbly, & finally falls down.
49 Narcoleptic dogs have a mutant gene for a hypocretin receptor. Hypocretin (also named orexin) normally prevents the transition from wakefulness directly into REM sleep. Interfering with hypocretin signaling leads to narcolepsy.
50 SWS Hypocretin neurons send axons areas that control SWS, REM, & waking.
51 The hypothalamic hypocretin center may act as a switch, controlling wakefulness, SWS sleep, & REM sleep.
52 Degeneration of hypocretin neurons in humans with narcolepsy
53 Sleep disorders Sleep paralysis: the brief inability to move just before falling asleep, or just after waking up. It may be caused by the pons continuing to signal for muscle relaxation, even when awake.
54 Sleeping pills are not perfect most increase GABA activity throughout the brain. Continued use of sleeping pills: Makes them ineffective Changes sleep patterns that persist even when not taking the drug Can lead to drowsiness and memory gaps
55 Sleep Disorders Sleep apnea: inability to breathe while sleeping. Consequences include sleepiness during the day, impaired attention, depression, and sometimes heart problems. Cognitive impairment can result from loss of neurons due to insufficient oxygen levels. Causes include, genetics, hormones, old age, obesity, and deterioration of the brain mechanisms that control breathing.
56 Stages of Sleep And Brain Mechanisms Night terrors are experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror. Usually occurs in NREM sleep: not a bad dream. Sleep talking occurs during both REM and NREM sleep. Sleepwalking runs in families, mostly occurs in young children, and occurs mostly in stage 3 or 4 sleep.
57 Summary Animals have internally generated rhythms of activity lasting ~ 24 hours. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus generates circadian rhythms for sleep & temperature. The SCN controls the body s rhythms partly by controlling melatonin release from the pineal gland. Melatonin increases sleepiness. The biological clock can operate in constant light or constant dark. However, light can reset the clock by a branch of the optic nerve that goes to the SCN.
58 Summary During a cycle of 90 minutes, a sleeper goes through stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and then returns through stages 3 and 2 to REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Stages 3 and 4 and are characterized by slow, high amplitude EEG waves and release of growth hormone. REM has faster brain activity than other sleep stages and complete relaxation of postural muscles, irregular breathing and heart rate, and an increased probability of vivid dreams.
59 Summary Wakefulness is induced by the reticular formation and other areas, which send axons widely throughout the brain. Sleep is induced by the basal forebrain, which sends axons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA throughout the brain. REM is elicited by an area in the pons.
60 Summary Hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus control transitions between SWS, REM, and waking. Loss of hypocretin neurons, or of hypocretin receptors, leads to narcolepsy, in which people or animals go directly from waking to REM sleep. Sleep is a mechanism that evolved to force us to save energy. It also helps to restore the brain and consolidate memories.
61 Implications for humanism What IS consciousness? Can a computer be conscious? Does it depend on certain chemical reactions? There was a report recently that a group appears to have created a living cell. (I don t know any details.) This previously seemed impossible. Perhaps, if we understood consciousness better, we could restore it in those who are in a coma. Would that be a good thing?
Lecture 8 Arousal & Sleep Cogs17 * UCSD Arousal in the Brain Stimulated by sensory input Initiated, maintained endogenously Basal Forebrain Delivers ACh throughout cortex Arousal in the Brain Lateral Hypothalamus
EEG Electrode Placement Classifying EEG brain waves Frequency: the number of oscillations/waves per second, measured in Hertz (Hz) reflects the firing rate of neurons alpha, beta, theta, delta Amplitude:
Carlson (7e) PowerPoint Lecture Outline Chapter 9: Sleep and Biological Rhythms This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public
Physiology Unit 2 CONSCIOUSNESS, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR In Physiology Today What the Brain Does The nervous system determines states of consciousness and produces complex behaviors Any given neuron may
Circadian rhythm and Sleep Radwan Banimustafa MD Homeostasis Maintenance of equilibrium by active regulation of internal states: Cardiovascular function (blood pressure, heart rate) Body temperature Food
Physiology Unit 2 CONSCIOUSNESS, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR What the Brain Does The nervous system determines states of consciousness and produces complex behaviors Any given neuron may have as many as 200,000
Chapter Eleven Sleep and Waking Sleep Are we getting enough. How z it work? Sleep Deprivation contributed to the Exxon Valdez, Challenger Explosion, and 3 Mile Island Deprivation is VERY common, and quite
NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SLEEP (p.1) (Rev. 3/21/07) 1. Revisitation of Bremer s 1936 Isolated Brain Studies Transected the brain: a. Cut between the medulla and the spinal cord ( encephale isole ) Note: recall
Modules 7 Consciousness and Attention sleep/hypnosis 1 Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environments. sleep/hypnosis 2 Dual Processing Our perceptual neural pathways have two routes. The
Physiology of Sleep Dr Nervana Objectives: 1. Explain the difference between sleep and coma. 2. Define NREM (non-rapid eye movement, SWS) and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. 3. Describe how NREM and REM
Sleep, Dreaming and Circadian Rhythms People typically sleep about 8 hours per day, and spend 16 hours awake. Most people sleep over 175,000 hours in their lifetime. The vast amount of time spent sleeping
6/29/2009 ness ness Links to Learning Objectives CONSCIOUSNESS, SLEEP & DREAMS HYPNOSIS LO 4.1 Meaning of consciousness LO 4.6 LO 4.2 Why people sleep LO 4.3 of sleep LO 4.4 disorders LO 4.5 Dreaming PSYCHOACTIVE
CONTROL OF MOVEMENT BY THE BRAIN A. PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX: - responsible for - like somatosensory cortex, primary motor cortex show (motor homunculus) - amount of cortex devoted to different parts of body
Sleep and Dreams UNIT 5- RG 5A Goals for today Can you Discuss the circadian rhythm, what it is and how it effects us. Identify and explain each of the 5 stages of sleep. As well as the typical waves of
CONTROL OF MOVEMENT BY THE BRAIN A. PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX: - responsible for - like somatosensory cortex, primary motor cortex show (motor homunculus) - amount of cortex devoted to different parts of body
states of brain activity sleep, brain waves DR. S. GOLABI PH.D. IN MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY introduction all of us are aware of the many different states of brain activity, including sleep, wakefulness, extreme
EEG and some applications (seizures and sleep) EEG: stands for electroencephalography and is a graphed representation of the electrical activity of the brain. EEG is the recording of electrical activity
Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness 8 th Edition Consciousness: Personal Awareness Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli Levels of awareness James stream of consciousness Freud unconscious Sleep/dreaming
Brain wave frequency and amplitude This brief animation illustrates the EEG patterns of the different stages of sleep, including NREM and REM sleep. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u WYwMnMMEoU&feature=related
Consciousness, Stages of Sleep, & Dreams I. Consciousness Conscious is: Waking Consciousness Defined: Altered State of Consciousness Defined: Most of waking life Fuzzy, organized, bizarre thoughts Examples:
SLEEP DISORDERS IN HUNTINGTON S DISEASE Gary L. Dunbar, Ph.D. Executive Director, Field Neurosciences Institute Co-Director, Program in Neuroscience Central Michigan University Pre-Talk Test 1. Which type
Sleep Disorders Sleep The Sleep Wakefulness Cycle: Circadian Rhythms Internally generated patterns of bodily functions that vary over a ~24-hour period Function even in the absence of normal cues 2 Circadian
STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment. - William James LEVELS OF CONSCIOUS AWARENESS Conscious (Controlled) Processes: Require full awareness, alertness
Module 22- Understanding Consciousness & Hypnosis - Fundamental, hard to define Psychological Concept - Difficulties in defining consciousness led those specializing in behaviorism to look at direct observations
MODULE 08: SLEEP, DREAMS, AND BODY RHYTHMS CONSCIOUSNESS CONSCIOUSNESS Awareness of yourself and your environment. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Biological rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that
States of Consciousness Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms Introduction Consciousness Awareness of oneself and one s environment Body Rhythms Biological Rhythms Periodic physiological fluctuations Can affect
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED Images of the human brain in popular culture almost always focus on the cerebrum, the part of the brain whose surface lies just
STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS Taiwanese Letter Example We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure effect Priming Blind sight WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS? William
Nervous Systems Chapter 49 Cephalization Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells Nervous system organization usually correlates with lifestyle Organization of the vertebrate
Thomas W. O Reilly, MS, PCC in cooperation with Lakeshore Educational and Counseling Services www.lakeshoresupport.com Humans have biological rhythms, known as Circadian Rhythms (CR) CR refers to cyclical
Symptoms of Narcolepsy v Sleep attacks Brief episodes of sleep that occur many times a day May occur without warning or be preceded by drowsiness Patient usually feels refreshed afterwards Refractory period
P08 Reversible loss of consciousness E365 Aviation Human Factors Need to sleep Sleep is a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness. You sleep to not
Consciousness Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne What s It For? The Value of Consciousness Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning Sleeping and Dreaming Altering Awareness: Psychoactive Drugs
SLEEP THEORIES Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm s way. Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. Sleep Helps Remembering:
Introduction to Physiological Psychology Psych 260 Kim Sweeney firstname.lastname@example.org cogsci.ucsd.edu/~ksweeney/psy260.html What could possibly go wrong? n Causes of Narcolepsy Uncertain, but appears
Sleep Sleep is described as a state of unconsciousness or partial consciousness from which a person can be roused by stimulation Period of rest and recovery People spend about a third of their lives sleeping
March 14 Agenda: 1. Graphic Organizer Part 1 for Unit 5 2. Sleep episode Table of Contents: 91. March 14 & 15 92. Unit 5 Graphic Organizer part 1 93. Dream Journal Assignment Homework: 1. Test on Friday!
Week 4 Psychology Before we explore the concept in detail, let us understand Theory of Mind as well as what Consciousness and Stream of Consciousness are. Theory of mind is an individual s understanding
Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Cognitive Domain Consciousness Chapter Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms Module 24: Sleep,
an altered state of consciousness Sleep serves as a restorative process of the body Scientists know the neurochemical melatonin plays a role in sleep and body restoration and repair. A definite cause effect
Chapter 3 CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Forms of Consciousness Modern psychologists believe that consciousness is an awareness of ourselves and our environment. Consciousness is not whether or not
States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness Taiwanese Letter Example We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure effect Priming Blind sight What is Consciousness? William
By: Ricardo Measurements and study of sleep: Sleep: absence of overt behavior, absence of consciousness Measures are indirect Methods to measure sleep characteristics: Electromyogram (EMG): muscle activity
The Nervous System Neuron Nucleus Cell body Dendrites they are part of the cell body of a neuron that collect chemical and electrical signals from other neurons at synapses and convert them into electrical
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Homeostasis tendency to relatively stable equilibrium. Feed-forward inhibition control mechanism whereby the output of one pathway inhibits the activity of another pathway. Negative
Chapter Five Sleep 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Endocrine System Made up of ductless glands that produce hormones Hormones control various body functions/processes Hormones are
Name: Date: 1. The best predictor of an adolescent's pattern of drug usage is whether the adolescent A) grows up in an intact two-parent family. B) has religious beliefs. C) is a first or second child.
Consciousness Mind-body Problem Fundamental issue addressed by psychologists Dualism Mind is immaterial Mind can exist separate from the body Monism Mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
Outline 3/5/2013 PSYC 120 General Psychology Spring 2013 Lecture 11: States of consciousness The Nature of Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Hypnosis Meditation Dr. Bart Moore email@example.com
Sleep - 10/5/17 Kelsey Thursday, October 5, 2017 10:59 AM How to Study and Measure Sleep Sleep: Absence of overt behavior, absence of consciousness. -> measures are indirect Methods to measure sleep characteristics:
How did you sleep last night? Were you in a deep sleep or light sleep? How many times did you wake up? What were you doing right before you went to bed? Finish presentations Homework for the weekend Interactive
Chapter Six Consciousness Encounters Approximately 20% of college students believe in extraterrestrials (aliens) Almost 1 in 10 claim to have experienced or met an alien Are people being visited and abducted
4 rd Congress of the European Academy of Neurology Lisbon, Portugal, June 16-19, 2018 Teaching Course 18 Basics of sleep medicine - Level 1 Normal sleep mechanisms & why do we sleep? Rolf Fronczek Leiden,
CONSCIOUSNESS Biological Clocks FREE RUNNING CYCLES Cycles set up by biological clocks that are under their own control ignore the environment Example: The kidney processes toxins all the time and gets
Sleep and Dreams What is sleep? A state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of brain activity and inactivity. A state we do not know we are in until we leave it. Characterized by
1 of 8 6/20/2012 10:25 AM Sleep and Dreams Sleep and the Brain pdf NIH Overview 3.2-3.3 Some Basic Background: Back to Course Schedule (The material below on the neuron is adapted from: http://vv.carleton.ca/~neil/neural/neuron-a.html)
Sleep-Wake Cycle I Brain Rhythms Reading: BCP Chapter 19 Brain Rhythms and Sleep Earth has a rhythmic environment. For example, day and night cycle back and forth, tides ebb and flow and temperature varies
States of Consciousness On the Nature of Consciousness Awareness of and Stimuli Variations on levels of stream of consciousness unconscious Sleep/dreaming research A family of practices that train to heighten
Chapter 7 States of Consciousness States of Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments Fantasy Prone Personality imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness
Sleep and Students John Villa, DO Medical Director Objectives: Importance and Benefits of Sleep States and Stages of the Sleep Cycle Sleep Needs, Patterns and Characteristics for All Ages Healthy Sleep
CONSCIOUSNESS AND IT ALTERED STAGES Muhammad Rehan BSN,RN Lecturer What is CONSCIOUSNESS! Include all memories that remain within an individual s awarness. Event and experiences that are easily remembered.
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP Time Do animals have a sense of time? High-frequency rhythms Less than 30 minutes Examples include heart and respiration rates Ultradian Rhythms More frequent than 24 hours
Biological Clocks Lu Chen, Ph.D. MCB, UC Berkeley 1 What is biological clock? All eukaryotes and some prokaryotes display changes in gene activity, biochemistry, physiology, and behavior that wax and wane
Biological Psychology Unit Two AG Mr. Cline Marshall High School Psychology Consciousness Consciousness is your awareness of how and why you react to your surroundings. During this lesson, you may realize
Acetylcholine (ACh) The neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles; also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming. (See
A2 Psychology Term 1 Module 4 Physiological Psychology Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Dreaming Area of Study: Biological Rhythms. Lesson 7 Getting you Thinking pg 403 Make sure you remember the Key Concepts
SLEEP DEF: altered state, between waking and unconsciousness, defined by specific patterns of brain activity. I. How much sleep do I need? 1. Long vs. Short Sleepers -across developmental stages -individual
Sleep is a state of altered consciousness (different levels of awareness), characterized by certain patterns of brain activity. State of awareness, including a person s feelings, sensations, ideas, and
Activation-synthesis hypothesis Suggests that in the brain engages in a lot of neural activity that is random. Dreams make sense of this activity. Addition compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse
The Science of Wellness: Why Your Doctor Continues to Insist You Sleep and Exercise to be Well Nicole Rausch, DO Sleep Cycle O Spend 1/3 of our time in sleep O Two types of Sleep O Non-rapid eye movement
CONSCIOUSNESS IS DEFINED AS THE AWARENESS OF OURSELVES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS are our bodies biological cycles that occur every 24 hours. Sleep, blood pressure, body temperature are just
WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS? DUAL PROCESSING, SLEEP, AND DREAMS Module 6 Our awareness of ourselves & our environment People who study consciousness: Cognitive Neuroscientists Sometimes we experience different
Physiology of Normal Sleep: From Young to Old V. Mohan Kumar Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 1 What is sleep? As per behavioral criteria: Reduced motor
Chapter 5 CONSCIOUSNESS Section 1: The Study of Consciousness Section 2: Sleep and Dreams Section 3: Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis Section 4: Drugs and Consciousness 1 Section 1: The Study of Consciousness
1 of 6 11/26/2012 1:23 PM How do you feel when you wake up in the morning? Are you refreshed and ready to go, or groggy and grumpy? For many people, the second scenario is all too common. Sleep-related
PSYCH 260 Exam 2 March 2, 2017 Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: 1 1 Main Please put in their proper order the steps that lead to synaptic communication between neurons. Begin with the
Exam 2 Study Guide Disclaimer: This is intended as a study aid. It is not a complete description of everything discussed in class, nor an exhaustive list of information that might be tested on an exam.
States of Consciousness: Before the turn of the century Psychology was concerned primarily with the description and explanation of states of consciousness Because of problems with directly studying and
PRESENTS Getting a Great Nights Sleep Dr. Michael Long ND BSc, Dr. Katie McKeown ND BSc Section I WHAT IS SLEEP? www.ontariohealth.org 2 Sleep Definition Recurring state characterised by decreased consciousness,
Neuroscience Optional Lecture The limbic system the emotional brain Emotion, behaviour, motivation, long-term memory, olfaction Emotion Conscious experience intense mental activity and a certain degree
Overview of the Biology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Daniel J. Buysse, MD UPMC Professor of Sleep Medicine Professor of Psychiatry and Clinical and Translational Science University of Pittsburgh School