2 Forms of Consciousness Modern psychologists believe that consciousness is an awareness of ourselves and our environment. Consciousness is not whether or not we are awake, but to what extent we perceive our environment.
3 Selective Attention Our conscious awareness processes only a small part of all that we experience. We intuitively make use of the information we are not consciously aware of. For example Were you conscious of the way that your rear end feels in your chair prior to reading this sentence?
4 Count the Passes Try this
5 Inattentional Blindness Inattentional Blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person that is directly within our viewing capabilities. In this experiment, more than half of the viewers fail to see the man in the bear suit.
6 Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattention blindness in which two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions.
7 Sleep & Dreams Circadian Rhythms occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness. Termed our biological clock, it can be altered by artificial light. Light triggers a decrease in melatonin in the morning and an increase at nightfall.
8 Sleep Stages About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages.
9 Sleep Stages Prior to falling asleep, brain activity slows down to a large amplitude, slow, and regular alpha wave.
10 Sleep Stages During early, light sleep (Stages 1 and 2), the brain enters high-amplitude, slow, regular waves called theta waves. A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity.
11 Sleep Stages During deep sleep (Stages 3 and 4), brain activity slows down. We now have large amplitude, slow waves called delta waves.
12 Sleep Stages After reaching the deepest stages of sleep (Stage 4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards Stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low-amplitude, fast, regular beta waves much like an awake state. A person during REM sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movement and reports vivid dreams.
13 90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, Stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
14 The Necessity of Sleep We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping. If an individual remains awake for several days, immune function and concentration deteriorates and the risk of accidents increases. Sleep Deprivation Fatigue Impaired Concentration Emotional Irritability Depressed Immune System Greater Vulnerability
15 Sleep Theories Sleep Protects sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm s way. Sleep Helps us Recover sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. Sleep Helps us Remember sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories. Sleep Helps us Grow during sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.
16 Sleep Disorders Insomnia a persistent inability to fall asleep. Narcolepsy an overwhelming urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up. Sleep Apnea failure to breathe when asleep.
17 Sleep Disorders Children are most prone to: Night Terrors the sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (rapid heart rate, perspiration) which occur during Stage 4 sleep. Sleepwalking a Stage 4 disorder which is usually harmless and unrecalled the next day. Sleeptalking a condition that runs in families, like sleepwalking.
18 The link between REM sleep and dreaming has opened up a new era of dream research. Dreams
19 What We Dream Manifest Content a Freudian term meaning the story line of dreams. 1. Negative Emotional Content 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. 2. Failure Dreams people commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. 3. Sexual Dreams contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are rare. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10 and in women, 1 in 30.
20 Why We Dream 1. Wish Fulfillment Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings. 1. Information Processing dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day s experiences in our memories.
21 3. Physiological Function dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. Neural networks of newborns are quickly developing; therefore, they need more sleep. Why We Dream
22 Why We Dream 4. Activation-Synthesis Theory suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity. 4. Cognitive Development some researchers argue that we dream as part of brain maturation and cognitive development. All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep. When deprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep, we show increased REM sleep called REM Rebound.
23 Dream Theories Revisited
24 Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggest to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Hypnos: Greek God of Sleep
25 Hypnosis: Fact or Fiction Can anyone experience hypnosis? Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Can hypnosis alleviate pain? Yes, to some extent. No. No. Yes. Self Suggestion can heal too. Yes. Lamaze can do that too.
26 Explaining the Hypnotized State Social Influence Theory suggest that hypnotized subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role. Divided Consciousness Theory suggest that hypnosis is a special state of dissociated or divided consciousness.
27 For Example
28 Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood. In other words, it affects your consciousness.
29 Dependence and Addiction Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance. With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug s effect lessens. Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect.
30 Withdrawal & Dependence Withdrawal upon stopping use of drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal. Symptoms include discomfort, distress, and physical illness. Dependence absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).
31 Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups. 1. Depressants 1. Stimulants 1. Hallucinogens
32 Depressants Depressants drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory. Increases aggressiveness and reduces self-awareness. Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety, but impairing memory and judgment. Opiates (morphine & heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
33 Stimulants Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. They include: Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy Amphetamines Methamphetamines
34 Caffeine & Nicotine Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other functions to provide energy.
35 Cocaine Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Forms of cocaine can be smoked, snorted, and injected.
36 Ecstasy Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory.
37 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. LSD powerful hallucinogenic drug that is also known as acid. THC the major ingredient in marijuana that triggers a variety of effects, including hallucinations
38 Drugs Revisited
39 Drug Use Trends This graph shows the percentages of U.S. high school seniors reporting their use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the 70s, 80s, and 90s.
40 Influences on Drug Use
41 Marijuana Use in Teens The use of marijuana in teenagers is directly related to the perceived risk involved with the drug.
42 Drug Prevention and Influences Education about the long-term costs. Efforts to boost people s self-esteem and purpose. Attempts to modify peer associations and teaching refusal skills. For many people, a near death experience of self or a loved one steers the individual away from drugs.
Activation-synthesis hypothesis Suggests that in the brain engages in a lot of neural activity that is random. Dreams make sense of this activity. Addition compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse
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