2 -The Nature of Consciousness Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli. External: sound of my voice. Internal: heart beat
3 Consciousness- it moves, it flows, it fluctuates, it wanders. William James- stream of consciousness Ex. If you could tape-record your thoughts you would find an endless flow of ideas that zigzag in all directions.
4 Variations in Levels of Awareness Sigmund Freud examined beneath the surface of this stream to the unconscious. People s feelings and behaviors are influenced by unconscious needs, wishes, and conflicts. Stimuli can still penetrate awareness Ex. People under surgical anesthesia occasionally hear comments made during their surgery
5 Evolutionary Roots of Consciousness The belief that consciousness evolved because it help our ancient ancestors. Forethought and planning may have proved efforts to obtain food and avoid predators.
6 Consciousness and Brain Activity Electroencephalograph (EEG) Beta (13-24 cps) waking, alert Alpha (8-12 cps) deep relaxation Theta (4-7 cps) light sleep Delta (under 4 cps) deep sleep
7 The Role of Circadian Rhythms Biological Rhythms and Sleep Biological Rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning. Circadian Rhythms are the 24-hr (or even 25) biological cycles found in humans and many other species Ex. Daily Cycles
8 Ignoring Circadian Rhythms Ignoring biological clock Feel fatigued, sluggish and irritable during the day Ex. Jet lag
9 Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms Melatonin, a hormone, is natural produced because of light waves to regulate ones circadian rhythm which allows us to sleep, stay asleep and minimize bodily functions. Melatonin can reduce the effects of jet lag. Melatonin also has been advertised to slow the aging process, enhance sex, and fight cancer and aids.
10 - The Sleep and Waking Cycle Electromyograph (EMG)-muscles Electrooculograph (EOG)-eyes Cycling through the stages of sleep Stage 1-(Theta waves) light sleep, lasts(1-7min) Stage 2-(sleep spindles & mixed EEG activity) lasts min. Stage 3 & 4-(slow-wave sleep/delta) lasts roughly 30 min.
13 REM sleep- rapid eye movements Muscle tone is relaxed almost like a paralyzed state Non-REM consists of stages 1-4 contains little dreaming and varied EEG activity
14 Age Trends in Sleep Age alters the sleep cycle-less sleep is needed for adults than babies. REM accounts for about 50% of babies lives and 20% of adults lives. The average amount of sleep needed, with individuals both above and below these needs, changes over one s lifetime: Infants (3-11 months) need hours Toddlers (12-35 months) need hours Preschoolers (3-6 years) need hours School age (6-10 years) need hours Adolescents (11-18 years) need 9.25 hours Adults need an average of 8 hours Elderly adults may need less
15 Culture and Sleep Western societies, co-sleeping is discouraged Eastern cultures encourage interdependence and group harmony Neural Bases of Sleep Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), medulla, thalamus,hypothalamus, limbic system
16 Evolutionary Bases of Sleep Hypothesis Immobilization during sleep reduces exposure to predators. Sleep helps restore energy and bodily resources
17 Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation Complete Sleep Deprivation neg. effects on mood and performance on both cognitive and perceptual-motor tasks Partial Deprivation neg. effects when subjects are asked to do longlasting tasks Selective Deprivation awakened over a period of nights whenever they begin to fall into REM sleep All can lead to depression, anxiety and psychotic symptoms, Memory problems, A weakening of your immune system, increasing your chance of becoming sick, Increase in perception of pain. We need sleep to stay focused and alive.
18 Problems in the night: Sleep Disorders Insomnia - chronic problems getting to sleep and staying asleep. Narcolepsy-disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods. Sleep Apnea-frequent, reflexive gasping for air which disrupts a person s sleep.
19 Nightmares- anxiety, arousing dreams that lead to awakening from REM sleep. Night Terrors- abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal. Somnambulism- also known as sleep walking is when a person wanders in their sleep.
20 - The World Of Dreams Dreams are mental experiences during REM sleep that have a story like quality. The Contents of Dreams People dream quite a bit about sex, aggression, and misfortune. According to Hall, dreams tend to focus on internal conflicts. Ex. Struggling with financial problems
21 Links Between Dreams and Waking Life What people dream about is affected by what is going on in their lives Ex. If you are stressing about an exam similar themes may show up in your dreams.
22 Cultures and Dreams Many eastern cultures believe dreams have meaning Ex. Standing on mountaintop= becoming a leader
23 Theories of Dreaming Freud-Dreams as wish fulfillment Cartwright- the problem solving view Entertainment Dreaming for homeostasis
24 -Hypnosis: Altered Consciousness or Role Playing? Hypnosis began with 18 th century Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer
25 Hypnosis as Altered State Hypnosis-a systematic procedure that produces a state of suggestibility. 10% of people do not respond well with hypnosis and 10% do.
26 Hypnosis as an Altered State of Consciousness Hilgard- hypnosis creates a dissociation in consciousness. Dissociation-splitting of mental processes into two separate streams of awareness. One stream is in communication with the hypnotist and the external world The second is a difficult-to-detect (hidden observer) Hilgard presents hypnosis as an everyday experience
27 Hypnosis as Role Playing Theodore Barber and Nicholas Spanos view hypnosis as a mental state in which people act out hypnosis. Many amazing effects of hypnosis have been duplicated by nonhypnotized participants.
28 -Meditation: Pure Consciousness or Relaxation? Meditation- family of practices that train attention heightened awareness and bring mental processes under control Psychological Correlates Meditative state- alpha and theta waves become more prominent in EEG recordings
29 Long Term Benefits Meditation is known to decrease stress, anxiety, and blood pressure. Meditation also may present a better mood and self-esteem.
30 -Altering Consciousness with Drugs Drugs are commonly used to alter consciousness
31 Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects Psychoactive drugs-chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning. All can lead to long term mental health problems (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar). Narcotics (opiates)-drugs derived from opium that relieve pain.(morphine,heroin) Sedatives-sleep inducing drugs that tend to decrease CNS activation and behavioral activity. (barbiturates, Ambien, Xanax)
32 Stimulants-drugs that tend to increase CNS activation and behavioral activity. (cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine) Hallucinogens-group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning. (LSD, mushrooms) Cannabis-the hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived. Alcohol- a depressant that includes a variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol. MDMA- a compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinogens, especially mescaline.
33 Factors Influencing Drugs Multifactor causation applies to the effect of drugs Tolerance- progressive decrease in a person s responsiveness to a drug. Ex. Tolerance to alcohol builds slowly, tolerance to heroin builds quickly.
34 Drug Dependence Physical Dependence- when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness. Psychological Dependence- when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug.
35 -Drugs and Health Drugs can be damaging to health Overdose CNS depressants- sedatives, narcotics, and alcohol carry the greatest risk of overdose
36 Direct Effects Drugs cause tissue damage directly Ex. Snorting cocaine can damage nasal membranes Indirect Effects Indirect results of drugs impact on behavior Ex. sedatives increase the risk of accidental injuries (they severely impair motor coordination)
37 Alcoholism Huge problem in society. Are people self medicating? Functional alcoholics. Correlated to heart disease, cancer, brain dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, depression, schizophrenia, kidney disease, organ failure, obesity, birth defects, traffic accidents, abuse, crime, financial difficulty.death Life span can be 20 years shorter.
38 Global Status Report on Alcohol Amount Death rates Population US 7 liters 32, ,000,000 Europe 14 liters 195, ,000,000 Even though the amount of alcohol and the population is double, the death rate is over 6 times as many.
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