1 Consciousness Chapter 6 Part 1: Attention, disorders of attention, hypnosis and meditation p ;
2 Forms(States) of Consciousness These states have both unique and overlapping characteristics. They differ (in part) based on how they are induced (conditions).
3 Functions of Consciousness Subjective awareness of internal and external events Monitor Keep track of thoughts, perceptions, feelings Keep track of environment Ignore irrelevant information Control Alter behavior in order to approach or avoid
4 What is attention? To drive a car you Pay attention Use effort to attend to other objects or locations Divide attention between tasks or multi-task Sustain attention Orient to objects or locations sometimes reflexively Restrict attention - select particular objects to attend to and try not to attend to irrelevant info Search for particular objects Don t pay attention to body movements (sometimes) If bad conditions, you focus your attention
5 Definitions of attention Attention is a mental process Effortful Attention requires mental resources Limited Attention can be involuntary or voluntary Stimulus-driven or automatic (like a reflex) Goal-driven or controlled (like a filter or zoom lens) Research question: Do we capture MORE or LESS information than we realize?
6 Flicker task This task tests how well you can detect changes when you are trying your best to find them. A photo of a scene will appear briefly and then it will be replaced by a blank screen. After a fraction of a second a changed version of the scene will appear. The original and changed images will alternate for about 10s. Try to find the change.
7 Change blindness: Rensink (2002) Method Flicker Task IV: time of blank between original and modified image IV: location of change in picture Results Blind to changes Impossible to attend to all aspects of a scene at 1 time Conclusions Failure to automatically notice change Requires focused attention (to objects or locations)
8 Instructions You will see 2 teams of players one wearing white t-shirts and one wearing black t-shirts. Try to count the total number of times the team wearing white passes the ball.
9 Inattentional blindness: Simons & Chabris (1999) Method Selective attention to white team passing ball Results 50% miss an unexpected object Discussion Selective attention to objects or locations Attention based on goal Can be blind to highly salient events
10 Inattentional blindness: Simons & Levin (1998) Method Pedestrian asks directions, interrupted by door, change pedestrian Result 7 of 15 noticed change 7 were same age-grp as ped s Conclusions Need effortful attention for complete representation
11 Change detection and Inattentional blindness Change detection vs. Inattentional blindness Purposeful search for change or not Comments: External validity: not a real world event Assumption of unchanging visual world Cause of effect: Where is focus of attention? Conclusions We do not have a detailed visual representation of the world especially if information is not attended to
12 Controlled attention Deliberate, voluntary allocation of attention Selective attention: Attend to one, ignore other Real world examples Auditory tasks: Dichotic listening task Shadow task How much is processed before selected? Physical analysis: early selection Meaning analysis: late selection
13 Early selection Cherry (1953) Dichotic listening Don t remember much about 2 nd message Broadbent s dual-task Hear 3 pairs of digits in each ear Subjects recall digits from one ear then other Support for physical analysis Problem: Cocktail party effect
14 Late selection Shadowing technique Message in each ear, attend to one, ignore other Treisman (1960) results: Attention can switch with message meaning Unattended message reduced
15 Current theory of selective attention What do we select to pay attention to? Selection based on combination of: Physical characteristics Pertinence based on meaning Attention is flexible Trade-off between capacity and stage of selection
16 Automaticity Real world examples: Riding a bike Turning off alarm clock Turn to loud noise Tying your shoes Writing your name Driving a car Turning off hotel alarm clock Watch a tennis match Teaching how to tie shoes Writing name after married Little or no conscious effort or awareness Attention without draining resources Rapid process
17 Task instructions Your task is to name the color of the stimuli as quickly and accurately as possible. You will see 2 columns. Start at the top left and after finished with the first column, start with the top of the next column. Again, you want to say the colors as quickly and accurately as possible. We will do this 4 times.
19 ROD STUDY DEPENDENT NEURON LOBE SCHEMATA CONE VALIDITY ATTACHMENT TEMPORAL ETHICS SLEEP CORTEX TEMPERAMENT PIAGET PLACEBO REM AXON OCCIPITAL INDEPENDENT DEPTH FOVEA ATTENTION ILLUSIONS
20 GREEN BROWN BLUE GREEN RED GREEN BROWN RED BLUE BROWN GREEN RED GREEN BLUE RED BROWN BLUE GREEN BLUE BROWN BLUE RED BROWN GREEN
21 RED GREEN BROWN BLUE GREEN RED BROWN RED BLUE BROWN GREEN GREEN BLUE GREEN BLUE RED BROWN BROWN BLUE GREEN BLUE BROWN BLUE RED
22 Stroop: say the color GLPD XTPB RSLJ ZMQ BAR ROD CUT HEAD RED BLUE GREEN BROWN BLUE BROWN RED GREEN
23 Stroop Stroop (1935) Congruent (same word/color): 63s/100 items Incongruent (diff word/color): 110s/100 items Measure interference: Reaction time or errors How does automatic processing explain Stroop? Automatic processing (reading) interferes with controlled processing (name color) Other examples
24 How to develop automaticity Hirst, et al. (1980) Divided attention: Dual-task Read stories silently Copy irrelevant words being dictated Results Week 1: handwriting illegible, reading slow Week 6: improvement, poor recall of dictated words At end, trained to copy complete sentences while reading, with understanding of both Conclusion Practice can alter limits of attentional capacity
25 Thought paper So Do we attend to MORE or LESS than we realize? Given your answer then Should talking on the cell phone while driving be illegal? Why or why not given what you ve learned about attention?
27 Horswill & McKenna (1999) Question: Does talking on a cell phone negatively affect driving? Method: Single-task: Simulated driving Dual-task: Also monitor auditory list for letter K Divided attention Results: Dual-task: worse driving performance and worse on monitoring task Conclusion: Participants took more risks driving in dual-task condition Limited attention resources
28 Disorders of attention Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder General difficulty in maintaining concentration Debate regarding diagnosis criteria Serotonin or dopamine system possibly involved Treatment: medication, training programs Visual neglect Damage to right parietal lobe Tend to ignore left side of visual field Burning house example in text (p185): conscious vs. unconscious awareness
29 Unilateral visual neglect
30 Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Hypnos: Greek god of sleep
31 Facts and Fiction Those who practice hypnosis agree that its power resides in the subject s openness to suggestion. Can anyone experience hypnosis? Yes, to some extent. Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? No.
32 Facts and Fiction Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Can hypnosis alleviate pain? No. Yes. Self-suggestion can heal too. Yes. Lamaze can do that too.
33 Explaining the Hypnotized State 1. Social Influence Theory: Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role. 2. Divided Consciousness Theory: Hypnosis is a special state of dissociated (divided) consciousness (Hilgard, 1986, 1992). Courtesy of News and Publications Service, Stanford University (Hilgard, 1992)
34 Both Theories Mimi Forsyth
35 Meditation Meditation involves the use of attention focusing techniques (mantras, objects, movement or prayer/chant) Often associated with Eastern Faith/Religions (Buddhism and Hinduism) Goal: a concentrated focus Two types: Concentration Meditation (specific focus device) Mindfulness Meditation (focus on the moment-to-moment flow) Outcome: Brings about state of relaxation (alpha state) and possible insights Takes practice to learn to quiet the mind
36 Consciousness Ch 6 Part 2: Sleep and drugs p ;
37 Zzzzz: Thought paper How much sleep did you get last night? How many hours of sleep is optimal for you? How much sleep does the average adult need? Why do we need to sleep? Why do we dream?
38 Amount of sleep by age We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping Individual differences in amount needed In part, age dependent
39 Dr. Maas: Power Sleep Dr Maas: Anyone who sleeps less than 6-7 hours per night (over 1/3 of the U.S. population) is missing a significant amount of sleep
40 Studying sleep In 1950 s Kleitman and Aserinsky Studies on daughter and themselves Rapid Eye Movement (REM) When woke participant they often reported vivid dreams EEG: measures brain activity Correlated eye movements with EEG Study behavior and physiological changes
41 Sleep Stages Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Hank Morgan/ Rainbow
42 Sleep Stages 1-2 During light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a slow, regular wave form called theta waves. A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity too. Theta Waves K complex
43 Sleep Stages 3-4 During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves. The % of delta distinguishes the stages.
44 Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. During REM, although still asleep, the brain engages in low-amplitude, fast and regular beta waves much like awake-aroused state. A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams.
45 EEG recording Note: Height Frequency Regularity Theta waves K complex Stage 3 <50% delta Stage 4 >50% delta 3 and 4
46 Sleep cycle: stages of sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
47 Sleep Cycle: Stages of sleep REM
48 REM: rapid eye movement REM: 20% of total sleep Every 90min, increasing in length during night REM occurs 4-6 times/night (depend on time) Characteristics Eyes dart & heartbeat more rapid/irregular Paradoxical sleep : EEG resembles beta waves Muscle system mostly inactive If awoken during REM Seem instantly alert (unlike stage 4) Likely to report dreaming
49 SleepTracker alarm clock The SleepTracker Pro Alarm Clock monitors sleep patterns and wakes you at the ideal moment so you start the day refreshed and alert. This revolutionary, patent-pending alarm clock wakes you when it senses you are in a light sleep cycle. Dec 2007
50 Why do we sleep? Two major theories: Repair and restore Survival/evolution What happens without sleep? Sleep deprivation studies REM rebound
51 WHY do we dream? Freud and the unconscious Expression of wishes and feelings Dreams have hidden meanings (latent content) vs. actual symbols (manifest content) Efficiency and restoration Exercise neurons v. trash unused Sleep enhances memory for new material! Activation-synthesis theory Make sense of random neural activity Combination of above (?)
52 Sleep disorders Insomnia Persistent problem falling or staying asleep 20-65yrs: most likely due to stress Narcolepsy Overwhelming sleepiness (directly into REM) Genetic w/ no cure Sleep apnea and SIDS Cessation of respiration Night terrors/sleepwalking 20% of 3 to 12yr olds experience 1+ episode Sleep paralysis Muscle paralysis of REM persists past awakening
53 Common dream questions Does everyone dream? During REM: 80% report pictorial dream Why do people have trouble remembering dreams? How can I improve my dream memory? Are dreams in color? 61% say always, 31% sometimes, 8% say never Do dreams have meaning? Are nightmares normal?
54 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms occur on a 24-hour cycle; include sleep and wakefulness; and are altered by artificial light.
55 Psychoactive Drugs A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (affects consciousness). Major Classes of Psychoactive Drugs: 1) Depressants 2) Stimulants 3) Opiates (or narcotics) 3) Hallucinogens
56 Dependence & Addiction Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance. With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug s effect lessens. Drug dependency Physical need Psychological need Withdrawal symptoms Physical reactions Psychological reactions
57 Misconceptions About Addiction Addiction is a craving for a chemical substance, despite its adverse consequences (physical & psychological). 1. If an addict has enough willpower, they can stop abusing drugs. - Addiction is just a bad habit; result of overindulgence 2. Most people relapse so treatment doesn t work. 3. Addiction is no different than repetitive pleasureseeking behaviors.
58 Depressants Depressants are drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include: Alcohol Barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal) Tranquilizers (Valium, Xanax) Enhance GABA and dopamine (inhibitory messages) Produce feelings of relaxation; affects motor skills, judgment and memory
59 Stimulants Stimulants are drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy Amphetamines Methamphetamines Some increase effectiveness of norepinephrine & dopamine Produce feelings of euphoria &/or energy, followed by crash Also increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy.
60 Opiates Opiates (narcotics): depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety, elevate mood. Mimic endorphins They are highly addictive. Examples: heroin, morphine
61 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens (psychedelics): distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. Act on serotonin receptors 1. LSD (acid): synthetic drug 2. THC: major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
62 Drugs Summary
63 Influences on Drug Use The use of drugs is based on biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences.
64 Why Do People Smoke? 1. People smoke because it is socially rewarding. 2. Smoking is also a result of genetic factors.
65 Why Do People Smoke? 3. Nicotine takes away unpleasant cravings by triggering NTs (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine) and endorphins. 4. Nicotine itself is rewarding
66 Influence for Drug Prevention and Treatment 1. Education about the long-term costs 2. Efforts to boost people s self-esteem and purpose 3. Attempts to modify peer associations and teaching refusal skills
67 Levels of Consciousness 1) Full consciousness Normal state when awake Self-awareness Conscious decision making 2) Preconscious Information that is accessible into awareness Automatic behaviors and thoughts Tip-of-the-tongue
68 Levels (cont.) 3) Subconscious Not yet pulled into awareness 4) Unconscious Usually refers to someone who has fainted, in a coma, or under anesthesia In Freud s theory, it refers to that part of the person that houses the memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness (repression) Non-conscious mind (automaticity)
69 Ecstasy Ecstasy or MDMA is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotoninproducing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory.
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