9-1 Chemical Pathways

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1 2 of 39 Food serves as a source of raw materials for the cells in the body and as a source of energy. Animal Cells Animal Mitochondrion Plant Plant Cells 3 of 39 1

2 Both plant and animal cells carry out the final stages of cellular respiration in the mitochondria. Outer membrane Intermembrane space Mitochondrion Inner membrane Plant Cells Animal Cells Matrix 4 of 39 Chemical Energy and Food Chemical Energy and Food One gram of the sugar glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy. A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. 5 of 39 2

3 Chemical Energy and Food Cells don't burn glucose. Instead, they gradually release the energy from glucose and other food compounds. This process begins with a pathway called glycolysis. releases a small amount of energy. 6 of 39 Overview of Cellular Respiration Overview of Cellular Respiration If oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain., the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain make up a process called cellular respiration. 7 of 39 3

4 Overview of Cellular Respiration What is cellular respiration? 8 of 39 Overview of Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Cytoplasm Mitochondrion 9 of 39 4

5 Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. 10 of 39 Overview of Cellular Respiration The equation for cellular respiration is: 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + Energy 11 of 39 5

6 Overview of Cellular Respiration Each of the three stages of cellular respiration captures some of the chemical energy available in food molecules and uses it to produce ATP. 12 of 39 Overview of Cellular Respiration takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in the mitochondria. Cytoplasm Mitochondrion 13 of 39 6

7 What happens during the process of glycolysis? 14 of 39 is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. 15 of 39 7

8 ATP Production At the beginning of glycolysis, the cell uses up 2 molecules of ATP to start the reaction. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 16 of 39 When glycolysis is complete, 4 ATP molecules have been produced. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 17 of 39 8

9 This gives the cell a net gain of 2 ATP molecules. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 18 of 39 NADH Production One reaction of glycolysis removes 4 high-energy electrons, passing them to an electron carrier called NAD +. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2NAD + 2 Pyruvic acid 19 of 39 9

10 Each NAD + accepts a pair of high-energy electrons and becomes an NADH molecule. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2NAD Pyruvic acid 20 of 39 The NADH molecule holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules. 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP 2NAD Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain 21 of 39 10

11 The Advantages of The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds. does not require oxygen. 22 of 39 When oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by a different pathway. The combined process of this pathway and glycolysis is called fermentation. releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen. 23 of 39 11

12 During fermentation, cells convert NADH to NAD + by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid. This action converts NADH back into NAD +, and allows glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP. does not require oxygen it is an anaerobic process. 24 of 39 What are the two main types of fermentation? 25 of 39 12

13 The two main types of fermentation are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation. 26 of 39 Alcoholic Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes. The equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis is: pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO 2 + NAD + 27 of 39 13

14 Lactic Acid In many cells, pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid. This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. It regenerates NAD + so that glycolysis can continue. 28 of 39 Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose into lactic acid. 29 of 39 14

15 The first part of the equation is glycolysis. 30 of 39 The second part shows the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid. 31 of 39 15

16 The NADH molecule holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules. By doing this, NAD + helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell. 32 of 39 The equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis is: pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD + 33 of 39 16

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