2 Objectives Identify psychiatric medications that have a greater risk for drug-drug interactions Improve awareness of diseases and aging on psychiatric medications effectiveness Improve understanding of the mechanisms behind drug-drug interactions and ways to avoid them
4 Pharmacokinetic Processes Absorption Distribution Elimination Hepatic metabolism Renal clearance
5 Changes in Absorption Onset of action may be delayed Comparative steady state concentrations variable Impact of food, antacids, and anticholinergic drugs should be considered Sertraline (Zoloft) bioavailability 40% with food Ziprasidone (Geodon) bioavailability 100% with food Lurasidone (Latuda) bioavailability 100% with food Sibutramine (Meridia) bioavailability 150% with food
6 Changes in Distribution (e.g., Elderly) Decreased muscle mass Decreased total body water Increased total body fat If fat-soluble med: volume of distribution Blood-brain barrier (changes with age) half-life Integrity of blood-brain barrier decreases with age and certain disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's dementia)
7 Donald Donald is a 60-year-old man with a h/o HTN currently controlled on Toprol XL (metoprolol) 100 mg/day (last BP=116/72; HR=64). Recently, he came in for his annual physical complaining of low energy, poor appetite, and general apathy. He was given a prescription for Prozac (fluoxetine) 20 mg QD. One week later, Donald returns to the clinic with marked dizziness and lightheadedness upon standing. His blood pressure is 90/60 with a heart rate of 53. An EKG shows second-degree AV block, which was not present in the past. What is wrong with Donald?
8 Cytochromes 85-90% of Rx drugs require oxidative metabolism Cytochromes are heme-containing enzymes found in the liver, GI tract, kidneys, lungs, and brain Responsible for phase I reactions (demethylation and hydroxylation) Cytochrome P450 refers to the wavelength of light absorbed by pigment in cytochromes CYP450 3A4 is most prevalent; >50% of all Rx drugs are metabolized via 3A4
9 Considerations in Pharmacokinetic Interactions Impact of each medication on enzyme (substrate, inhibitor, inducer) Relative potency of each medication on enzyme Relative concentration of medication in plasma Saturability of enzyme Presence of multiple metabolic pathways Presence of active metabolites Therapeutic index for medication (narrow vs. broad) Genetic predisposition of metabolic capacity (e.g., CYP2D6) Sensitivity to adverse effects (e.g., elderly) Spina. Drugs Aging 2002;19:
10 Percentage of Poor Metabolizers (CYP450 2D6) 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% African Americans Percentage of Poor Metabolizers Asian Mexican American Causcasian By Ethnicity
12 Comparison of Duloxetine, Escitalopram, and Sertraline Effects on Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function in Healthy Volunteers Single dose PK parameters of metoprolol measured after 17 days of treatment with antidepressant Antidepressant doses Duloxetine (60 mg/d) Escitalopram (20 mg/d) Sertraline (100 mg/d) AUC Increase AUC Increase Preskorn SH et al. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2007
13 Opioid Prodrugs Several opioids are prodrugs that require metabolism by CYP2D6 to a more active opioid species Codeine Morphine Hydrocodone Hydromorphone Oxcodone Oxmorhone Tramadol O-desmethyltramadol Clinical significance: Poor metabolizers (PM) of CYP2D6 or those receiving medications that inhibit CYP2D6 will have low circulating levels of active opioid metabolites and will exhibit minimal analgesic effects If previously stabilized on an opioid regimen, the introduction of a 2D6 inhibitor will result in loss of analgesia
14 Joan Joan is a 39-year-old mother of 2 toddlers who was diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer 2 years ago. She has successfully recovered from chemotherapy but was diagnosed with an acute episode of major depression 6 months ago. She had a partial response to sertraline 100 mg daily and achieved remission with the addition of bupropion SR 150 mg daily 2 months ago. She has noted that this augmentation strategy relieved the anorgasmia she had been experiencing. Today she calls your office after visiting her oncologist, who insists that she begin tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer recurrence. She wonders if you have any concerns about starting this medication in the context of her depression history. What do you tell her?
15 Antidepressant Interactions: Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen medication commonly used for the prevention and treatment of ER-positive breast cancer; SSRIs/SNRIs are commonly used to treat hot flashes associated with tamoxifen treatment Tamoxifen has much lower affinity for blocking estrogen receptors than it s active metabolites (4-OH tamoxifen and endoxifen) CYP2D6 required for metabolism to both active metabolites Extensive metabolizers (EM) of CYP2D6 found to have 6-fold increase in 4 OH tamoxifen and 3-fold increase in endoxifen (vs poor metabolizers). Dramatic decreases in endoxifen concentrations have been demonstrated in women who are EM BUT are also receiving either paroxetine or fluoxetine Poor metabolizers (PM) of CYP2D6 receiving tamoxifen found to have higher risk for recurrence and lower survival rates Bottom line: CYP2D6 inhibitors will convert EMs to PMs, decreasing concentrations of tamoxifen metabolites and placing women with breast cancer at risk for relapse
16 Antidepressant Interactions: Warfarin Warfarin exists as a racemic mixture; S-warfarin is the active moiety and is metabolized via CYP2C9 Fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, and escitalopram do NOT affect the pharmacokinetic disposition of warfarin Fluvoxamine inhibits CYP2C9 and warfarin concentration by 65% Caution: many reports of INR in warfarin patients after SSRI/SNRI started Idiosyncratic reaction Unknown mechanism Recommendation: monitor INR frequently after initiation of SSRI/SNRI (in patients concurrently receiving warfarin)
17 Drug Interactions With Grapefruit Grapefruit juice (or sections) can inhibit CYP3A4 CYP3A4 substrates include CCB, statins, BZD, buspirone Inhibition is rapid and may persist for up to 3 days MOA: inhibition is believed to be due to furanocoumarins Furanocoumarins are also found in pomelos, Seville oranges, and limes Effects of grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein are not believed to be clinically significant Grapefruit may significantly inhibit organic aniontransporting polypeptide (OATP) Doses used in PK grapefruit studies were usually large (e.g., 240 ml of double-strength juice)
18 Time Course of Recovery of Cytochrome P450 3A Function After Single Dose of Grapefruit Juice Methods Volunteers (n=25) received 6-mg dose of midazolam 2 days later, volunteers received same dose 2 hours after 300 ml of single-strength grapefruit juice Results (hours after grapefruit administration) 2 hrs 26 hrs 50 hrs 74 hrs Cmax 54% 25% 5% 0% AUC 65% 21% 21% 6% Half-life of enzyme recovery estimated to be 23 hours Greenblatt DJ et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;74:121-9.
19 Medications with which Grapefruit Should not be Consumed Statins Antihistamines-Allegra Calcium Channel Blockers-nimodipine, felopdipine, nosolodipine, nicardipine, verapamil Psychiatric Medications-buspirone, triazolam, carbamazepine, diazepam, midazolam, sertraline Immune suppressants-cyclosporine, tacrilomus Pain Medications-methadone Impotenence Drugs- sildenafil HIV medications-saquinavir Antiarrythmics-amiodarone, disopyramide
21 CYP Substrates Inhibitors Inducers 2E1 Acetaminophen Caffeine Ethanol Theophylline Ethanol 3A4/5/7 Antihistamines Fluconazole St. John s Wort Caffeine Grapefruit Juice Codeine Itraconazole Cyclosporine Ketoconazole Dextromethorphan Star Fruit Fluconazole Grapefruit juice Itraconazole Lidocaine Propranolol Ereshefsky, L. et al, CNS Spectrums, 2009.
23 Potential Drug Interactions With Recreational Drugs Drug Metabolic Pathways of Substrates Amphetamine Methamphetamine Cocaine MDMA (ecstasy) GHB LSD Marijuana PCP Ketamine Metabolic Pathways of Substrates CYP2D6 CYP2D6 > 3A4, 2C9 CYP3A4 CYP2D6 > 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 CYP3A4 (?) Unknown CYP3A4, CYP2C9 CYP3A4 CYP2B6
24 Keith Keith is a 53-year-old recipient of a liver transplant who has been treated with Sandimmune (cyclosporine) for the past 3 months to prevent organ rejection. Keith has been depressed ever since he found out about his serious liver problems and has recently decided to self-treat his mood disorder with St. John's wort 300 mg PO TID. One month later, Keith comes in for his monthly check-up and blood draw. He is found to have subtherapeutic blood levels of cyclosporine and is beginning to show signs consistent with organ rejection. Why is Keith rejecting his new liver?
27 Drug Interactions With Lithium Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index (range = meq/l) Lithium cleared renally by glomerular filtration (no metabolism) Examples Diuretics (thiazides not loops) ~ Increase lithium concentrations by 20-30% Lithium not affected by loop diuretics (furosemide) NSAIDs (indomethacin, ibuprofen, naproxen) and COX-2 inhibitors Increase lithium concentrations by % Only significant if dosed around the clock Lithium NOT affected by sulindac, ASA, APAP ACE inhibitors Increase lithium levels by 40% Interaction is worse in the elderly (?)
28 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) Drug transporter present on the membrane of many cells Found in intestine, liver, kidney, and brain Genetic deficiency may lead to inability to transport drugs out of compartment Much similarity to cytochrome P450 3A4 P-gp inhibitors: quinidine, clarithromycin, propranolol, progesterone, fluphenazine P-gp inducers: dexamethasone, diltiazem, erythromycin, phenothiazines, tamoxifen, verapamil, St. John's wort P-gp substrates: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, morphine, digoxin, protease inhibitors
29 Medication Drug-Drug Interactions Medication Effect on Agent Interactions involving TCAs Type 1a antiarrhythmics Antihypertensives Sublingual nitrates α-adrenergic blocking agents Delay in cardiac conduction; heart block Cause orthostatic hypotension Dry mouth inhibits oral absorption Potentiate antihypertensive effect Interactions involving serotonergic antidepressants (SNRI, SSRI, mirtazapine) Lipophilic β-blockers Increase blood levels due to decreased hepatic degradation Digitoxin/digoxin Transiently increase bioavailability due to displacement from protein binding sites Platelet aggregation inhibitors Increased risk of bleeding or bruising Interactions involving lithium Diuretics that cause sodium loss Calcium Channel Blockers ACE inhibitors Methyldopa Ereshefsky, L. et al, CNS Spectrums, Increase blood lithium levels Enhance lithium toxicity and bradycardia Enhance lithium toxicity Enhance lithium toxicity
31 Clara Clara is an 88-year-old woman with a h/o BAD previously stabilized on Celexa (10 mg QD) and Depakote (250 mg TID). Other meds include Accupril (quinapril) 5 mg BID and ASA 80 mg/day (following MI 10 years ago). After suffering a fall at home, she was seen in the ER and given Ultram (tramadol) 50 mg/day for pain. On the second day, she developed nausea and reduced the dose of Ultram to 50 mg BID. On the third day, she developed rigidity, diaphoresis, vomiting, anxiety, and confusion. She refused to return to the ER but was advised over the phone by her internist to stop her Ultram. She was also given an Rx for Periactin (cyproheptadine) 4 mg TID. Her nausea resolved after 2 doses of Periactin, and her other symptoms resolved over the next 3 days.
32 Serotonin Syndrome Rare, idiosyncratic, sometimes fatal Mechanism: 5HT excess Symptoms (see Hunter criteria): Mental status changes Chills/sweating Myoclonus Autonomic instability ( or BP & HR) Fever (malignant hyperthermia)
33 Decision rules for predicting serotonin toxicity. Dunkley E et al. QJM 2003;96: Association of Physicians 2003; all rights reserved
35 Serotonin Syndrome: Clinical Management Recommend 5-week washout after fluoxetine before MAOI 2-week washout after another SSRI before MAOI Other 5HT drugs: washout of 4-5 half-lives before MAOI If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue all agents increasing or augmenting serotonin If severe symptoms or impaired consciousness, consider antidotes Cyproheptadine (Periactin) Methysergide (Sansert) Propranolol (Inderal) Memantine (Namenda) Dantrolene (Dantrium)
36 SSRIs and QT Prolongation FDA warning (Aug 2011) that citalopram should not be prescribed in daily doses > 40mg (> 20mg if over 60yo) due to QTc prolongation 20mg daily associated with QTc of 8.5 msec 60mg daily associated with QTc of 18.5 msec FDA also warned that citalopram should be avoided in 1) patients with pre-existing QT prolongation 2) those who are 2C19 poor metabolizers 3) those receiving CYP2C19 inhibitors (eg - cimetidine, omeprazole) QTc prolongation appears to be greater risk with citalopram than other SSRIs Note: Retrospective review of overdoses reported that serious prolongation of QTc reported in 7.9% of citalopram cases (n=316) and 6.3% of escitalopram cases (n=63) [Yilmaz. Clin Toxicol 2010] Proposed mechanism: citalopram metabolite (DDCT) accumulates and blocks HERG channels. Both S and R enantiomers appear to have this effect.
37 Comparison of QTc Prolongation Medications QTC Prolongation
38 Miscellaneous Pharmacodynamic Interactions Clozapine (Clozaril) and carbamazepine (Tegretol) Absolute contraindication: increased bone marrow suppression TCAs (all) and clonidine(catapres) Increased blood pressure Lithium (various) and verapamil (Calan) Increased neurotoxicity SSRIs and NSAIDs (?) Increased risk of GI bleeds
40 Psychoactive Medications and Medical Comorbidity Diabetes TCAs, mirtazapine, paroxetine: weight gain Clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone: weight gain Lithium, valproic acid: weight gain Norfluoxetine: inhibit metabolism of sulfonylureas Cardiovascular disease Fluoxetine, paroxetine, duloxetine, bupropion: inhibit metabolism of beta-blockers Norfluoxetine: inhibit metabolism of calcium channel blockers, statins TCAs, ziprasidone: increased risk of arrhythmia (?) Hypertension Venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion: increased blood pressure
41 Psychoactive Medications and Medical Comorbidity (cont.) Epilepsy Bupropion: contraindicated due to seizure risk Parkinson's disease Risperidone, conventional antipsychotics: may worsen EPS Alzheimer's disease Antipsychotics (all): increase CV events and death (?) TCAs, paroxetine: additive anticholinergic effects Clozapine, olanzapine: additive anticholinergic effects
42 Fritz Fritz is a 72-year-old German immigrant brought into the clinic today by his daughter for his 3-month follow-up appointment following a mild to moderate left frontal stroke. Although he has relatively minor speech and motor deficits, Fritz's daughter is concerned that her father is much less active during the day and that he complains of a decreased appetite and poor sleep. He has also become more irritable and has shown little progress in physical therapy. Fritz admits that nothing interests him much anymore.
43 Patient Case: Fritz (cont.) SH: lives alone; wife passed away 13 years ago; denies tobacco; stopped ETOH 8 years ago FH: mother committed suicide; father died in WWII PsychHx: none PMH: HTN x 2rs (Rx: verapamil 120mg/day, enalapril 20 mg/day) Insomnia x 2 mos (Rx: triazolam 0.25 mg qhs) Anxiety/irritability x 2 mos (Rx: alprazolam 1 mg TID prn) Seasonal allergies (OTC Rx: Robitussin Max Strength 15 ml prn Contents: 1.4% ETOH, dextromethorphan 15 mg/5 ml Hyperlipidemia x 8 yrs (Rx: lovastatin 40 mg/day) Impression: major depression (acute episode) Plan: start fluoxetine 10 mg po daily; RTC in 4 weeks Question: How many potential drug interactions can you find?
45 Recommended References for Drug Interactions Web sites (comprehensive CYP450 table with references) (drug info) (Facts and Comparisons) (consumer-oriented) (EBM review of herbs and supplements) PDA software Lexi-Comp Drug Interactions Epocrates Rx Medical Letter's Handbook of Adverse Drug Interactions Drug Therapeutic Screening System (DTSS) from Wolters Kluwer Textbooks Managing Clinically Important Drug Interactions (Hansten and Horn 2002) Drug Interaction Facts (Tatro 2006) Psychotropic Drug Handbook (Perry et al. 2007)
46 Summary/Recommendations Obtain complete medication history from patient Including OTC meds, herbs, and supplements Identify high-risk patients Elderly, >2 Rx meds daily, organ damage/compromise Access up-to-date computer software or Web sites C Consult with Drug Information Service or a trusted drug interaction expert Encourage your patients to use one pharmacy
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