ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION

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1 ALL ABOUT EXERCISE

2 ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION BODY MASS INDEX Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a person s height and weight. BMI is an indicator of total body fat and is used to screen for weight categories that may lead to future health problems. It is calculated as follows: For example: Sally weighs 135 lbs (135 lbs 2.2 = 61.4 kg) She is 152 cm tall ( =1.52 m) 61.4 (1.52) 2 = 26.6 BMI Weight (kg) Height (m) 2 BMI Weight Status Health Risk Below 18.5 Underweight Less than 16 suggests a possible eating disorder Normal Healthy, low health risk Overweight Associated with increased risk of disease 30.0 and above Obese Associated with further increased risk of disease Unfortunately, BMI does have some limitations: It may overestimate body fat in athletes and those who have a muscular build. It may underestimate body fat in older persons and those who have lost muscle mass. Body Fat Percentage Your body fat percentage is the percentage of fat your body contains. For example, if you are 160 pounds and have 10% fat, it means your body consists of 16 pounds of fat and 144 pounds of lean body mass. Lean body mass refers to bone, muscle, organ tissue and blood (everything other than fat). Fat is essential for certain bodily functions such as temperature regulation, insulation and cushioning of organs and tissues, and energy storage.

3 ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION Body Shape Apple-Shape: store body fat around the abdomen and chest, surrounding internal organs, including the heart. Pear-Shape: store fat on the hips and thighs, just below the surface of the skin. With respect to pear shaped people, the excess fat stored in their lower body is not necessarily a risk to their health. However, apple shaped people have a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, and gall bladder disease. Even when apples and pears have similar body weights, these diseases progress faster and more seriously in apple shaped people. Waist-to-Hip Ratio The waist-to-hip ratio is an effective measure of fat distribution. To determine if you have a healthy waist-to-hip ratio, use a measuring tape to measure the circumference of your hips at the widest part of your buttocks. Then measure your waist at the smaller circumference of your natural waist, usually just above the belly button. Measurements should be recorded in inches. To determine the ratio, divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement. For a healthy woman, the figure should be 0.8 or less. For a healthy man, the figure should read 0.95 or less. Waist-to-Hip Ratio Chart Male Female Health Risk Based Solely on Waist-to-Hip Ratio 0.95 or below 0.80 or below Low Risk 0.96 to to 0.85 Moderate Risk High Risk

4 HEART RATE MONITORING Equation for Determining Your Maximum Heart Rate: Female: 220 Age = Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) Male: 220 Age = Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) Target Heart Rate: (use the percentage you require) Your target heart rate should be between 60% - 80% of your maximum heart rate. Maximum Heart Rate x 0.6 = H.R. at 60% Maximum Heart Rate x 0.8 = H.R. at 80% Example: 55 year old female = 165 MHR 165 x 0.8 = 132 target heart rate at 80% 165 x 0.6 = 99 target heart rate at 60% This person would workout with a heart rate between bpm (60% - 80% of H.R. max).

5 UNDERSTANDING EXERCISE Weight Loss vs. Fat Loss Two ladies lose 10 pounds. Both go from 160 to 150lbs in 5 weeks LADY A Before After LADY B Before After Lbs Lbs BF 30% 25% BF 28% 27% FM FM FFM FFM *Lost 10lbs of fat and gained.5lbs of lean mass! *Lost only 4.3lbs of fat as well as 5.7lbs of lean mass FACT OR FICTION: Doing a million squats, tricep extensions or sit-ups will specifically target the fat in my butt, granny arms and the spare tire around my belly. FICTION: There is no such thing as spot reduction. Doing 100 sit-ups does not burn the fat in your belly. Exercise of any kind draws from the fat stores all over the body to fuel your efforts. Where the fat comes off first is genetically determined. You will, however, tone/build the muscle beneath the fat that you are working on at the time, giving the area of concern a more desirable shape. Cardiovascular Exercise Benefit to your heart muscle Doing cardio within your target heart rate (60-80% of your heart rate max) increases the need for oxygen. This places an extra demand on your heart to pump out more blood to your working muscles. As you become more fit, your ability to take in greater amounts of oxygen while working at higher intensities increases, your heart muscle actually becomes stronger, pumping out more blood per pump. This means that your heart will beat fewer times at the higher intensity because each beat is stronger, thereby forcing more blood out. This results in a lowered resting heart rate, which means the heart does not have to work as hard during normal activities while increasing your chances of losing fat. Weight loss benefit Elevating your heart rate during a cardio session requires a higher calorie demand from your body in order for you to perform the work. Cardio also increases your carbohydrate storage capacity. What does this mean? When you over-indulge in a few more carbs than you should have, there is a place for them to go other than your fat cells! Research shows that those people who lost 30+lbs and kept it off for 1 year or more accumulated minutes of medium-to high-intensity cardiovascular exercise per week.

6 UNDERSTANDING EXERCISE Question: For weight loss, should I perform my cardio before or after my weights? It depends. If your cardio session has exhausted you prior to you lifting weights, your lifts may suffer because you will feel fatigued. Since resistance training will give you an afterburn effect that feels more intense than cardio, you want to make sure you can give your resistance training sessions your maximum effort. Question: How long should I do cardio for and how intense? It depends on your goals, genetics, body type, available time, and if you just lifted weights. Remember, to lose fat you must burn the most calories you can in the time you have allotted. Shorter, more intense sessions tend to burn more calories overall and shorten the time you spend exercising. You should be burning a minimum of approximately 300 calories per cardio session. Question: What type of cardio should I do? Full body movements are best, including moving your arms and legs; however, if you have an injury, do any type of cardio you feel comfortable with. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): brief bouts at near-maximum exertion (80% h.r.) interspersed with periods of lower-intensity activity (60% h.r. or less) during which you manipulate the speed, resistance and/or elevation. For example: walking on the treadmill for 2 minutes at 3.5 mph, then increasing the elevation to level 5-6 for 2 minutes before dropping the elevation back down and walking again for 2 minutes. Many professionals in the fitness industry believe that this method of training is more effective at inducing fat loss than simply training at a moderate intensity level for the same duration.

7 UNDERSTANDING EXERCISE Resistance Training Lifting weights is the second most important step behind nutrition; Maintains lean muscle mass; Must be consistent; Secretes Growth Hormone; Participating in rigorous weight lifting sessions allows you to burn more calories than you ever imagined, while meeting your weight loss goals and maintaining lean muscle. FACT OR FICTION: Ladies, lifting heavy weights makes you bulky. FICTION: Women have very little testosterone, and without the help of supplements and drugs, it is not possible to become bulky like a man. When you start to lift weights your muscles become active and may grow in size. The problem occurs when the muscle grows but the fat on top of the muscle does not decrease. This can leave you feeling bigger. FACT OR FICTION: Muscle weighs more than fat. FICTION: A pound of muscle and a pound of fat both weigh exactly the same: one pound. What matters is the space they take up and the calories needed to support the two tissues. Muscle is much denser, so a pound of it will take up less room than a pound of fat. This explains why the scale may not change but the fit of your pants will! Muscle also requires more energy in the form of calories to be maintained - about 35% more than fat. Fat is lazy and requires little to no energy to be maintained. Amino acids, the building blocks of muscle, are constantly being broken down, built up and remodeled, hence the increased caloric demand. Question: How many sets and repetitions should I do? You must lift to failure or pretty close. What does that mean? The session should be difficult! By the end of your set your limbs should feel like jelly. From a muscle building/toning standpoint, rep ranges of 8-12 have shown to bring about optimal results. Remember you must lift heavy to achieve the results you want, so 8 reps may require a heavier weight. Choose a weight that causes you to fail around your last reps. Over time you will perfect your form and mind-muscle connection, allowing you to slowly increase the weight you are lifting. Resistance Training Tips Move through your sets quickly, taking minimal rest periods to keep your heart rate elevated. Circuits and super sets are effective techniques to keep the intensity high. If you are a beginner try 1-2 sets of reps. As you progress and build muscle, you may increase up to 3-6 sets ranging between 2-12 reps. Lift weights for a minimum of 3 days a week. Start with a circuit or 1 day program, then progress to a more complicated split program. If you have never lifted weights before get a trainer! Your form is fundamentally important, and to avoid injuries you want to make sure you do it right the first time. No amount of water, supplements, de-stressing, cardio or weight training will give you the results you desire if your nutrition is inadequate.

8 UNDERSTANDING EXERCISE Exercise & Nutrition Question: What should I eat before a strength training workout? To ensure proper digestion, you should consume slow burning carbs and a small amount of protein at least 45 minutes to 1 hour before you workout. Oatmeal and egg whites are a great option, or try a protein shake. Avoid lifting weights on an empty stomach because you will not have enough energy to lift properly. Question: What do I eat for optimal recovery after a strength training workout? In order to ensure proper muscle recovery, you MUST eat within minutes after a strength training workout. This is a good time to eat higher glycemic (higher sugar) carbs, like a banana or chocolate milk, with a lean protein like cottage cheese. Protein shakes are the best options as they are fast digesting because they are already liquid. Avoid eating fat after a strength training workout as this slows digestion. Question: If I work out early in the morning when should I eat breakfast? If you are lifting weights you must eat before your workout. If this makes you feel nauseous try a shake or a small amount of food, then eat your regular breakfast minus the fat after your workout. If you are doing cardio, it s not necessary to eat beforehand, but make sure you eat breakfast within 45 minutes after you are finished. Question: If I workout after dinner, should I eat when I get home? YES! Especially if you have completed a strength training workout. Protein shakes without the fat are your best options.

9 HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is an exercise strategy that is intended to improve performance with short training sessions. HIIT is a form of cardio that is beneficial to burning fat during a short and intense workout. Most HIIT sessions vary from minutes and have a 2:1 or 1:1 ratio of rest to sprint. For example, running a HIIT session may be 2 minute rest and 60 second sprint, or 60 second rest and 60 second sprint. Because HIIT sessions can be modified for all ability levels and machines, they can easily be integrated into one s lifestyle. A HIIT session consists of a warm up, followed by six to ten repetitions of high intensity exercise (sprint) followed by a short rest period at medium intensity, and ending with a cool down. The high intensity exercise should be done at near maximum intensity or 80-90% of your HRM. The medium exercise should be at about half-maximum intensity or 40-50% of your HRM. The number of repetitions and length of phase each depends on the exercise. The goal is to do at least six cycles and to have the entire HIIT session last between 15 and 30 minutes. Beginner: Sprint Phase: 30 seconds Rest Phase: 90 seconds Sets: 6-8 Sample HIIT Cycles Intermediate: Sprint Phase: 30 seconds Rest Phase: 60 seconds Sets: 8-10 Advanced: Sprint Phase: 30 seconds Rest Phase: 30 seconds Sets: Treadmill Example Using Speed: Warm up: 5 minutes at 3.5mph 0 elevation Sprint: Increase speed to 5mph 0 elevation for 30 seconds Rest: Reduce speed to 3.5mph 0 elevation for 90 seconds Repeat 6 8 times Treadmill Example Using Elevation: Warm up: 5 minutes at 3.5 mph 0 elevation Sprint: Increase elevation to 5 and maintain at 3.5mph for 30 seconds Rest: Decrease elevation to 2 and maintain at 3.5 mph for 90 seconds Repeat 6 8 times *Always spend 5-10 minutes cooling down. NEVER stop immediately after you are finished.

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