Dr Robert Drummond. BChD, DipOdont Ortho, MChD(Ortho), FDC(SA) Ortho. Canad Inn Polo Park Winnipeg 2015

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Dr Robert Drummond. BChD, DipOdont Ortho, MChD(Ortho), FDC(SA) Ortho. Canad Inn Polo Park Winnipeg 2015"

Transcription

1 Dr Robert Drummond BChD, DipOdont Ortho, MChD(Ortho), FDC(SA) Ortho Canad Inn Polo Park Winnipeg 2015

2 Severely compromised FPM with poor prognosis Children often present with a developing dentition affected by one or more first permanent molars of poor prognosis, which may require their enforced extraction

3 In the right circumstances, first permanent molar extraction can be followed by successful eruption of the second permanent molar to provide a suitable replacement, and ultimately third molar eruption to complete the molar dentition, although this is not guaranteed

4 Should the compromised FPM be extracted as soon as possible, or should it be temporarily restored and extracted later? If the prognosis of one FPM is poor, is extraction of the other FPMs required?

5 National clinical guidelines for the extraction of first permanent molars in children. M. T. Cobourne, A. Williams and M. Harrison. British Dental Journal, Volume 217 no. 11, DEC The best available evidence

6 Condition that will influence the clinical management Comprehensive patient examination Importance of Panoramic Radiograph Diagnosis Definitions Balancing Extraction Compensating Extraction Ideal Timing Orthodontic Opinion Guideline for elective FPM extraction in children with different malocclusions General rule Class I with no crowding Class I with crowding Class II with no crowding Class II with crowding Class III Trial Case Conclusion

7 The individual patient circumstances Maxilla or Mandible The extent of crowding and the presenting malocclusion If the patient will require or desire orthodontic treatment in the future, the timing and extraction pattern should be tailored to achieve the optimal outcome for that individual patient The stage of dental development Any other permanent teeth absent, severely displaced or of doubtful prognosis Other pathology

8 Facial analysis Facial Symmetry Facial Proportions Profile Lips Smile Intra-oral analysis Radiographic examination Panoramic radiograph

9 Before any decision is made, a panoramic radiograph of good quality is needed to show that all teeth are present, in good condition i.e. not hypoplastic, and are well placed for eruption

10 Malocclusion Antero-posterior (AP) Transverse Vertical Crowding Amount Anterior or posterior Arch Symmetry Dental development Contemporary Orthodontics, 5 th edition. William R. Proffit, Henry W. Fields

11 Balancing extraction Is the removal of the first molar on the other side of the same arch Compensating extraction Is the removal of the first molar on the same side in the opposing arch

12 In the maxilla, an unerupted 7 with a decent developmental position at the time of extraction of the FPM, generally ensures a good occlusal position

13 In the lower arch timing of the extraction is more important for successful eruption of the 7 s Chronological age between 8 and 10, after eruption of the lateral incisor s and before the eruption of the second molars and /or second premolars Also if there is radiographic evidence of early dentine calcification within the second molar root bifurcation

14 Extractions before the age of 8 should be avoided: As normally, there is no radiographic evidence of third molar development Second premolars can escape from its position between the roots of the e s and therefore drift distally Labial segment can retrocline, increasing the overbite and overjet

15 Extraction during the later stage of second molar development Mesial tipping Rotation Spacing Poor occlusal contact

16 Ideally an orthodontic opinion should be obtained before extraction of any permanent tooth; if possible from the orthodontist who will be responsible for future treatment Temporise or restore and refer This is not always possible if there is sepsis or pain

17 Guideline for Elective FPM Extraction in Children with Different Malocclusions General rule Class I with no crowding Class I with crowding Class II with no crowding Class II with crowding Class III

18 As a general rule, if in doubt, get the patient out of pain, try and maintain the teeth and refer for a specialist orthodontic opinion In recent years, fixed anchorage devices have become more routinely available in orthodontics and these provide further options in the management of first permanent molar extraction cases, particularly in terms of anchorage reinforcement and space closure

19 Aim for extraction at the optimal time for eruption of the second permanent molars into a good position Do not balance unilateral first permanent molar extraction in either the upper or lower jaws if the first permanent molars are healthy

20 If the lower first permanent molar is to be lost, the opposing upper first molar can over-erupt as a result Prevent over-eruption with a simple appliance Compensating extraction of the upper first molar can be considered if this tooth is likely to be unopposed for a significant length of time

21 If over eruption did occur, molar intrusion with TAD s during full fixed orthodontic treatment is possible

22 If the first molar on the lower arch is to be extracted and the opposing upper first molar has a poor prognosis, consider extraction of this tooth

23 If the upper first molar is to be extracted, do not compensate with extraction of the lower first molar if it is healthy

24

25

26 16 54 lost Middle mixed dentition with caries on several teeth All permanent teeth present, not all erupted Minimal crowding Early loss of 54 with space maintainer Mesial drifting 16 localized space shortage, 1ste Quadrant Heavily restored 16 with questionable prognosis Extensive caries 46 = poor prognosis ( Dentist requested opinion on the XLA) Advance development of the 7 s - 2/3 root formation Radiographic evidence of the development of all four third molar

27 16 54 lost Middle mixed dentition All permanent teeth present, not all erupted Minimal crowding Early loss of 54 with space maintainer Mesial drifting 16 localized space shortage, 1ste Quadrant Heavily restored 16 with questionable prognosis Extensive caries 46 = poor prognosis ( Dentist requested opinion on the XLA) Advance development of the 7 s - 2/3 root formation Radiographic evidence of the development of all four third molar

28 16 54 lost Extraction 46, 16 & 55 NB! Due to the advanced development of the 47, extraction of the 46 could result in poor occlusal contact for the 47 with increased mesial tipping and spacing and a higher need for orthodontic correction

29 BUCCAL SEGMENT CROWDING ANTERIOR CROWDING

30 BUCCAL SEGMENT CROWDING Aim to extract at the optimal time to allow eruption of second molars into a good occlusal position, which should also provide some relief of crowding If the buccal segment crowding is bilateral, consider balancing extraction of the contralateral first permanent molar to provide suitable relief, particularly if there is any question regarding the long-term prognosis for this tooth Compensating extractions of upper first permanent molars can be considered to relieve premolar crowding

31 Buccal crowding and severely compromised 46 and 36

32 Extraction of the 46 and 36 With 7 s replacing the 6 s with good axial inclination and occlusal contact

33 All four permanent molars were compromised and subsequently extracted, which resulted in 7 s replacing the 6 s with good axial inclination and occlusal contact Relieve of the buccal crowding

34 ANTERIOR CROWDING In the presence of crowding in the labial segments, little spontaneous relief is provided by first permanent molar extraction First permanent molar extractions can be delayed until the second permanent molars have erupted and then the extraction space can be used for alignment with fixed appliance Alternatively, first permanent molars can be extracted at the optimum time and the crowding treated once in the permanent dentition If premolar extractions are likely to be required at this stage, the third molars should be present

35 Hypermineralized upper & lower FPM with secondary Caries

36 Moderate upper crowding Potential eruption problems with upper canines Severe lower crowding Class I buccal occlusion left and right Mandibular midline 3mm to the right Unerupted 42 & no space Normal overjet and overbite

37 ?? Confirm possible ectopic 13 and 23 and possible impaction of the 43 Radiographic evidence of only the 48 and 28 Beginning root formation on the 7 s

38

39 x x x x Extract the first permanent molars at the optimum time to allow for the permanent second molar to replace 6 s Resolve the crowding, once in the permanent dentition For which you will need additional four premolar extractions : which does not make this option ideal There is also no clear evidence on the presence of two of the third molars which is a contradiction for this option

40 x x x x Delay first permanent molar extractions until the second permanent molars have erupted and then use the extraction space for alignment with fixed appliance

41 x x x x Option 2 Temporarily restore the 6 s Wait for the eruption of the 7 s After eruption of the 7 s extraction of all four FPM Full fixed orthodontic treatment with additional anchorage

42 The extraction of first permanent molars in Class II cases are more difficult to plan, particularly with regard to the upper first permanent molars The main complicating factors in the upper arch is the need for space to correct the incisor relationship

43 Growth modification / non-extraction Fixed Removable Class II Camouflage Extraction upper 4 s and or lower 5 s Distalization Combination Growth modification & Extractions

44 Class II Growth modification / non-extraction Fixed Removable Extract the first permanent molars at the optimum time to allow for the permanent second molar to replace 6 s The patient should be counselled however, that additional premolar extractions in the upper arch might be required in the future to create space for overjet correction if the GM is unsuccessful

45

46

47 Class II Camouflage Extraction upper 4 s and or lower 5 s Distalization The upper first permanent molars should be temporised or restored so that their extraction can be delayed until the second permanent molars have erupted The resultant extraction space can then be used to correct the malocclusion with fixed appliance The extraction of the lower first permanent molar should be carried out at the ideal time for successful eruption of the second permanent molar in its place

48 Camouflage Extraction upper 4 s and or lower 5 s Class II Combination Growth modification & Extractions Distalization The upper first permanent molars should be temporised or restored so that their extraction can be delayed until the second permanent molars have erupted The resultant extraction space can then be used to correct the malocclusion and crowding with fixed appliance The extraction of the lower first permanent molar should be carried out at the ideal time for successful eruption of the second permanent molar in its place if the crowding is in buccal segment If the crowding is anterior delay the extraction until after the eruption of the 7 s

49 Class III cases are often difficult to manage and ideally require the opinion of a specialist orthodontist before any first permanent molars are extracted As a general rule, extraction of maxillary molars should be avoided if at all possible, while balancing and compensating extractions are not recommended in Class III cases

50 A tendency toward increased residual spacing has been described in the lower arch of Class III cases following first permanent molar extraction

51 Treatment planning for the enforced extraction of first permanent molars can present a complex problem, particularly in the presence of an underlying malocclusion I hope these guidelines will be useful in your decision making If you have any questions you are welcome to contact me at

Treatment planning of nonskeletal problems. in preadolescent children

Treatment planning of nonskeletal problems. in preadolescent children In the name of GOD Treatment planning of nonskeletal problems in preadolescent children Presented by: Dr Somayeh Heidari Orthodontist Reference: Contemporary Orthodontics Chapter 7 William R. Proffit,

More information

Treatment Planning for the Loss of First Permanent Molars D.S. GILL, R.T. LEE AND C.J. TREDWIN

Treatment Planning for the Loss of First Permanent Molars D.S. GILL, R.T. LEE AND C.J. TREDWIN O R T H O D O N T I C S Treatment Planning for the Loss of First Permanent Molars D.S. GILL, R.T. LEE AND C.J. TREDWIN Abstract: During the mixed-dentition stage of dental development, dentists may encounter

More information

Attachment G. Orthodontic Criteria Index Form Comprehensive D8080. ABBREVIATIONS CRITERIA for Permanent Dentition YES NO

Attachment G. Orthodontic Criteria Index Form Comprehensive D8080. ABBREVIATIONS CRITERIA for Permanent Dentition YES NO First Review IL HFS Dental Program Models Second Review Ortho cad Attachment G Orthodontic Criteria Index Form Comprehensive D8080 Ceph Film X-Rays Photos Narrative Patient Name: DOB: ABBREVIATIONS CRITERIA

More information

ORTHODONTICS Treatment of malocclusion Assist.Lec.Kasem A.Abeas University of Babylon Faculty of Dentistry 5 th stage

ORTHODONTICS Treatment of malocclusion Assist.Lec.Kasem A.Abeas University of Babylon Faculty of Dentistry 5 th stage Lec: Treatment of class I malocclusion Class I occlusion can be defined by Angles, classification as the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper 1 st permanent molar occlude with the developmental groove of the

More information

Problems of First Permanent Molars - The first group of permanent teeth erupt in the oral cavity. - Deep groove and pit

Problems of First Permanent Molars - The first group of permanent teeth erupt in the oral cavity. - Deep groove and pit Management of the poor first permanent e molar Assoc. Prof. Kadkao Vongsavan * Asst. Prof. Praphasri Rirattanapong* Dr. Pongsakorn Sakkamathya** ** * Department of Pediatric Dentistry Faculty of Dentistry,

More information

#45 Ortho-Tain, Inc PREVENTIVE ERUPTION GUIDANCE -- PREVENTIVE OCCLUSAL DEVELOPMENT

#45 Ortho-Tain, Inc PREVENTIVE ERUPTION GUIDANCE -- PREVENTIVE OCCLUSAL DEVELOPMENT #45 Ortho-Tain, Inc. 1-800-541-6612 PREVENTIVE ERUPTION GUIDANCE -- PREVENTIVE OCCLUSAL DEVELOPMENT Analysis and Diagnosis of Occlusion: The ideal child of 5 y ears of age that probably has the best chance

More information

Peninsula Dental Social Enterprise (PDSE)

Peninsula Dental Social Enterprise (PDSE) Peninsula Dental Social Enterprise (PDSE) Orthodontic Checklist for Clinics Version 3.0 Date approved: November 2017 Approved by: The Board Review due: November 2018 Policy will be updated as required

More information

Crowded Class II Division 2 Malocclusion

Crowded Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Crowded Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Clinicians: Drs. Chris Chang, Hsin-Yin Yeh, Sophia Pei-Wen Shu, W. Eugene Roberts Patient: Miss Jhan Pre-treatment Diagnosis An

More information

Case Report: Long-Term Outcome of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Treated with Rapid Palatal Expansion and Cervical Traction

Case Report: Long-Term Outcome of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Treated with Rapid Palatal Expansion and Cervical Traction Case Report Case Report: Long-Term Outcome of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Treated with Rapid Palatal Expansion and Cervical Traction Roberto M. A. Lima, DDS a ; Anna Leticia Lima, DDS b Abstract:

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS CANDIDATE NUMBER: Dr. Stefan Blasius Year: 2010 WBLO 01 EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS CANDIDATE NUMBER: Dr. Stefan Blasius Year: 2010 WBLO 01 RÉSUMÉ

More information

Class II Correction with Invisalign Molar rotation.

Class II Correction with Invisalign Molar rotation. Tips from your peers to help you treat with confidence. Class II Correction with Invisalign Molar rotation. Dr. Mazyar Moshiri. Class II Correction with Invisalign Molar Rotation. Dr. Mazyar Moshiri. Orthodontic

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS CANDIDATE NUMBER:44 CASE NUMBER: 2 Year: 2010 ESLO 01 RÉSUMÉ OF CASE 5 CASE CATEGORY: CLASS II DIVISION 1 MALOCCLUSION A MALOCCLUSION WITH SIGNIFICANT MANDIBULAR

More information

Treatment of Long face / Open bite

Treatment of Long face / Open bite In the name of GOD Treatment of Long face / Open bite in preadolescent children Presented by: Dr Somayeh Heidari Orthodontist Reference: Contemporary Orthodontics Chapter 13 William R. Proffit, Henry W.

More information

Class II correction with Invisalign - Combo treatments. Carriere Distalizer.

Class II correction with Invisalign - Combo treatments. Carriere Distalizer. Tips from your peers to help you treat with confidence. Class II correction with Invisalign - Combo treatments. Carriere Distalizer. Dr. Clark D. Colville. Carriere Distalizer and Invisalign Combo. A distalization

More information

The ASE Example Case Report 2010

The ASE Example Case Report 2010 The ASE Example Case Report 2010 The Requirements for Case Presentation in The Angle Society of Europe are specified in the Appendix I to the Bylaws. This example case report exemplifies how these requirements

More information

MEDICAL ASSISTANCE BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE

MEDICAL ASSISTANCE BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE BULLETIN COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE ISSUE DATE EFFECTIVE DATE NUMBER October 21,1996 October 28,1996 03-96-06 SUBJECT BY Information on New Procedures

More information

Sample Case #1. Disclaimer

Sample Case #1. Disclaimer ABO Sample Cases Disclaimer Sample Case #1 The following sample questions and answers were composed and vetted by a panel of experts in orthodontics and are intended to provide an example of the types

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS CANDIDATE NUMBER : 13 Dr. Masatoshi Sana CASE NUMBER : Year : ESLO 01 RÉSUMÉ OF CASE 2 CASE CATEGORY: CLASS I MALOCCLUSION NAME: BORN: SEX: Yukari K. 08/03/1979

More information

UNILATERAL UPPER MOLAR DISTALIZATION IN A SEVERE CASE OF CLASS II MALOCCLUSION. CASE PRESENTATION. 1*

UNILATERAL UPPER MOLAR DISTALIZATION IN A SEVERE CASE OF CLASS II MALOCCLUSION. CASE PRESENTATION. 1* UNILATERAL UPPER MOLAR DISTALIZATION IN A SEVERE CASE OF CLASS II MALOCCLUSION. CASE PRESENTATION. 1* Department of Orthodontics and Pedodontics 1 Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Medicine and

More information

AAO / AAPD Scottsdale 2018

AAO / AAPD Scottsdale 2018 AAO / AAPD Scottsdale 2018 Missing Premolars : What are the Options? David Kennedy Clinical Professor UBC Vancouver Canada drdavidkennedy@yahoo.ca At what age can you know second premolars are absent?

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS Dr. Masatoshi Sana Year: ESLO 01 RÉSUMÉ OF CASE 8 CASE CATEGORY: TRANS / VERTICAL DISCREPANCY NAME: Akiko T. BORN : 15/03/1973 SEX: F PRE-TREATMENT RECORDS: AGE:

More information

OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS

OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS CANDIDATE NUMBER: KDr. KP. kanarelis CASE NUMBER: 1 Year: 2010 WBLO 01 RESUME OF CASE 1 CASE CATEGORY: ADULT MALOCCLUSION NAME : IOANNIS.G BORN: 03.01.1989 SEX:

More information

Corporate Medical Policy

Corporate Medical Policy Corporate Medical Policy File Name: Origination: Last CAP Review: Next CAP Review: Last Review: orthodontics_for_pediatric_patients 2/2014 10/2017 10/2018 10/2017 Description of Procedure or Service Children

More information

Hypodontia is the developmental absence of at

Hypodontia is the developmental absence of at CASE REPORT Orthodontic treatment for a patient with hypodontia involving the maxillary lateral incisors Saud A. Al-Anezi Kuwait City, Kuwait Developmental absence of maxillary lateral incisors is not

More information

Arrangement of the artificial teeth:

Arrangement of the artificial teeth: Lecture Prosthodontic Dr. Osama Arrangement of the artificial teeth: It s the placement of the teeth on a denture with definite objective in mind or it s the setting of teeth on temporary bases. Rules

More information

#39 Ortho-Tain, Inc

#39 Ortho-Tain, Inc 1 #39 Ortho-Tain, Inc. 1-800-541-6612 OPTIMUM ORTHODONTICS FOR THE 5 TO 12 YEAR-OLD BY COMBINING REMOVABLE AND FIXED APPLIANCES WITH THE USE OF THE NITE-GUIDE AND OCCLUS-O-GUIDE APPLIANCES INTRODUCTION:

More information

KJLO. A Sequential Approach for an Asymmetric Extraction Case in. Lingual Orthodontics. Case Report INTRODUCTION DIAGNOSIS

KJLO. A Sequential Approach for an Asymmetric Extraction Case in. Lingual Orthodontics. Case Report INTRODUCTION DIAGNOSIS KJLO Korean Journal of Lingual Orthodontics Case Report A Sequential Approach for an Asymmetric Extraction Case in Lingual Orthodontics Ji-Sung Jang 1, Kee-Joon Lee 2 1 Dream Orthodontic Clinic, Gimhae,

More information

Mesial Step Class I or Class III Dependent upon extent of step seen clinically and patient s growth pattern Refer for early evaluation (by 8 years)

Mesial Step Class I or Class III Dependent upon extent of step seen clinically and patient s growth pattern Refer for early evaluation (by 8 years) Orthodontics and Dentofacial Development Overview Development of Dentition Treatment Retention and Relapse Growth of Naso-Maxillary Complex Develops postnatally entirely by intramenbranous ossification

More information

Volume 22 No. 14 September Dentists, Federally Qualified Health Centers and Health Maintenance Organizations For Action

Volume 22 No. 14 September Dentists, Federally Qualified Health Centers and Health Maintenance Organizations For Action State of New Jersey Department of Human Services Division of Medical Assistance & Health Services Volume 22 No. 14 September 2012 TO: Dentists, Federally Qualified Health Centers and Health Maintenance

More information

MBT System as the 3rd Generation Programmed and Preadjusted Appliance System (PPAS) by Masatada Koga, D.D.S., Ph.D

MBT System as the 3rd Generation Programmed and Preadjusted Appliance System (PPAS) by Masatada Koga, D.D.S., Ph.D MBT System as the 3rd Generation Programmed and Preadjusted Appliance System (PPAS) by Masatada Koga, D.D.S., Ph.D Dr. Masatada Koga, D.D.S., Ph.D, is an assistant professor in the Department of Orthodontics

More information

Correction of Crowding using Conservative Treatment Approach

Correction of Crowding using Conservative Treatment Approach Case Report Correction of Crowding using Conservative Treatment Approach Dr Tapan Shah, 1 Dr Tarulatha Shyagali, 2 Dr Kalyani Trivedi 3 1 Senior Lecturer, 2 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Darshan

More information

Orthodontic Treatment Using The Dental VTO And MBT System

Orthodontic Treatment Using The Dental VTO And MBT System Orthodontic Treatment Using The Dental VTO And MBT System by Dr. Hideyuki Iyano Dr. Hideyuki Iyano, Department of Orthodontics, Ohu University School of Dentistry, Japan. He is also a member of the Japan

More information

NHS Orthodontic E-referral Guidance

NHS Orthodontic E-referral Guidance Greater Manchester NHS Orthodontic E-referral Guidance All orthodontic referrals for NHS care will be managed through the online Orthodontic Assessment and Treatment Interactive Form found at http://www.dental-referrals.org.

More information

OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS

OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS CANDIDATE NUMBER: KDr. KP. kanarelis CASE NUMBER: 2 Year: 2010 WBLO 01 RESUME OF CASE 2 CASE CATEGORY: ADULT MALOCCLUSION NAME : MARIA A. BORN: 18.04.1983 SEX:

More information

Management of Crowded Class 1 Malocclusion with Serial Extractions: Report of a Case

Management of Crowded Class 1 Malocclusion with Serial Extractions: Report of a Case Management of Crowded Class 1 Malocclusion with Serial Extractions: Report of a Case Hayder A. Hashim, BDS, MSc Abstract Aim: The purpose of this article is to show the value of serial extractions in a

More information

Gentle-Jumper- Non-compliance Class II corrector

Gentle-Jumper- Non-compliance Class II corrector 15 CASE REPORT Gentle-Jumper- Non-compliance Class II corrector Amit Prakash 1,O.P.Mehta 2, Kshitij Gupta 3 Swapnil Pandey 4 Deep Kumar Suryawanshi 4 1 Senior lecturer Bhopal - INDIA 2 Professor Bhopal

More information

Buccally Malposed Mesially Angulated Maxillary Canine Management

Buccally Malposed Mesially Angulated Maxillary Canine Management Buccally Malposed Mesially Angulated Maxillary Canine Management Suhad. H. Manhal,* Summery: Maxillary canine is an important tooth in all fields of dentistry. However, malposed upper canine is seemed

More information

#60 Ortho-Tain, Inc TIMING FOR CROWDING CORRECTIONS WITH THE OCCLUS-O-GUIDE AND NITE-GUIDE APPLIANCES

#60 Ortho-Tain, Inc TIMING FOR CROWDING CORRECTIONS WITH THE OCCLUS-O-GUIDE AND NITE-GUIDE APPLIANCES #60 Ortho-Tain, Inc. 1-800-541-6612 TIMING FOR CROWDING CORRECTIONS WITH THE OCCLUS-O-GUIDE AND NITE-GUIDE APPLIANCES Although timing is not as critical for the Occlus-o-Guide appliance as it is with the

More information

Orthodontic cases involving the extraction

Orthodontic cases involving the extraction SPECIAL ARTICLE For four sixes Paul Jonathan Sandler, BDS(Hons), MSc, FDSRCPS, DOrth, MOrth, a Robert Atkinson, BDS(Hons), LDSRCS, FDSRCS, b and Alison Margaret Murray, BDS, MSc, FDSRCPS, DOrth, MOrth

More information

A Modified Three-piece Base Arch for en masse Retraction and Intrusion in a Class II Division 1 Subdivision Case

A Modified Three-piece Base Arch for en masse Retraction and Intrusion in a Class II Division 1 Subdivision Case Dhaval Ranjitbhai Lekhadia, Gautham Hegde RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1149 A Modified Three-piece Base Arch for en masse Retraction and Intrusion in a Class II Division 1 Subdivision Case

More information

Angle Class II, division 2 malocclusion with deep overbite

Angle Class II, division 2 malocclusion with deep overbite BBO Case Report Angle Class II, division 2 malocclusion with deep overbite Arno Locks 1 Angle Class II, division 2, malocclusion is characterized by a Class II molar relation associated with retroclined

More information

Unilateral Horizontally Impacted Maxillary Canine and First Premolar Treated with a Double Archwire Technique

Unilateral Horizontally Impacted Maxillary Canine and First Premolar Treated with a Double Archwire Technique Case Report Unilateral Horizontally Impacted Maxillary Canine and First Premolar Treated with a Double Archwire Technique Chien-Lun Peng a ; Yu-Yu Su b ; Sheng-Yang Lee c Abstract: A patient with a unilateral

More information

Maxillary Expansion and Protraction in Correction of Midface Retrusion in a Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patient

Maxillary Expansion and Protraction in Correction of Midface Retrusion in a Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patient Case Report Maxillary Expansion and Protraction in Correction of Midface Retrusion in a Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patient Masayoshi Kawakami, DDS, PhD a ; Takakazu Yagi, DDS, PhD b ; Kenji

More information

Nonsurgical Treatment of Adult Open Bite Using Edgewise Appliance Combined with High-Pull Headgear and Class III Elastics

Nonsurgical Treatment of Adult Open Bite Using Edgewise Appliance Combined with High-Pull Headgear and Class III Elastics Case Report Nonsurgical Treatment of Adult Open Bite Using Edgewise Appliance Combined with High-Pull Headgear and Class III Elastics Isao Saito, DDS, PhD a ; Masaki Yamaki, DDS, PhD b ; Kooji Hanada,

More information

Invisalign technique in the treatment of adults with pre-restorative concerns

Invisalign technique in the treatment of adults with pre-restorative concerns Mampieri and Giancotti Progress in Orthodontics 2013, 14:40 REVIEW Open Access Invisalign technique in the treatment of adults with pre-restorative concerns Gianluca Mampieri * and Aldo Giancotti Abstract

More information

Checklist with summary points

Checklist with summary points Checklist with summary points Question 1: Are your doctor Invisalign preferences on your home page up to date? Go to your doctor home page and open up your doctor preferences pages. Be sure to update item

More information

Significant improvement with limited orthodontics anterior crossbite in an adult patient

Significant improvement with limited orthodontics anterior crossbite in an adult patient VARIA Significant improvement with limited orthodontics anterior crossbite in an adult patient Arzu Ari-Demirkaya Istanbul, Turkey Summary Objectives. Orthodontic treatment is known to last as long as

More information

Fixed Twin Blocks. Guidelines for case selection are similar to those for removable Twin Block appliances.

Fixed Twin Blocks. Guidelines for case selection are similar to those for removable Twin Block appliances. Fixed Twin Blocks Development of Fixed Twin Blocks Dr Clark has enjoyed the cooperation of Dynaflex in developing the Fixed Twin Block. Six years of clinical testing has confirmed that this technique produces

More information

Crowding and protrusion treated by unusual extractions

Crowding and protrusion treated by unusual extractions SM 3M Health Care Academy Crowding and protrusion treated by unusual extractions Gianluigi Fiorillo, DDS Dr. Gianluigi Fiorillo received his degree in Dentistry from La Sapienza University of Rome in 1992

More information

Extractions of first permanent molars in orthodontics: Treatment planning, technical considerations and two clinical case reports

Extractions of first permanent molars in orthodontics: Treatment planning, technical considerations and two clinical case reports Case Report 41 Extractions of first permanent molars in orthodontics: Treatment planning, technical considerations and two clinical case reports Ashok Surana a, Siddhartha Dhar b, SurajitChakrabarty c,

More information

Definition and History of Orthodontics

Definition and History of Orthodontics In the name of GOD Definition and History of Orthodontics Presented by: Dr Somayeh Heidari Orthodontist Reference: Contemporary Orthodontics Chapter 1 William R. Proffit, Henry W. Fields, David M.Sarver.

More information

Controlled tooth movement to correct an iatrogenic problem

Controlled tooth movement to correct an iatrogenic problem CASE REPORT Controlled tooth movement to correct an iatrogenic problem Rhita Cristina Cunha Almeida, a Felipe de Assis R. Carvalho, a Marco Antonio Almeida, b Jonas Capelli Junior, c and Walter Augusto

More information

AUSTRALASIAN ORTHODONTIC BOARD

AUSTRALASIAN ORTHODONTIC BOARD AUSTRALASIAN ORTHODONTIC BOARD CASE IDENTIFICATION 18 - ST AUSTRALASIAN ORTHODONTIC BOARD CASE DETAILS (Form 2) After you have received your AOB Number, you must submit to your State Convenor 1 : Form

More information

Ortho-surgical Management of Severe Vertical Dysplasia: A Case Report

Ortho-surgical Management of Severe Vertical Dysplasia: A Case Report Case Report Ortho-surgical Management of Severe Vertical Dysplasia: A Case Report 1 Vinni Arora, 2 Rekha Sharma, 3 Sachin Parashar 1 Senior Resident, 2 Professor and Head of Department, 3 Former Resident

More information

For many years, patients with

For many years, patients with Dr. Robert Lowe is one of the great teachers in dentistry. Recently, he received the Gordon J. Christensen Award from the Chicago Dental Society in recognition of his excellence in teaching. Some of my

More information

Dental Morphology and Vocabulary

Dental Morphology and Vocabulary Dental Morphology and Vocabulary Palate Palate Palate 1 2 Hard Palate Rugae Hard Palate Palate Palate Soft Palate Palate Palate Soft Palate 4 Palate Hard Palate Soft Palate Maxillary Arch (Maxilla) (Uppers)

More information

Concepts of occlusion Balanced occlusion. Monoplane occlusion. Lingualized occlusion. Figure (10-1)

Concepts of occlusion Balanced occlusion. Monoplane occlusion. Lingualized occlusion. Figure (10-1) Any contact between teeth of opposing dental arches; usually, referring to contact between the occlusal surface. The static relationship between the incising or masticatory surfaces of the maxillary or

More information

The following standards and procedures apply to the provision of orthodontic services for children in the Medicaid/NJ FamilyCare (NJFC) programs.

The following standards and procedures apply to the provision of orthodontic services for children in the Medicaid/NJ FamilyCare (NJFC) programs. B.4.2.11 Orthodontic Services The following standards and procedures apply to the provision of orthodontic services for children in the Medicaid/NJ FamilyCare (NJFC) programs. Orthodontic Consultation

More information

Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) from the orthodontic point of view

Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) from the orthodontic point of view Article ID: WMC005389 ISSN 2046-1690 Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) from the orthodontic point of view Peer review status: No Corresponding Author: Dr. Debora Loli, DDS, Sapienza University of

More information

Arrangement of posterior artificial teeth Standardized parameters Curve of Wilson Curve of Spee

Arrangement of posterior artificial teeth Standardized parameters Curve of Wilson Curve of Spee . Arrangement of posterior artificial teeth Posterior teeth are set up in tight centric occlusion. The mandibular teeth are set in the wax occlusion rim over the residual ridge in their ideal buccolingual

More information

Case Report n 2. Patient. Age: ANB 8 OJ 4.5 OB 5.5

Case Report n 2. Patient. Age: ANB 8 OJ 4.5 OB 5.5 Case Report n 2 Patient Age: 12.11 Diagnosis Angle cl.ii div.2 ANB 8 OJ 4.5 OB 5.5 Author: Dr. Case History The patient is a thirteen year old girl who exhibits delayed development, both physically and

More information

ORTHODONTIC INITIAL ASSESSMENT FORM (OIAF) w/ INSTRUCTIONS

ORTHODONTIC INITIAL ASSESSMENT FORM (OIAF) w/ INSTRUCTIONS Use the accompanying Tip Sheet and How to Score the Orthodontic Initial Assessment Form for guidance in completion of the assessment form. You will need this score sheet and a disposable ruler (or a Boley

More information

Case Report Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign

Case Report Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign Case Reports in Dentistry, Article ID 657657, 4 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/657657 Case Report Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign Khalid H. Zawawi Department

More information

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF BUCCAL CROSSBITE OF MAXILLARY SECOND MOLAR

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF BUCCAL CROSSBITE OF MAXILLARY SECOND MOLAR Short Communication International Journal of Dental and Health Sciences Volume 01,Issue 03 A SIMPLE METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF BUCCAL CROSSBITE OF MAXILLARY SECOND MOLAR Sumit Yadav 1,Davender Kumar 2,Achla

More information

Research methodology University of Turku, Finland

Research methodology University of Turku, Finland Research methodology Prospective, controlled cohort study started in 1998 Treatment group: 167 children Treatment with eruption guidance appliance only Control group: 104 children No Keski-Nisula K; Keski-Nisula

More information

Preventive Orthodontics

Preventive Orthodontics Semmelweis University Faculty of Dentistry Department in Community Dentistry director: Dr. Kivovics Péter assoc.prof. http://semmelweis-egyetem.hu/fszoi/ https://www.facebook.com/fszoi Preventive Orthodontics

More information

Early Mixed Dentition Period

Early Mixed Dentition Period REVIEW ARTIC CLE AODMR The Effects of a Prefabricated Functional Appliance in Early Mixed Dentition Period Toshio Iwata 1, Takashi Usui 2, Nobukazu Shirakawa 2, Toshitsugu Kawata 3 1 Doctor of Philosophy

More information

Case Report. profile relaxed relaxed smiling. How would you treat this malocclusion?

Case Report. profile relaxed relaxed smiling. How would you treat this malocclusion? Pre-Treatment profile relaxed relaxed smiling How would you treat this malocclusion? Case R. C. 16 years, 9 months introduction This female adolescent with bilabial protrusion and flared upper anterior

More information

Ectopic upper canine associated to ectopic lower second bicuspid. Case report

Ectopic upper canine associated to ectopic lower second bicuspid. Case report Original Article Published on 15-06-2001 In Italiano, per favore En Español, por favor Ectopic upper canine associated to ectopic lower second bicuspid. Case report A.R. Mazzocchi* * MD DDS. Corresponding

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS KANARELIS PANAGIOTIS (TAKIS) CASE NUMBER: 1 Year: 2012 WBLO 1 RÉSUMÉ OF CASE 1 CASE CATEGORY: ADULT MALOCCLUSION NAME:

More information

2008 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission. Correction of Asymmetry with a Mandibular Propulsion Appliance

2008 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission.   Correction of Asymmetry with a Mandibular Propulsion Appliance 2008 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission. www.jco-online.com CASE REPORT Correction of Asymmetry with a Mandibular Propulsion Appliance JOSÉ AUGUSTO MENDES MIGUEL, DDS, MSC, PHD GUSTAVO

More information

Class II Correction using Combined Twin Block and Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Case Report

Class II Correction using Combined Twin Block and Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Case Report Case Report Print ISSN: 2321-6379 Online ISSN: 2321-595X DOI: 10.17354/ijss/2017/506 Class II Correction using Combined Twin Block and Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Case Report Ahmed Alassiry Assistant

More information

Extraction Planning in Orthodontics

Extraction Planning in Orthodontics Review article 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2307 1 Mustafa Harith Al-Ani, 2 Adil Osman Mageet ABSTRACT Introduction: Planning extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment is one of the challenging factors

More information

Development of occlusion:

Development of occlusion: : Dr.Issam Aljorani (BDS, MSc. Ortho.) Postnatal development of the dentition When a child is born, mineralization of all the primary tooth crowns is well underway, with this process also beginning in

More information

Correction of a maxillary canine-first premolar transposition using mini-implant anchorage

Correction of a maxillary canine-first premolar transposition using mini-implant anchorage CASE REPORT Correction of a maxillary canine-first premolar transposition using mini-implant anchorage Mehmet Oguz Oztoprak, DDS, MSc, a Cigdem Demircan, DDS, b Tulin Arun, PhD, DDS, MSc c Transposition

More information

The role of removable appliances in contemporary orthodontics S. J. Littlewood, 1 A. G. Tait, 2 N. A. Mandall, 3 and D. H.

The role of removable appliances in contemporary orthodontics S. J. Littlewood, 1 A. G. Tait, 2 N. A. Mandall, 3 and D. H. The role of removable in contemporary S. J. Littlewood, 1 A. G. Tait, 2 N. A. Mandall, 3 and D. H. Lewis, 4 The contemporary uses of removable are considerably more limited than in the past. This article

More information

ISW for the treatment of adult anterior crossbite with severe crowding combined facial asymmetry case

ISW for the treatment of adult anterior crossbite with severe crowding combined facial asymmetry case International Research Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Vol.3 (2),pp. 15-29, November 2018 Available online at http://www.journalissues.org/irjmbs/ https://doi.org/10.15739/irjmbs.18.004 Copyright

More information

Keeping all these knowledge in mind I will show you 3 cases treated with the Forsus appliance.

Keeping all these knowledge in mind I will show you 3 cases treated with the Forsus appliance. Due to technical difficulties there were some audio problems with the webinar recording. Starting at 27:54, please use this guide to follow along with Dr. Kercelli s presentation. Keeping all these knowledge

More information

TransForce 2. Arch Developer Appliances Clinical Cases. New Horizons In Orthodontics

TransForce 2. Arch Developer Appliances Clinical Cases. New Horizons In Orthodontics TransForce 2 Arch Developer Appliances Clinical Cases New Horizons In Orthodontics New Horizons In Orthodontics Transverse and Sagittal Arch Development Dr. William Clark has 50 years experience in orthodontic

More information

Dental Anatomy and Occlusion

Dental Anatomy and Occlusion CHAPTER 53 Dental Anatomy and Occlusion Ma Lou C. Sabino DDS, and Emily G. Smythe, DDS What numerical system is used most commonly in the United States for designating the adult dentition? Pediatric dentition?

More information

The Tip-Edge Concept: Eliminating Unnecessary Anchorage Strain

The Tip-Edge Concept: Eliminating Unnecessary Anchorage Strain Welcome Ron Not Ron? Click here. My Account The Tip-Edge Concept: Eliminating Unnecessary Anchorage Strain VOLUME 26 : NUMBER 03 : PAGES (165-178) 1992 CHRISTOPHER K. KESLING, DDS, MS Tooth movement in

More information

Congenitally missing mandibular premolars treatment options for space closure. Educational aims and objectives. Expected outcomes

Congenitally missing mandibular premolars treatment options for space closure. Educational aims and objectives. Expected outcomes Congenitally missing mandibular premolars treatment options for space closure Dr. Mark W. McDonough discusses recognition and treatment planning for congenitally missing second premolars Introduction The

More information

Treatment of Class II, Division 2 Malocclusion in Adults: Biomechanical Considerations FLAVIO URIBE, DDS, MDS RAVINDRA NANDA, BDS, MDS, PHD

Treatment of Class II, Division 2 Malocclusion in Adults: Biomechanical Considerations FLAVIO URIBE, DDS, MDS RAVINDRA NANDA, BDS, MDS, PHD REPRINTED FROM JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ORTHODONTICS 1828 PEARL STREET, BOULDER, COLORADO 80302 Treatment of Class II, Division 2 Malocclusion in Adults: Biomechanical Considerations FLAVIO URIBE, DDS, MDS

More information

ADOLESCENT TREATMENT. Thomas J. Cangialosi. Stella S. Efstratiadis. CHAPTER 18 Pages CLASS II DIVISION 1 WHY NOW?

ADOLESCENT TREATMENT. Thomas J. Cangialosi. Stella S. Efstratiadis. CHAPTER 18 Pages CLASS II DIVISION 1 WHY NOW? ADOLESCENT By Thomas J. Cangialosi and Stella S. Efstratiadis From Riolo, M. and Avery, J. Eds., Essentials for Orthodontic Practice, EFOP Press of EFOP, LLC. Ann Arbor and Grand Haven, Michigan, U.S.A.,

More information

What Happens When No Space Maintainer Was Used

What Happens When No Space Maintainer Was Used What Happens When No Space Maintainer Was Used When surgery isn t an option, the case is up for debate. Posted: 4/5/2011 Post: 1 of 32 This patient presents wanting straight teeth and he wants me to pull

More information

The Modified Twin Block Appliance in the Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions

The Modified Twin Block Appliance in the Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions Journal of Orthodontics/Vol. 28/2001/271 280 The Modified Twin Block Appliance in the Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions F. M. V. DYER H. F. MCKEOWN P. J. SANDLER Department of Orthodontics,

More information

CASE: EXTRACTION Dr. TRAINING M (CA) Caucasian AGE: 8.6 VISUAL NORMS RMO X: 02/06/ R: 02/21/2003 MISSING PERMANENT TEETH RMO 2003

CASE: EXTRACTION Dr. TRAINING M (CA) Caucasian AGE: 8.6 VISUAL NORMS RMO X: 02/06/ R: 02/21/2003 MISSING PERMANENT TEETH RMO 2003 O C RMO CASE: EXTRACTION Dr. TRAINING M (CA) Caucasian AGE:. X: // - R: // MISSING PERMANENT TEETH VISUAL NORMS RMO R L RMO Diagnostic Services RMO, Inc. ()- Post Office Box ()- Canoga Park, CA - EXTRACTION

More information

2007 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission.

2007 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission. 2007 JCO, Inc. May not be distributed without permission. www.jco-online.com CSE REPORT Correction of an symmetrical Class II Malocclusion Using Predictable Force Systems PIERO PLCIOS, DDS, MDS FLVIO URIBE,

More information

Lower first permanent molars: developing better predictors of spontaneous space closure

Lower first permanent molars: developing better predictors of spontaneous space closure European Journal of Orthodontics, 2016, 90 95 doi:10.1093/ejo/cjv029 Advance Access publication 17 April 2015 Original Article Lower first permanent molars: developing better predictors of spontaneous

More information

CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS CROWDING

CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS CROWDING CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS CROWDING CROWDING CASES TREAT MOST PREDICTABLY WHEN: Anterior teeth are retroclined or upright. Arches are narrow with posterior teeth tipped lingually, particularly cuspids and

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS

EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF LINGUAL ORTHODONTISTS CANDIDATE NUMBER: 44 CASE NUMBER: 1 Year: ESLO 01 RÉSUMÉ OF CASE 1 CASE CATEGORY: ADULT MALOCCLUSION NAME: K.N BORN: 03/03/1980 SEX: Male PRE-TREATMENT RECORDS:

More information

Forsus Class II Correctors as an Effective and Efficient Form of Anchorage in Extraction Cases

Forsus Class II Correctors as an Effective and Efficient Form of Anchorage in Extraction Cases Forsus Class II Correctors as an Effective and Efficient Form of Anchorage in Extraction Cases by Lisa Alvetro, DDS, MSD After receiving her DDS summa cum laude from Ohio State University, Dr. Alvetro

More information

You. Fix. Could. This? Treatment solutions for typical and atypical adult relapse. 78 SEPTEMBER 2017 // orthotown.com

You. Fix. Could. This? Treatment solutions for typical and atypical adult relapse. 78 SEPTEMBER 2017 // orthotown.com by Dan Grob, DDS, MS, editorial director, Orthotown magazine You Could Fix This? Treatment solutions for typical and atypical adult relapse 78 SEPTEMBER 2017 // orthotown.com OT0917_Mechanics_AG.indd 78

More information

The Tip-Edge appliance and

The Tip-Edge appliance and Figure 1: Internal surfaces of the edgewise archwire slot are modified to create the Tip-Edge archwire slot. Tipping surfaces (T) limit crown tipping during retraction. Uprighting surfaces (U) control

More information

Development of occlusion

Development of occlusion Development of occlusion The development of dentition is an important part of craniofacial growth as the formation, eruption, exfoliation and exchange of teeth take place during this period. Term occlusion

More information

APPENDIX A. MEDICAID ORTHODONTIC INITIAL ASSESSMENT FORM (IAF) You will need this scoresheet and a disposable ruler (or a Boley Gauge)

APPENDIX A. MEDICAID ORTHODONTIC INITIAL ASSESSMENT FORM (IAF) You will need this scoresheet and a disposable ruler (or a Boley Gauge) APPENDIX A MEDICAID ORTHODONTIC INITIAL ASSESSMENT FORM (IAF) You will need this scoresheet and a disposable ruler (or a Boley Gauge) Name: _ I. D. Number: Conditions: 1. Cleft palate deformities 2. Deep

More information

Non-surgical management of skeletal malocclusions: An assessment of 100 cases

Non-surgical management of skeletal malocclusions: An assessment of 100 cases Non-surgical management of skeletal malocclusions: An assessment of 100 cases In early 1970 s reduced risks associated with surgical procedures allowed the treatment planning process for skeletal malocclusions

More information

Ibelieve the time has come for the general dentists to

Ibelieve the time has come for the general dentists to EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT Brock Rondeau, D.D.S. I.B.O., D.A.B.C.P., D-A.C.S.D.D., D.A.B.D.S.M., D.A.B.C.D.S.M. Ibelieve the time has come for the general dentists to get serious and educated in an effort

More information

Orthodontics. Anomalies

Orthodontics. Anomalies Orthodontics Anomalies Anomalies of Teeth Groups of teeth Jaws Intermaxilary relations Anomalies of tooth number Hypodontics (hypodontia) the tooth (or teeth) are missing Third molars (if third molars

More information

Simple Mechanics to Upright Horizontally Impacted Molars with Ramus Screws

Simple Mechanics to Upright Horizontally Impacted Molars with Ramus Screws Simple Mechanics to Upright Horizontally Impacted Molars with Ramus Screws Abstract Simplified mechanics are reported for uprighting horizontally impacted mandibular molars with ramus bone screws. A 27-year-old

More information