1 July, 2018 Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.0 TREATMENT OF LATENT TB INFECTION (LTBI) Overview Procedure for Initiation of LTBI Treatment Recommended LTBI Treatment Regimens Drugs and Dosages Drug Side Effects / Adverse Reactions, and Drug-Drug Interactions Client Education Drug Supplies Baseline Testing Monitoring Management of Adverse Reactions to LTBI Treatment Supporting Adherence to LTBI Treatment Directly Observed Preventive Treatment (DOPT) LTBI Treatment Completion Follow-up after Completion of LTBI Treatment Management of Clients with LTBI that Decline or Cannot Take Treatment, or Discontinue LTBI Treatment Prior to Completion Treatment of LTBI during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding Management of Clients with Presumed Drug-Resistant LTBI Isoniazid Overdose REFERENCES... 18
2 Page TREATMENT OF LATENT TB INFECTION (LTBI) Treatment of LTBI can prevent development of active TB disease for those infected with TB bacteria. In BC, an emphasis is placed on treating LTBI in the following: Those infected within the previous two years (e.g., close contacts to infectious cases, people with demonstrated TST conversions or new positive IGRA). Immigrants and refugees from high-tb prevalence countries Contacts under 5 and those with substantial immune suppression requiring presumptive LTBI treatment (see Section 8.3.2). Those with LTBI and risk factors that substantially increase the likelihood of progression to active TB disease, including but not limited to: o HIV infection or AIDS o Chronic kidney disease on dialysis or end-stage o o o o o Organ transplant (related to immune suppressing treatment) Treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors and/or other immune suppressing drugs/therapies such as chemotherapy or systemic corticosteroids (equivalent of 15 mg/day of prednisone for 2 weeks or longer) Abnormal chest x-ray consistent with prior TB (e.g., fibronodular disease) Carcinoma of head and neck Silicosis Unlike treatment of active TB disease, treatment of LTBI is voluntary. Clients, or their parents/guardians, may decline treatment or elect to discontinue treatment at any time. It is essential that active TB disease be ruled out before LTBI treatment is initiated. LTBI is usually treated with a single anti-tb drug (monotherapy) but a combination regimen may be an option for some clients (see Section 6.1). Treating for LTBI in the presence of active TB disease can result in: Development of TB drug resistance (acquired drug resistance). Delayed cure, and increased risk for morbidity/mortality. Delayed diagnosis leading to prolonged infectiousness and transmission from cases with active respiratory TB disease. 6.1 Overview Recommendations for LTBI treatment regimens are individualized to ensure the benefit (prevention of active TB disease) outweighs the risks for potential adverse effects and that treatment completion is achievable. Some medical considerations include: Potential for serious drug-drug interactions or complications to co-morbidities. Risk for hepatotoxicity: may occur with both isoniazid and rifampin (lower rate). Adjusting treatment regimens and/or enhanced monitoring may be used with clients at increased risk for hepatotoxicity when the risk of progression to TB disease is very high. Drug sensitivity of the organism and likelihood that the client is infected with a drug-resistant strain of TB bacteria. For example, contacts of cases with isoniazid-resistant TB disease would likely be treated with rifampin instead of isoniazid and vice-versa. Adherence: shorter course regimens may be prescribed to support completion of LTBI treatment. Also, directly observed preventative treatment (DOPT) may be recommended to improve adherence (see Sec 6.11).
3 Page 3 Alignment with comorbidity care plan: shorter course regimens may be prescribed to support completion of LTBI treatment in a timely manner to facilitate moving forward with other medical care (eg. organ transplant, TNF-alpha inhibitor therapy). There are also client-centred considerations such as stigma, transportation issues, and/or time absent from work that are factors in determining appropriate treatment regimens. Recommendations for LTBI therapy in BC include: 4 months daily, self-administered rifampin (4R) 9 months daily, self-administered isoniazid (9H) 12 doses, once weekly, directly observed isoniazid/rifapentine (3HP)* *Note: This regimen is currently available to BCCDC TB Clinic clients through Health Canada s Access to Drugs in Exceptional Circumstances pathway. The current first line regimen for LTBI treatment in BC is 4 months of daily, self-administered Rifampin. Further details on recommended LTBI treatment regimens are described in Section 6.3. Refer to Section for information on management of contacts taking presumptive LTBI treatment (e.g. window period prophylaxis). When LTBI is diagnosed during pregnancy, treatment is usually deferred until at least three months post-partum (see Section 6.15). Monitoring for medication side effects and other adverse reactions is done throughout LTBI care. Routine baseline and ongoing monitoring requirements are described in Section 6.8 and Section 6.9. For some clients, monitoring will also include chest x-rays at the end of LTBI treatment (see Section 6.13). Duration of treatment and determination of treatment completion are dependent upon: TB drugs used; treatment schedule and whether treatment was self-administered or directly observed. Adherence and treatment interval. Clients with untreated or incompletely treated LTBI remain at risk for active TB disease. Some are followed periodically, typically for a period of 2 years from the time of diagnosis, when known to be a recent TB contact or evidence of recent TST conversion or IGRA conversion (see Section 6.14). Periodic follow-up may also be recommended for clients thought to be infected with drug-resistant TB bacteria and for those with significant immune suppression, regardless of whether LTBI treatment was completed (see Section 6.13). LTBI treatment is rarely repeated but may be considered for clients with severe immune compromise following significant re-exposure to infectious TB.
4 6.2 Procedure for Initiation of LTBI Treatment Figure 6-1, Flowchart for initiation of LTBI treatment Communicable Disease Control Manual Page 4
5 6.3 Recommended LTBI Treatment Regimens Recommendations for LTBI therapy in BC include: Communicable Disease Control Manual August, 2018 Page 5 4 months daily, self-administered (or daily directly observed) rifampin (4R) Rifabutin may be substituted for rifampin for clients with HIV infection, transplant clients, or those on medications known to interact as rifabutin has fewer drug interactions than rifampin. 9 months daily, self-administered (or twice weekly directly observed) isoniazid (9H) Supplemental pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is added to the treatment regimen for clients (usually those greater than 16 years of age) who are at an increased risk for TB medication-induced neuropathies doses, once weekly, directly observed isoniazid/rifapentine (3HP) Isoniazid and rifapentine is not recommended for some clients: children less than 2 years; people living with HIV/AIDS taking anti-retroviral treatment with unacceptable drug interactions with rifapentine; pregnant or planning pregnancy during treatment; presumed to be infected with isoniazid or rifampin-resistant organism; hypersensitivity to rifamycins. Alternate LTBI treatment regimens are used for clients likely infected with drug-resistant TB bacteria (see Section 6.16). The actual duration of LTBI treatment is determined by how long it takes for the client to complete the prescribed number of doses (see Table 6-1) Table 6-1: Number of doses required to complete LTBI treatment regimens Medications Dosing Frequency Required Number of Doses to Complete LTBI therapy Rifampin Once daily for four months 120 doses Isoniazid Once daily for nine months 270 doses Isoniazid Twice weekly for nine months Ω 76 doses, directly observed Isoniazid and Rifapentine* Once weekly for 12 weeks 12 doses, directly observed Ω Twice weekly DOPT should only be used if daily regimen or isoniazid/rifapentine regimen are not feasible or successful. *Regimen available at BCCDC TB Clinics only (see Section 6.1). Practitioner Alert! Confirm the prescription against the client s weight at the time of treatment start. Consult with TB Services prior to dispensing the initial supply of TB drugs or administering the initial DOPT doses when there appears to be discrepancies between prescriptions and recommended doses in Table Breastfed infants; children with nutritionally deficient diets (including meat and/or milk deficiencies); clients with risk factors for pyridoxine deficiency, such as: HIV; pregnancy/breastfeeding; diabetes; renal failure; malnutrition; substance abuse; seizure disorder.
6 Page Drugs and Dosages Table 6-2: Summary of drugs and dosing for LTBI treatment regimens (3,1,2) Medication Formulations Daily Dose Twice Weekly Dose Once-Weekly Combination Regimen Child Adult Child Adult Child Ω Adult Rifampin Φ Rifabutin Φ Rifapentine Ψ Capsules (PO): 150 mg 300 mg Injection Ψ (IV): 600 mg per10 ml Capsules (PO): 150 mg Tablets (PO): 150 mg 15 mg/kg (10 20 mg/kg) Maximum: 600 mg 10 mg/kg Maximum: 600 mg Consult with TB physician as depends on other medications* For persons > 50 kg, 900 mg maximum For persons kg = 750 mg For persons kg = 600 mg Isoniazid Tablets (PO): 100 mg 300 mg Syrup (PO): 10 mg/ml Injection (IM) Ψ 100 mg per ml 10 mg/kg (10-15 mg/kg) Maximum: 300 mg 5 mg/kg Maximum: 300 mg mg/kg Maximum: mg 15 mg/kg Maximum: 900 mg 15 mg/kg Maximum: 900 mg 15 mg/kg Maximum: 900 mg Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) Tablets (PO): 25 mg 50 mg 100 mg Ω For children 12 years of age. Φ Formulas are available for compounding oral capsules or tablets into liquid suspension. Ψ Available through Health Canada s Access to Drugs in Exceptional Circumstances pathway. Breastfed infants; children with nutritionally deficient diets (including meat and/or milk deficiencies). * Daily doses can be divided to reduce gastrointestinal upsets. As indicated 25 mg As indicated 50 mg As indicated 50 mg
7 Page Drug Side Effects / Adverse Reactions, and Drug-Drug Interactions Table 6-3: Drugs included in LTBI treatment regimens and associated side effects (3) TB drug Isoniazid Rifampin Φ Rifabutin Φ Rifapentine Φ Common side effects/adverse reactions rash drug-induced hepatitis peripheral neuropathy nausea/vomiting Ψ fatigue, drowsiness Ψ diarrhea flushing reaction with tyramine or histamine containing foods rash nausea/vomiting Ψ diarrhea dizziness saliva, sweat, urine, feces, tears can become orange/red in colour (harmless but could permanently stain soft contact lenses, dentures) drug-induced hepatitis and/or hyperbilirubinemia flushing and itching, with or without rash rash nausea Ψ diarrhea taste disturbances saliva, sweat, urine, feces, tears can become brown/orange in colour (harmless but could permanently stain soft contact lenses or dentures) drug-induced hepatitis and/or hyperbilirubinemia rash, itching nausea/vomiting Ψ diarrhea dizziness headache conjunctivitis saliva, sweat, urine, feces, tears can become orange/red in colour (harmless but could permanently stain soft contact lenses or dentures) drug-induced hepatitis and/or hyperbilirubinemia Uncommon but important side effects/adverse reactions central nervous system toxicity anemia headache mild hair loss acne flu-like illness with fever hypotension leukopenia thrombocytopenia leukopenias thrombocytopenia uveitis (eye pain, change in vision, or sensitivity to light) arthralgias hypersensitivity reactions (flu-like symptoms) angioedema, hypotension or shock shortness of breath, bronchospasm, wheezing neutropenia thrombocytopenia Symptoms can include anorexia (loss of appetite), nausea and/or vomiting, abdominal discomfort (especially over right upper quadrant), unexplained fatigue, dark-coloured urine, scleral icterus or jaundice. Ψ Can also be a symptom of drug-induced hepatitis. Liquid preparations containing sorbitol may be associated with diarrhea. Φ There are a number of important drug interactions associated with rifamycins. Refer to Micromedex or Lexicomp.
8 Page Drug-Drug Interactions Refer to Section Client Education Refer to Section Drug Supplies Refer to Section Baseline Testing Blood Testing Refer to Table 6-4 for routine baseline blood testing requirements for clients taking rifampin or rifabutin, and to Table 6-5 for clients taking isoniazid. Baseline blood testing for clients less than 16 years of age is generally not required unless there is risk for liver toxicity (e.g., those with pre-existing liver disease or taking concurrent hepatotoxic medications). Baseline blood tests should be completed prior to LTBI treatment requests being submitted to TB Services (see Section 6.2). Additional blood tests and/or alternate treatment regimens may be recommended by the client s MRP or a TB Services physician. AST is the transaminase preferred by TB Services for monitoring liver function during treatment with TB drugs. When existing blood work includes an ALT and no AST, the ALT value may be accepted in place of repeating the blood draw to obtain an AST. Results from blood tests done within the prior 6 months can be used as baseline results provided they are within normal limits and the client does not have any of the following risk factors for hepatotoxicity: 65 years or older Pregnant or within first three months postpartum History of previous drug-induced hepatitis Current cirrhosis or chronic active hepatitis of any cause Pre-existing liver disease, particularly Hepatitis C, or hepatitis B with abnormal transaminases in the past Daily alcohol consumption Concomitant use of other hepatotoxic drugs (e.g., methotrexate) Existing blood test results for clients with any of the above risk factors should not be used as baseline results beyond 30 days from when the tests were performed. See Section for guidelines for monitoring AST levels. Risk factors for drug-induced hepatotoxicity can include: pregnancy or first 3 months postpartum; history of previous drug-induced hepatitis; current cirrhosis or chronic active hepatitis of any cause; hepatitis C; hepatitis B with abnormal transaminases; daily alcohol consumption or concomitant treatment with other
9 Page 9 hepatotoxic drugs (e.g., methotrexate). HIV is not an independent risk for drug-induced hepatitis. See Table 6-4, Table 6-5 and Table 6-6 for monitoring recommendations Weight Document weight at baseline for all clients starting LTBI treatment. Baseline weight is especially important for pediatric clients, whose prescriptions may need to be adjusted as they grow and gain weight. For clients under 16 years of age, confirm the prescription against weight at the time of treatment start (see Table 6-2). Consult TB Services prior to dispensing the initial supply of TB drugs or administering the initial DOPT dose when there appears to be discrepancies between prescriptions and recommended doses in Table 6-2.
10 Page Monitoring Table 6-4: Rifampin or rifabutin- Summary of baseline testing and ongoing monitoring for clients taking rifampin or rifabutin for LTBI treatment Actions Baseline Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Medical evaluation Ω If needed NOTE: Indicated for clients with liver toxicity, thrombocytopenia and/or signs/symptoms of TB or for clients who require chest x-ray at treatment completion. Clinical assessment Adherence assessment Chest x-ray ** Weight Monthly monitoring of weight for clients < 5 years old. AST, Total Bilirubin Φ, CBC Φ (NOTE: Testing of clients under 16 years is done as recommended by TB Services) 16 to to 50 > 50 Any age with risk factors for druginduced hepatitis Ψ Ω Defined as a physical examination and investigation of liver transaminase values and bilirubin levels by the MRP. For clients taking rifabutin, monitor for eye pain and/or changes in vision. A CXR done within the last 6 months may be used for baseline assessment, unless the client is immune compromised, then a CXR within the last 3 months is required. ** Generally only required for clients with TB-related abnormalities noted on their initial chest x-rays. Baseline weights are required for all LTBI clients. Φ Total Bilirubin and CBC results to be managed by the MRP. Forward abnormal results to TB Services. Ψ See Section
11 Page 11 Table 6-5: Isoniazid- Summary of baseline testing and ongoing monitoring for clients taking isoniazid for LTBI treatment (4) Actions Baseline Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6 Month 7 Month 8 Month 9 Medical evaluation Ω If needed NOTE: Indicated for clients with liver toxicity and/or signs/symptoms of TB or for clients who require chest x-ray at treatment completion. Clinical assessment Adherence assessment Chest x-ray ** Weight Monthly monitoring of weight for clients < 5 years old. AST (NOTE: Testing of clients under 16 is only indicated when recommended by TB Services) 16 to to 50 > 50 Any age with risk factors for druginduced hepatitis Ψ Ω Defined as a physical examination and investigation of liver transaminase values and bilirubin levels by the MRP. ** Generally only required for clients with TB-related abnormalities noted on their initial chest x-rays. A CXR done within the last 6 months may be used for baseline assessment, unless the client is immune compromised, then a CXR within the last 3 months is required. Baseline weights are required for all LTBI clients. Ψ See Section
12 Page 12 Table 6-6: Isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) - Summary of baseline testing and ongoing monitoring for clients taking 3HP for LTBI treatment Actions Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Medical evaluation Ω If needed NOTE: Indicated for clients with liver toxicity, thrombocytopenia, and/or signs/symptoms of TB or for clients who require chest x-ray at treatment completion. Clinical assessment Adherence assessment Chest x-ray ** Weight Bloodwork: AST, Total Bilirubin & CBC Φ Ω Defined as a physical examination and investigation of liver transaminase values and bilirubin levels by the MRP. A CXR done within the last 6 months may be used for baseline assessment, unless the client is immune compromised, then a CXR within the last 3 months is required. ** Generally only required for clients with TB-related abnormalities noted on their initial chest x-rays. Φ Total Bilirubin and CBC results to be managed by the MRP. Forward abnormal results to TB Services.
13 Page Side Effects / Adverse Reactions and Drug-Drug Interactions Common and/or important side effects and adverse reactions associated with isoniazid, rifabutin, rifampin and rifapentine are described in Table 6-3. Question clients (or their parents/guardians) about side effects/adverse reactions and current medication use at least monthly during self-administered treatment (i.e. with each TB drug supply refill). Question clients on DOPT prior to each dose. Place emphasis on identifying signs/symptoms of hepatotoxicity (see Section 5.9.1). Ensure TB Services and BCCDC Vaccine and Pharmacy Services are notified of any new or changes to prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, or alternative/recreational therapies prior to initiating therapy. Consult TB Services and/or the client s primary care provider immediately when potential adverse reactions to LTBI treatment are identified. In some circumstances, it may be necessary to temporarily hold treatment until the client can be assessed by a physician/np and/or undergo blood testing Blood Testing Refer to Table 6-4 for routine blood testing requirements for clients taking rifampin or rifabutin, Table 6-5 for clients taking isoniazid, and Table 6-6 for clients taking isoniazid and rifapentine. Additional and/or more frequent blood testing may be requested for some clients based on: Results from baseline (and subsequent) blood tests. TB drugs included in the treatment regimen (i.e. when alternate LTBI treatment regimens are used). Whether there is increased risk for adverse reactions related to co-morbidities and/or other treatments/drugs a client is taking. Whether the client reports potential side effects/adverse reactions (e.g., signs or symptoms of hepatotoxicity). Consult with TB Services when there is uncertainty about testing requirements for individual clients. See Section for guidelines for monitoring AST levels Weight Weigh clients under five years of age monthly to ensure appropriate dosing is maintained. Practitioner Alert! Report weight loss or failure to gain weight in growing children during TB treatment to TB Services as this may be a sign of progression to active TB disease Adherence TB medications must be taken as prescribed to be effective. Non-adherence to LTBI treatment can put clients at risk for developing active TB disease.
14 Page 14 Practitioner Alert! Consult TB Services in a timely manner when adherence issues arise, as LTBI treatment may need to be extended or restarted to complete the required number of doses. Asking clients on self-administered treatment about their adherence and encouraging clients to bring medications to each visit provides opportunities to offer support/suggestions for maintaining or improving adherence. When monitoring adherence, it is important to ensure a client-centred approach, assess barriers to adherence, offer close follow-up with frequent reminders of the importance of therapy and provide consistent encouragement to complete therapy. Practitioners should document adherence information monthly in the client record and on the TB Medication Reorder Form. This form should be faxed to TB Services bi-monthly and upon treatment completion to ensure adequate adherence information is documented in Panorama. Refer to Section 6.11 for information on directly observed preventive treatment (DOPT) to support adherence. Management of Non-Adherence to LTBI Treatment Clients (or their parents/guardians) have the right to refuse or to discontinue LTBI treatment. Providers may find it helpful to consult with TB Services and/or review the indications for LTBI treatment with the client. Exploring clients perceptions about LTBI treatment and adherence challenges can provide important insights for potential solutions (e.g., use of alternate regimens). Manage clients whose LTBI treatment is discontinued prior to completion (either by their choice or on the recommendation of TB Services) as described in Section Management of Adverse Reactions to LTBI Treatment Adverse reactions to LTBI treatment can range from mild fatigue or subtle, asymptomatic, and transient elevations in liver enzymes to acute liver failure. Comprehensive information on the management of all potential adverse reactions to TB treatment is beyond the scope of this document to provide. Health professionals can report adverse reactions to medications to the Canada Vigilance Program of Health Canada. Practitioner Alert! Consult TB Services and/or the client s primary care provider immediately when potential adverse reactions to LTBI treatment are identified. In some circumstances, it may be necessary to temporarily stop treatment until the client can be assessed by an MRP, and/or undergo blood testing Supporting Adherence to LTBI Treatment Directly Observed Preventive Treatment (DOPT) Directly observed preventative treatment (DOPT) may be recommended to support adherence to LTBI treatment in some situations. All intermittent dosing must be DOPT by a health care provider or trained lay worker.
15 Page 15 Daily DOPT can be given Monday to Friday. Doses for self-administration on weekends and statutory holidays ( carries ) are recommended, and may be given at the discretion of health care providers once confirmed with TB Services. For clients prescribed DOPT, self-administered doses do not count towards the number of doses required to complete treatment. The Record of Supervised TB Medication form may be used to document adherence LTBI Treatment Completion Where there have been periods when treatment was not taken (e.g., due to side effects or nonadherence), the duration of treatment is generally extended until treatment reaches the required number of doses. For example, in some situations, clients may be given up to 12 months to complete nine months worth of LTBI treatment with isoniazid, up to 6 months to complete 4 months worth of LTBI treatment with rifampin and up to 16 weeks to complete 12 weeks of isoniazid and rifapentine treatment. Where there was an extended break in treatment, TB Services may recommend treatment be restarted from the beginning. Completion of treatment for clients on DOPT is achieved once all prescribed doses have been observed as taken. See Section 6.3 for total number of doses and recommended timelines for the completion of LTBI therapies. Consult TB Services prior to dispensing the last month of medications to the client, to review the total number of doses taken, adherence, need for any further follow-up (e.g., chest x-ray) and to confirm when treatment can be stopped. An exit chest x-ray is generally required if the initial chest x-ray is abnormal, or may be required upon recommendation by a TB Services physician, as indicated in a prior narrative. Health care providers are responsible for completing the Treatment Completion Form at the end of treatment and faxing it to TB Services or ensuring the appropriate details, such as treatment start/end dates; major mode of treatment; adherence; and if indicated, reason treatment not completed; are documented in Panorama. This information supports effective client care and provides surveillance and epidemiological data for program evaluation Follow-up after Completion of LTBI Treatment Routine follow-up after completion of LTBI treatment is generally not required, but will be outlined in prior narratives provided by a TB Services physician if recommended. Exceptions can include contacts to source cases with multi-drug resistant TB disease and clients with significant immune-suppression. Clients who have completed LTBI treatment and/or their families, should be reminded to promptly seek evaluation should any TB signs/symptoms occur in the future. They should be advised NOT to have TST or IGRA in future evaluations. When TB screening is required (e.g., for work or school) a risk assessment including evaluation of TB signs/symptoms and TB risk factors is completed. Further TB screening tests will depend on results of risk assessment and reason for screening (see Section 4.3) Management of Clients with LTBI that Decline or Cannot Take Treatment, or Discontinue LTBI Treatment Prior to Completion Certain clients with LTBI who decline or cannot take treatment, or who discontinue treatment prior to completion will be followed for a period of two years from the time of diagnosis. Examples include:
16 Page 16 TST-positive or IGRA-reactive contacts. Clients with specific chest x-ray findings consistent with prior TB (e.g., granulomas, fibronodular changes, fibrocalcific scarring). Recent contacts (e.g., within past two years) with HIV infection or immune suppressive treatment who received recommendations for LTBI treatment but did not take or complete. Recent TST conversions. For client s that decline LTBI therapy, health care providers should document this decision in their clinical record and/or submit the Treatment Initiation Form to TB Services indicating their client s decision. Follow-up recommendations will be noted in a TB Services physician narrative, and typically includes assessments for TB signs/symptoms and chest x-rays every six months for two years. An updated TB Screening form can be used as a chest x-ray requisition on subsequent visits to ensure that TB Services receives a copy of the report. Please note on the form that the client is on radiological surveillance. For clients found to have TB signs/symptoms or chest x-ray results suggestive of or consistent with active TB disease at reassessment, see Section Clients with untreated (or partially treated) LTBI remain at risk for development of active TB disease. Provide these clients with information on: Risk for future development of active TB disease. TB signs/symptoms, and the need to seek evaluation for active TB disease promptly should TB signs/symptoms occur. The importance of re-evaluating the risks/benefits of LTBI treatment should their health status/immune function become compromised in the future. When appropriate, counsel clients to reconsider LTBI treatment, including trialing a different LTBI regimen, if there is an opportunity to do so (e.g., when TB screening is sought in the future) Treatment of LTBI during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding LTBI treatment is usually deferred for pregnant women until at least three months post-partum unless they are at very high risk for active TB disease development (e.g., contacts with HIV infection). When treatment is not deferred, enhanced monitoring for drug-induced hepatotoxicity is required. See Table 6-4 (rifampin) and Table 6-5 (isoniazid). Very small amounts of maternal doses of TB drugs are excreted in breast milk. The amount is not sufficient to produce toxic effects in breastfeeding children, nor is it adequate for treating active TB disease, or preventing active TB disease in children with LTBI. Information on the effects of TB drugs in breastfed children is available from the Drugs and Lactation Database Network at: Management of Clients with Presumed Drug-Resistant LTBI LTBI treatment regimens for clients infected with presumed drug-resistant TB bacteria are individualized based on which TB medications are likely to provide effective treatment. For clients exposed to an infectious drug-resistant source case, the LTBI treatment regimen is based on the source case s drug susceptibility test results.
17 Page 17 Duration of LTBI treatment is determined by how long it takes for the client to complete the prescribed number of months of treatment (or doses) (see Section 6.11). Clients who have completed LTBI treatment should be reminded to promptly seek evaluation should any TB signs/symptoms occur in the future. Periodic follow-up after completion of treatment for presumed drug-resistant LTBI may be recommended in some situations (e.g., clients with abnormal baseline chest x-rays or intermittent adherence, contacts to infectious multi-drug resistant TB disease). Manage clients as described in Section 6.14 when treatment is not taken, or started but not completed. For clients who are contacts to drug resistant source cases, see Section Isoniazid Overdose Isoniazid overdose can be fatal. Practitioner Alert! Isoniazid should be used only as prescribed and by the person to whom it was prescribed. It should be stored safely, in the original pharmacy-dispensed container, and out of the reach of children. Should an overdose of isoniazid occur, call the 24-hour line at the BC Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) to speak to a Poison Information Specialist. BC Lower Mainland: (604) Outside BC Lower Mainland (toll-free): Telephone interpreting is available in over 150 languages. If the client is unconscious, or having a seizure, difficulty breathing or chest pain, immediately call In an acute situation where prompt referral to an Emergency Department (ED) is needed, consulting with DPIC will initiate a process in which DPIC will contact the ED and provide information to facilitate appropriate care for the client when s/he arrives. Remote dispensing locations should ensure pyridoxine, the antidote for isoniazid poisoning, is available. For stocking recommendations, see the Antidote Stocking Guidelines for BC Hospitals and call DPIC for further information. This can be found at
18 November, 2015 Page 18 REFERENCES 1. Menzies D, Elwood K. Treatment of tuberculosis disease. In: Menzies D. ed. Canadian Tuberculosis Standards (7th edition). Canada: Canadian Lung Association, 2014; American Thoracic Society. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:S221-S American Academy of Pediatrics. Tuberculosis. Red Book:2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (29th ed). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, Menzies D, Alvarez G, Khan, K. Treatment of latent tuberculosis disease. In: Menzies D. ed. Canadian Tuberculosis Standards (7th edition). Canada: Canadian Lung Association, 2014;
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Objectives 3HP and Flu Syndrome What is the Underlying Mechanism? Christina T. Fiske, MD MPH March 30, 2016 Illustrate the side effect of 3HP flu like syndrome after its initiation to raise awareness in
Michael J. Huey, MD Assistant Vice President and Executive Director Emory University Student Health Services Associate Professor, Family and Preventive Medicine Emory University School of Medicine President-elect
PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS Dr Amitesh Aggarwal 25 to 50 % of persons exposed to intimate contact with active PTB - latent infection with TB. Exposure to index case for 12 hours - high risk of infection.
DOSING AND ADMINISTRATION GUIDE Indication TAVALISSE is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who have had an insufficient
TUBERCULOSIS Presented By: Public Health Madison & Dane County What is Tuberculosis? Tuberculosis, or TB, is a disease caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria can attack any
Disclosures Updates in Tuberculosis I have nothing to disclose Chris Keh, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases, UCSF TB Controller, TB Prevention and Control Program, Population
FOR YOUR PATIENTS WITH RELAPSING FORMS OF MS INITIATING ORAL AUBAGIO (teriflunomide) THERAPY INDICATION AUBAGIO (teriflunomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple
Managing the Patients Response to TB Treatment Barbarah Martinez, RN, BSN September 13, 2017 TB Nurse Case Management September 12 14, 2017 EXCELLENCE EXPERTISE INNOVATION Barbarah Martinez, RN, BSN has
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Pediatric Tuberculosis: The Essentials Ann M Loeffler, MD Randall Children s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel Portland, Oregon Curry International TB Center Disclosures Nothing to disclose Learning Objectives
Tuberculosis Ann Raftery, RN, PHN, MSc GHS Learning Objectives Upon completion of this session, participants will be able to: Describe the criteria used and method for determining the infectious period
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PACKAGE LEAFLET PACKAGE LEAFLET Read this entire leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine. Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. If you have further questions, please ask your
BC Cancer Protocol Summary for Palliative Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer Using PERTuzumab, Trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN), and PACLItaxel as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Breast Cancer Protocol Code:
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IMPORTANT DRUG INFORMATION UPDATE IMPORTANT DRUG WARNING Rifampin for Injection USP, 600 mg/vial See Page 4 for Lots Pfizer NDC: 0069-0112-01; NOVAPLUS NDC: 0069-0141-01 December 4, 2013 Attention: Product
A Series on Tuberculosis, A Disease That Affects Over 2 Million Indians Every Year Lancelot M. Pinto, MD, MSc Author Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD co-author and Series Editor Abstract Nearly 50% of patients with
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A Mobile Health Intervention Utilizing Community Partnership to Improve Access to Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment Cassandra Garcia, MSN, RN, FNP-BC Mobile Clinic Provider Texas Children s Mobile
TB CASE MANAGEMENT AND CONTACT INVESTIGATION INTENSIVE TUBERCULOSIS CONTACT INVESTIGATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this session, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the criteria used
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LATENT TUBERCULOSIS Robert F. Tyree, MD 1 YK TB OFFICERS Ron Bowerman Elizabeth Roll Mien Chyi (Pediatrics) Cindi Mondesir (Pediatrics) The new guys: Philip Johnson Robert Tyree 2009 CDC TB CASE DEFINITION
READ THIS FOR SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF YOUR MEDICINE PATIENT MEDICATION INFORMATION BAVENCIO (buh-ven-see-oh) Avelumab for Injection Solution for Intravenous Infusion Read this carefully before you start
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ITBS LTBI ITBS Management 1 of 6 ITBS Contact ITBS Oversight ITBS Disease Professional Advisory 1.0 PURPOSE: 1.1 Provide clinical practice and operational guidance to Public Health Nurses to ensure consistency
Lapatinib and Capecitabine Therapy This protocol should be read in conjunction with NCCP protocol 00216 Capecitabine Monotherapy. INDICATIONS FOR USE: INDICATION Treatment of adult patients with breast
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FAMILY PLANNING AND AUBAGIO (teriflunomide) INDICATION AUBAGIO (teriflunomide) is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION WARNING:
Treatment monitoring protocol for Dimethyl fumarate therapy in active Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis This protocol provides monitoring guidance for adult patients requiring Dimethyl fumarate therapy
BCCA Protocol Summary for Palliative Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer using Trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN), PACLitaxel and CARBOplatin as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Breast Cancer Protocol Code: Tumour
Document level: Drug Alcohol (Trustwide) Code: DA7 Issue number: 2 Guidance for naltrexone prescribing Lead executive Authors details Type of document Target audience Document purpose Lead Clinical Director
VI.2 Elements for a Public Summary VI.2.1 Overview of disease epidemiology Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks your body s natural defense system and causes acquired immunodeficiency
Detection and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities: Opportunities and Challenges David Karol, MD, MA Bureau of Prisons, FMC Butner Duke University Medical Center June 26, 2013 No Disclosures
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Chronic Hepatitis C The hepatitis C virus is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Almost 4 million Americans or 1.8 percent of the U.S. population have an antibody
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PACKAGE LEAFLET Page 1 of 6 PACKAGE LEAFLET: INFORMATION FOR THE USER Pyrazinamide 500 mg Tablets * Pyrazinamide Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine. - Keep this leaflet.