Regulating the Regulators for Cancer Immunotherapy: LAG-3 Finally Catches Up. Drew Pardoll Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center Johns Hopkins

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1 Regulating the Regulators for Cancer Immunotherapy: LAG-3 Finally Catches Up Drew Pardoll Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center Johns Hopkins

2 The hostile immune microenvironment within a tumor Stat3 Stat3 NK Lytic activity Stat3 degranulation granulocyte Tumor VEGF, IL6, IL10, IL23 B7-H4 adenosine B7-H1 B7-H1 X X X XX NO X PDC IL10 TGFβ A2aR LAG-3 CD4 T cell FoxP3 Treg Stat3 IL-23 DC maturation MΦ/MSC/ imc B7-H4 Tumorspecific CTL

3 Combinatorial immune therapies to hit distinct steps in the evolution of antitumor immunity TLR agonists Vaccines Costimulators CTLA-4 blockade B7-H1/4,PD1 blockade STAT-3 blockade Ag Presentation By Appropriately Activated DCs + Costimulation Blockade of Immunologic Check Points Manipulation of the Tumor Microenvironment Blockade of Regulatory T cells

4 Peripheral T cell tolerance APC + MHC-Ag signal 2 B7 CD28 signal 1 TCR Naïve T cell + signal 2 Activation (γ-ifn, CTL activity) signal 2 Tolerance FoxP3 LAG-3 GITR A2aR (Anergy) Regulatory T cell

5 The Probasin Hemagluttinin (ProHA) Transgenic Mouse HA wt HAs HAF SS ED ED I-E d K d TM CD

6 The ProHA x TRAMP Mouse(ProTRAMP) A tumor tolerance model ProSV40 Oncogenic ProHA A Tumor / and Tissue Specific Antigen Disease grossly identical to TRAMP 12 th Generation Intercross onto B10.D2 HA-specific CD4 and CD8 TCR transgenic T cells transferred into ProTRAMP are TOLERIZED. HA-specific CD4s become Treg

7 Mouse model Immunogenomics Therapeutic Ab production Back to the mouse model to test therapeutic Ab

8 Genes Involved in Expression of the Tolerant Phenotype in T Cells In VIVO In VITRO Upregulated Day 4 Anergy vs. Day 4 Activation (n=20,000) Upregulated Day 4 Anergy vs. Day 7 Activation (n=18,000) Upregulated in Signal 1 Alone vs Unstimulated (n=17,000) Upregulated in Signal 1 Alone vs. CSA Blocked (n=18,000) n=13,000 N=4,500 N=12,000 HAM Analysis N = 151 Kowalski J, Drake CG, Schwartz R, and Powell J. Non- Parametric, hypothesis-based analysis of microarrays for comparison of several phenotypes. Bioinformatics 20: , 2004

9 Symbol IN VIVO Ratio Anergy / Memory IN VITRO Ratio Anergy / Resting NAME - FROM GO Ontogeny Search Lag Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 Bcl B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 Tnfrsf tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 Nfatc NF-ATc isoform a (NF-ATca) Il Interleukin 5 Bcat branched chain amino acid transferase 1, cytosolic Ptprs Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, S Mapkapk MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 Tubb beta-tubulin (isotype Mbeta 5) Bcap B-cell receptor-associated protein 37 Fhl Four and a half LIM domains Il1r Interleukin 1 receptor, type II Cish Cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein Ndrg N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Etf Eucaryotic tranlation termination factor 1 Prkch Protein kinase C, eta Cnil cornichon-like protein Tnfsf Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 Il Interleukin 13 Kcnn calcium -activated potassium channel, small conductance Ccl chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 1 Egr Early growth response 2 Ier immediate early response 3 Gch GTP cyclohydrolase 1 Rgs regulator of G protein signalling 16 Csf colony-stimulating factor 1 (macrophage) Fkbp FK506 binding protein 8 Nr4a nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A member 1 Lcp lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 Dnajc DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog

10 LAG-3 -Real Time -PCR Anergy/Treg Effector/Memory Days in vivo

11 LAG-3 is highly expressed on the surface of induced Treg Isotype Control Effector/Memory Naive Anergic/Treg LAG

12 LAG-3 Cloned in early 1990s CD4 homologue Does not substitute for CD4 in T cell development or helper T cell function Binds MHC II with higher affinity than CD4 but at a distinct site from CD4 Function unclear - reported to play a role in modulating NK function, T cell function, APC function but no clear conclusions Cytoplasmic tail completely different from CD4. Signaling pathways unclear

13 Transduction of CD4+CD25- T cells with wild type LAG-3 confers regulatory capacity GFP:6.5tg LAG-3/GFP:6.5tg LAG-3.Y73FΔCY/GFP:6.5tg Effectors only cpm :1.25:1.5:1 suppressor:effector ratio

14 Can LAG-3 blockade alter endogenous T cell function? Day 0: α-lag-3 (0.2mg) Day 1: VAC-HA Day 3: α-lag-3 (0.2mg) Day 6: Adoptive transfer targets PT vac ProTramp ProTRAMP+vaccine Mix 1:1; inject i.v. M1 M2 Unstimulated HA peptide-pulsed CFSE lo CFSE hi B10.D2 splenocytes ProTRAMP+vaccine+anti-LAG3 PT vac/lag Day 7: Harvest spleens; Flow M1 M CFSE

15 Tumor-tolerized endogenous CTL regain effector function in vivo after LAG-3 blockade ProTramp (14-16 wk old) Percent Specfic Lysis [(E - S)/S] x NT + VAC-HA PT PT + αlag-3 + VV-HA + VV-HA

16 α-lag-3 leads to endogenous CD8 migration and TNF-α production within prostates of ProTRAMP mice 10 4 ProTramp e-3 ProTramp + α-lag FL4-H: TNF APC FL4-H: TNF APC FL3-H: Thy1.1PerCP Total # CD8 + TNF-α producing cells PT prostate PT a-lag-3 prostat

17 Prostate tissue from Pro-Tramp mice 7 days post-at Clone 4 Adoptive Transfer Clone 4 Adoptive Transfer + anti-lag-3

18 Histology of prostate cancers treated with vaccine + anti-lag-3 antibodies

19 LAG-3 and FoxP3 expression are concordant on antigen-specific CD4 T cells only when antigen is present as self or tumor

20 CD4+25+ Treg from tumor bearing mice are highly suppressive in in vitro assays

21 Membrane protein encoding genes upregulated among CD4+ cells infiltrating human prostate cancer

22 LAG3 expression on tumor specific CD8 T cells restrains their accumulation and function of in prostate cancers IFNγ CFSE

23 CD4-independent role of LAG-3 for tumor-specific CD8 T cells

24 LAG-3 downregulates TCR dependent signaling Ca++

25 ProTRAMP model Charles Drake Adam Adler LAG-3 Charles Drake Ching-Tai Huang Joe Grosso Tulia Bruno Ed Hipkiss Christin Kelleher Dario Vignale Craig Workman

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