HISTORICAL BASIS OF CHINESE MEDICINE. Linda Boggie, DVM Okkenbroek, The Netherlands

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1 HISTORICAL BASIS OF CHINESE MEDICINE Linda Boggie, DVM Okkenbroek, The Netherlands

2 Chinese Medical Theory Based on observation of phenomena and integrated with Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy has always had an important role in day to day life Chinese philosophers interpreted what they saw in nature and applied it to the diseases/ disharmonies they witnessed in people

3 Neijing Suwen and Lingshu THE reference for all modern Chinese Medical Traditions Neijing Internal Treatise Suwen Simple Questions Lingshu Spiritual Axis 81 Chapters

4 Neijing Suwen It is a conversation Huang Di the Yellow Emperor A mythical(?) character who existed in 2700 BCE Qi Bo one of his ministers Concludes with Huang Di teaching another of his ministers, Lao Gong The student becomes the teacher

5 The First Question I ve heard in the days of old everyone lived one hundred years without showing the usual signs of aging. In our time, however, people age prematurely, living only 50 years. Is this due to a change in the environment, or is it because people have lost the correct way of life? The Yellow Emperor s Classic of Medicine

6 The Answer Qi Bo answers: In the past people practiced the Dao, the Way of Life. They understood the principle of Balance, of yin and yang, as represented by the transformation of the energies of the universe. The Yellow Emperor s Classic of Medicine

7 The Conversation From this question and this answer come all other questions and the tenants of Chinese Medical thinking The primary goal is to live in a state of balance If this is not so then it is the duty of the practitioner to bring everything back into balance

8 The Information How to live in balance Proper lifestyle Meridians Anatomy Zang Fu Organs Physiology Functions Jing, Blood, Fluids, Qi and Shen Yin and Yang Balance Interrelationships Eight Principle and Five Element

9 Causes of Disease External and Internal Clinical Signs and Symptoms when the Zang Fu are out of balance Pathophysiology How to bring the body back into Balance Treatment strategies What to expect from treatment strategies Prognosis

10 Neijing Lingshu Original title Zhen Jing or Acupuncture Classic Details on specific needling techniques Gifts of Heaven and Earth Self-cultivation to understand the art of needling and the Channel system

11 Historical Background Neijing Suwen and Lingshu Written in 400 BCE; the Warring States Earliest text found dated to the Han Dynasty 206 BCE 220 CE

12 Philosophical Influence School of Naturalism Concept of Yin and Yang and Five elements Daoism Concept of De, Virtue, and living in balance with Nature Confucianism Belief of Morality and giving to future generations

13 Nanjing Classic of Difficulties Bian Que BCE also thought to be a Shaman Also consists of 81 chapters Intended to clarify 81 difficult concepts of the Neijing Suwen Put into writing in the Han Dynasty

14 Energetics of the points Antique points Front-Mu Points Back-Shu points Influential-Hui Points Pathways of Extraordinary vessels and symptoms of pathology

15 Details of Examination Looking Asking Listening Smelling and Palpating Reference for 5 Element School of Thought according to J.R. Worsley

16 Shang Han Lun Written late in the Han Dynasty Zhang Zhong Jin Treatise on Injury due to Cold and Miscellaneous Diseases EPF Cold and how it affected the normal physiology of the Channels and Zang Fu

17 Based on the Neijing Suwen and the primary etiologies of Wind and Cold Many of the concepts of the TCM Tradition come from the SHL

18 Jin Gui Yao Lue Essentials from the Golden Chamber Great Herbal Text based on SHL theory Small formulas and elegant in design

19 Jin-Yuan Dynasty CE A period of turmoil Invasion of Tartars and Mongols Chinese Philosophers are reevaluating their philosophy and medical thinking

20 The Four Great Masters Liu Wan-Su Cooling and Cold School Heat was considered the primary pathogen With overpopulation there was the beginning of epidemics Treatments used Cold and Cooling herbs

21 Zhang Zi-He Purging School The school of attacking and purging, sweating and vomiting to expel the pathogenic factor Phlegm is first introduced Hot-phlegm, Cold-Phlegm, Phlegm Harassing the Heart Tonifying should not be done first as this could be misread as a cure

22 Li Dong Yuan Post-natal Qi School or Earth School Theorized that all disease stemmed from an imbalance of Spleen and Stomach Influenced by School of Harmonization which placed importance on Liver and Gall Bladder Did not agree with Purging School as he felt purging could damage th Yuan Qi

23 Zhu Dan Xi Nourishing Yin School Believed all conditions due to Damp-Heat which became internalized as Chronic Disease

24 Many of these masters stressed herbal treatments but the theory also became infused with acupuncture strategies

25 Ming Dynasty CE Wen Bing School Feverish Diseases Tradition Heavily influenced by teachings of Liu Wan- Su of the Cooling and Cold School

26 Ming Dynasty Zhang Zhi Bing Develops the 6 parameters Hot and Cold Excess and Deficiency Internal and External Become incorporated into the 8 Principles

27 Ming Dynasty Further elucidation of the Extraordinary Vessels by acupuncturists Trajectories Diseases Opening points Coupled pairs

28 Influence of Western Medicine in China Jesuit Priests Great Accomplishments of Acupuncture by Yang Ji Zhou Published by Zhen Jiu Da Cheng in 1601 Basis for today s acupuncture

29 Qing Dynasty The Last Chinese Dynasty CE Further development of Wen Bing Tradition Concept of Latent Heat Exploration of the San Jiao and Fire and Water imbalances

30 Wang Qing Ren Chinese Physician Anatomical studies and surgery of thoracic cavity Heart and vena cava Skull and Brain Heavy integration of Western Medicine

31 Imperial China CE Acupuncture has fallen out of favor Forced underground in 1822 By the 1920 s it is officially banned by the rulers of The National Republic of China

32 The People s Republic of China 1949-current Following the Cultural Revolution Mao Tse Dong comes to power Mandarin is made the official language of China Desire to distance China from the West Go back to its roots

33 Formation of Traditional Chinese Medicine A separate School of Thought or Tradition Barefoot Doctors Chinese Medicine no longer taught from Master to Student Sometimes requiring up to 10 years of study

34 Taught in a systematized fashion to many people Firmly established by the 1960 s

35 Chinese Medical Theory and Veterinary Acupuncture Classic history of Veterinary Acupuncture is seen primarily in texts regarding the treatment of horses By the Chou Dynasty ( BCE) acupuncture was practiced by veterinarians who were government employees

36 Bo-le (Sun Yang) 430 BCE Equine veterinarian skilled in acupuncture Bo-le Zhen Jing Bo-le Canon of Veterinary Acupuncture Most problems treated involved bleeding points Hemoacupuncture Little reference to treatment of small animals

37 During the Sui ( CE) and Tang ( CE) Dynasties many books written on the treatment of horses Interestingly the practice of inoculation/ vaccination took place in the Sui Dynasty but was abandoned after 200 years as it was found ineffective

38 In 1608 two brothers Yu Ben-Yuan and Yu Ben-Hang compiled and published Yuan-Heng Liao-ma Ji, Yuan and Heng s Therapeutic Treatise of Horses Now being translated into English by Dr. Yann- Ching Hwang, DVM, PhD

39 Unanswered Questions There exists many unanswered questions concerning veterinary acupuncture Do meridians exist in animals? If so, why are they not documented in the ancient texts?

40 Why do so many of the traditional acupuncture points in animals (horses) not correspond to transpositional points and meridians? Can the transpositional model really be effective in animals and does it exist?

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