1 Communicable Diseases Detection and Prevention
2 Communicable Diseases Communicable Disease an infectious disease transmissible by direct contact (person to person) indirect means (body fluids, objects touched by someone with an infectious disease)
3 Communicable Diseases In the school environment, many communicable diseases are transmitted from one individual to another. Effective control includes: Prevention Early recognition of symptoms Prompt diagnosis Adequate treatment Environmental control Sanitation Immunizations
4 Transmission Routes Airborne Infection occurs when the germ from an infected person becomes suspended in the air and is then inhaled by another person. Examples Tuberculosis (TB), measles, chickenpox Prevention Vaccination if you haven t had chicken pox, measles Students excluded until no longer infectious
5 Transmission Routes Respiratory Droplet Infection occurs when the germ from an infected person s nose/throat comes into contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth of another person by coughing, sneezing, spitting. Such transfers occur only at a distance of less than 6 feet. Examples Common cold, influenza (flu), whooping cough, meningococcal disease
6 Transmission Routes Prevention Practice effective hand washing; scrubbing wet hands with soap for a minimum of 20 secs. and rinsing thoroughly with running water. If soap/water not available, use alcohol based gel. Keep hands away from eyes, nose, mouth. Cover mouth and nose when coughing/sneezing. Use tissues not reusable handkerchiefs. Discard tissues promptly in appropriate waste container. Wash hands after discarding tissue.
7 Transmission Routes Blood Borne Blood borne infections are spread through very specific and close contact with an infected individual s body fluids. Unprotected sexual contact Sharing needles/drug paraphernalia Pregnant mother to unborn child Blood transfusions Tattoos/piercings Puncture wounds (needle-stick injury)
8 Transmission Routes Blood borne In the school setting, risk for infections can occur when infected body fluids come into contact with a person s broken skin, mucous membranes, or through a puncture wound (needle-stick injury, sharp objects, human bite or fight). Blood borne pathogens can cause infection through: open cuts, nicks, skin abrasions, dermatitis, acne, mucous membranes of mouth, eyes or nose. Examples HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus).
9 Transmission Routes Prevention Universal Precautions as defined by the CDC, are a set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of HIV, HBV, and other blood borne pathogens when providing first aid or health care. under universal precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all persons considered potentially infectious. apply to blood, other body fluids containing visible blood, semen, and vaginal secretions.
10 Transmission Routes Prevention Universal Precautions do not apply to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless contain visible blood. involve the use of protective barriers such as gloves, gowns, aprons, masks, or protective eyewear, which can reduce risk of exposure. Gloves are the most frequently used protective barrier. You must wear gloves when it is anticipated your hands may contact: blood, potentially infectious materials, mucous membranes or non-intact skin.
11 Importance of Hand Washing Frequent and effective hand washing is the primary prevention measure against the spread of communicable diseases. Effective Hand Washing Use plenty of soap and water Scrub vigorously wrists, top of hands, between fingers, palms and fingernails for at least 20 secs. Rinse well Dry Turn off faucet with paper towel so hands stay clean
12 Importance of Hand Washing It is the soap and rubbing action that helps dislodge and remove germs. Drying helps remove germs that may be left after rinsing. In the absence of soap and water, alcohol based gel may be used.
13 Importance of Hand Washing It is important to wash hands: Before, during, and after preparing food Before eating After using the bathroom or assisting another person in the bathroom After changing a diaper After handling animals/animal waste When hands are dirty After blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing (even if you use a tissue!)
14 Upper Respiratory Infection (common cold) Symptoms include: Runny nose/eyes Cough/sneezing Possible sore throat Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (nose/throat secretions) Airborne droplets (cough/sneeze) Indirect contact with infected articles
15 Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Cover mouth, nose if coughing or sneezing Influenza (flu) Symptoms include: Fever Chills Headache Muscle aches Cough
16 Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids Airborne droplets (cough/sneeze) Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Cover mouth/nose when coughing sneezing Vaccination
17 Chicken pox (varicella) Symptoms include: Malaise Fever Itchy, blister-like rash, or red rash, usually beginning on trunk Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (drainage from blisters or through nasal secretions) Airborne droplets (cough/sneeze) Indirect contact with infected articles
18 Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Cover mouth, nose when coughing, sneezing Vaccination
19 Head Lice Symptoms include: Itching of scalp Lice and/or nits (small grayish brown eggs) in the hair Transmission: Direct contact with infested person Indirect contact with infected articles Prevention: Avoid sharing clothing, head gear, combs/brushes
20 Meningococcal Disease Symptoms include: Sudden onset of high fever Nausea, vomiting Headache, stiff neck, lethargy Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (nose/throat secretions) Airborne droplets (cough/sneeze)
21 Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Cover mouth/nose when coughing/sneezing Do not share food, drink or eating utensils Vaccine required for certain populations Antibiotics given in certain high-risk situations
22 Mononucleosis Symptoms include: Fever Sore throat Swollen lymph nodes Fatigue Abdominal pain
23 Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (saliva) Prevention: No sharing of food, drink, or eating utensils Pink Eye (conjunctivitis) Symptoms Include: Eyes tearing, irritated, red, Light sensitivity Puffy eyelids Yellow discharge
24 Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (eye secretions) Indirect contact with infected articles Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Do not share personal items, especially eye make, towels Replace eye make up, contact lenses
25 Ringworm Symptoms include: Ring-shaped sores with blistered or scaly border Itching common Transmission: Direct contact with infectious areas Indirect contact with infectious areas Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Do not share personal items Special attention to disinfection of gym/locker areas
26 Strep Throat Symptoms include: Sore throat Fever Swollen, inflamed tonsils Tender neck glands Abdominal pain/stomachache Nausea
27 Transmission: Direct contact with infectious body fluids (nasal and throat secretions) Airborne Droplets Prevention: Practice effective hand washing Cover mouth/nose when coughing/sneezing Antibiotics as directed
28 MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphlococcus aureus) Symptoms Include: Bump or infected area on the skin that may be: Red Swollen Painful Warm to the touch Draining Accompanied by a fever
29 Transmission: Direct skin contact Sharing personal items (towels, razors that have touched infected skin) Indirect contact-touching surfaces or items contaminated with MRSA Prevention: Good hygiene, practice effective hand washing Recognition of symptoms and early treatment Keep cuts/scrapes clean and covered Discourage sharing of personal items