MELDING EXPLOSIVE POWER WITH TECHNIQUES IN THE LONG JUMP. Explosive Strength IS THE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE START OF A MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

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1 MELDING EXPLOSIVE POWER WITH TECHNIQUES IN THE LONG JUMP Jake Jacoby Jumps Coach University of Louisville Explosive Strength IS THE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE START OF A MUSCLE CONTRACTION. THREE TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS ECCENTRIC-LENGTHENING OF THE MUSCLE CONCENTRIC-SHORTENING OF THE MUSCLE ISOMETRIC-STATIC THE OBJECTIVE OF EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH IS TO CREATE AS MUCH FORCE IN A VERY SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME. RFD PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN FAST MOVEMENTS OR EVENT SPECIFIC TRAINING; IT ALLOWS MAXIMUM FORCE TO BE DEVELOPED EARLIER IN THE MOVEMENTS. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MODIFICATIONS ACHIEVED FROM RESISTANCE TRAINING IS THE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT Power POWER = FORCE X DISTANCE TIME TO MAXIMIZE POWER THE ATHLETE MUST REDUCE THE TIME IT TAKES TO APPLY FORCE. MAXIMAL POWER OCCURS AT INTERMEDIATE SPEEDS AND LIFTING MODERATE LOADS ANYWHERE FROM 30%- 70% THE TERMS EXPLOSIVE AND POWER ARE RELATED BUT CAN BE TRAINED SEPARATELY. THERE ARE EXPLOSIVE ATHLETES THAT LACK POWER AND ON THE OTHER HAND THERE ARE ATHLETES THAT ARE POWERFUL BUT LACK EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH. POWER OUTPUT IS AFFECTED BY THE SPEED OF MOVEMENT. BY PERFORMING MOVEMENTS FASTER YOU CAN INCREASE POWER, BUT EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH MAY NOT BE AFFECTED BY MOVEMENT SPEED. EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH IS AFFECTED BY THE SPEED OF THE CONTRACTION, REGARDLESS OF MOVEMENT SPEED OR TYPE OF CONTRACTION. EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH CAN BE IN A CONTRACTION WHERE NO MOVEMENT IS TAKING PLACE (ISOMETRIC). INCREASES IN BOTH SPEED OF MOVEMENT (EFFECTS POWER) AND SPEED OF CONTRACTION AFFECTS (EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH) FORCE, DISTANCE AND TIME ARE PRODUCTS OF POWER AND CAN BE CHANGED IN A POSITIVE WAY WITH RESISTANCE OR POWER TRAINING Power Training 1. Heavy Strength Training 70%-100% 1-rm STRENGTH TRAINING ALONE CAN INCREASE POWER BY AFFECTING THE TOP HALF OF THE POWER EQUATION. FORCE X DISTANCE. THE GREATER AN ATHLETES STRENGTH THE MORE EXPLOSIVE THIS INITIAL PHASE OF MOTION WILL BE OVERCOMING INERTIA OR THE TENDENCY OF AN OBJECT TO RESIST ANY CHANGE IN ITS MOTION. 1

2 CLEANS FROM FLOOR HANG SNATCH FROM FLOOR HANG SQUAT FULL - FRONT - BOX HALF - SINGLE LEG - OVERHEAD QUARTER - SPLIT - 1/2OR1/4 PIN Example Exercises LOW STEP UPS SLDL SUMO CLEAN GRIP SNATCH GRIP BOX SINGLE LEG 2. Explosive Strength 30%-70% 1-RM Sport Specific type of power training Completing traditional Olympic lifts as fast as possible with light loads Bar Speed Cleans From Floor Hang clean and jerk Snatch From Floor Hang Example Exercise LOW STEP UPS (BOX BLASTS) SQUAT FULL - FRONT - BOX HALF - SINGLE LEG - OVERHEAD QUARTER - SPLIT - 1/2OR1/4 PIN 3. BALLISTICS 25%-35% 1- RM CIRCUIT TYPE FREE WEIGHTS THROUGH A RANGE OF MOTION OR A SPORT SPECIFIC MOVEMENT. BALLISTICS CAN PLACE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF STRESS ON JOINTS, LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS. ATHLETES SHOULD ALWAYS PROGRESS GRADUALLY FROM UNLOAD TO LOADED EXERCISES AND MUST NOT BE FATIGUED Cleans Split Snatch Split Squats Jump Box to jump Front Overhead Drop EXAMPLE EXERCISE Step-ups High Explosive Hamstrings Med ball thrusts Partner drops Eccentric Box Jumps Concentric Depth Bench Hops Power runs Hills Belts Sleds Eccentric and Concentric 4. PLYOMETRICS CLASSICAL PLYOMETRIC EXERCISES INCLUDE VARIOUS TYPES OF JUMP TRAINING AND UPPER BODY DRILL USING MEDICINE BALLS POWERFUL MOVEMENT USING A PRE-STRETCH OR COUNTER-MOVEMENT THAT INVOLVES THE STRETCH SHORTENING CYCLE CONTACTS PER WEEK (INCLUDES DOUBLE LEG) BEGINNER INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED RECOVERY MAY REQUIRE GREATER TIME PERIODS DUE TO THE STRESSING OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 2

3 EXAMPLE EXERCISE A. Single Leg Right-Left-Right-Left 3 Hops Hurdle Jumps 3 Step Split Jumps Right-Right-Left Right Right-Left Left Jump Rope Hurdle Hops Double Leg Hurdle Jumps On Corner Squat Jumps Double Leg Bench Hops Hurdle Hops Single Leg Ankle Bounds Split Tuck Jumps Hop- Hop- Step- Step- Step- Hop Standing Long Jump Hurdle Jumps 1 Step Tuck Jumps Squat Jacks HOW IS THE THE LONG JUMP EFFECTED BY EXPLOSIVE POWER? Components of the Long Jump Approach Take Off Flight 3

4 Landing EXPLOSIVE POWER WILL POSITIVELY EFFECT ALL COMPONENTS OF THE LONG JUMP. ITS POSITIVE EFFECTS ON THE APPROACH AND TAKEOFF WILL GREATLY EFFECT THE FLIGHT AND LANDING WHICH ARE DETERMINED BY THE FIRST TWO COMPONENTS. THE APPROACH 90% - 95% of jump distance due to Horizontal Velocity at takeoff Types of speed 1. Acceleration overcoming Inertia 2.Absolute Speed- Max Velocity 3.Speed Endurance- Maintaining max velocity 4.Optimal Speed- Efficiency OBJECTIVES OF THE APPROACH THE ABILITY TO PUT A OBJECT INTO MOTION OVERCOMING INERTIA. CONTROLLED HORIZONTAL VELOCITY TOO MUCH SPEED AND THE ATHLETE CANNOT EXECUTE THE PROPER TECHNIQUE CORRECT BODY POSITION ACHIEVING PROPER ANGLES TO MAXIMIZE THE CHANGE TO VERTICAL VELOCITY THE LENGTH OF THE APPROACH WILL BE DICTATED BY SEVERAL FACTORS. APPROACH LENGTH ELITE MEN STRIDES 1. RUNNING MECHANICS 2. THE ABILITY TO ACCELERATE 3. STRENGTH 4. SPEED JUNIOR MEN WOMEN STRIDES STRIDES *REMEMBER THAT THE LONGER THE APPROACH THE MORE ROOM FOR ERROR. 4

5 THE CONSISTENT APPROACH PROGRAMMING CONSISTENCY OF STRIDE PATTERN REPETITION REPETITION REPETITION IN TRAINING PROGRAMMING ADJUSTING VISUAL CONTROL BODY POSITION Adjusting Visual Control ADJUSTING THE POSITION OF THEIR MEASURED START MARK. WE NEED TO SPEND A GREAT DEAL OF TIME PRACTICING THIS UNDER A VARIETY OF CONDITIONS. AS AN ATHLETE APPROACHES THE BOARD THEY USE VISUAL CONTROL TO REGULATE AND MAINTAIN PROPER STRIDE LENGTH TO HIT THE BOARD ACCURATELY. THIS OCCURS APPROXIMATELY 4 STRIDES FROM THE BOARD. STEERING Set your body up to accelerate into proper sprint position. Can't be too hard or errors will multiply. Most important section. Usually spend 2 months setting this section. Almost all errors at the board can be tracked to performing this section poorly. CONTINUED ACCELERATION MOVE INTO PROPER SPRINT POSITION. TRANSITION FROM THE DRIVE IS THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF THE APPROACH. MUST BE IN GREAT SPRINT FORM AT THE END OF THIS PHASE AS IT IS ESSENTIAL TO EXECUTING THE ATTACK PHASE WELL. AT THE END OF THIS PHASE IS COACHES CHECK MARK 5

6 CHECK MARKS What is known about visual control suggests the adjustment of of the start mark should not be based on the error at the board, but rather the error directly before visual control takes place. Therefore a coaches mark placed 2 count strides from the board will help reduce the need to make large adjustments in stride length in the final 4 strides allowing the jumper to maintain controlled horizontal velocity. ATTACK PHASE MAINTAIN HORIZONTAL VELOCITY. CONSCIOUS ACCELERATION. INCREASED CADENCE. BODY POSITION ERECT WITH HIPS RIGHT UNDER TORSO. TAKE OFF EXPLOSIVE POWER AND THE MOST OBVIOUS EFFECTS ON THE TAKE OFF. IMPULSE OFF THE GROUND DRIVE KNEE BODY POSITION LEANING TOO FAR BACK LEANING FORWARD STARTS ON PENULTIMATE STRIDE. LOWERING OF THE CENTER OF MASS LAST TWO FOOT CONTACTS SHOULD BE FLAT, FLAT, DORSIFLEXED ANKLE (TOE UP). MAINTAIN HORIZONTAL VELOCITY. TOUCH THE PENULTIMATE FOOT DOWN AND DO NOT PUSH OFF THIS STEP. AMORTIZATION OR PENULTIMATE STEP 2.3M - 2.0M FROM FRONT OF BOARD FOR MEN 2.0M -1.7M FOR WOMEN AND SLOW SHORT WHITE MALES Takeoff Dorsiflexed ankle Center of mass should be rising. Take off leg is extended and should strike the board slightly ahead of the center of mass. (15in to 24in) Long impulse on board. Push into ground FxT=impulse (not off the board). Explosive extension swinging drive knee and arms, with a sudden stop. This happens after the torso passes over the center of mass. Takeoff leg is extended straight. Erect posture of the trunk. 6

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