Performance Enhancement. Strength Training

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1 Performance Enhancement Strength Training

2 Muscle Fiber type & Performance Slow twitch More efficient using oxygen to generate fuel for continuous extended muscle contractions Contract slowly, but continue for long periods of time

3 Muscle Fiber type & Performance Fast twitch Generates short bursts of strength or speed Fatigue quickly

4 Muscle Fiber type & Performance Fiber type may influence what type of sports an athlete is naturally good at. Slow twitch Cycling, jogging, swimming, running Fast twitch Sprinting, jumping, other explosive activities Ratios of slow/fast twitch muscles vary by person. General population close to equal ration Elite athletes definite concentration of one type or another.

5 Types of strength training movements Isometric No movement Performed against fixed resistance Least effective form Ex: wall sit, stationary press

6 Types of strength training movements Isotonic Joint moved through full range of motion against fixed weight, speed is variable Greatest gains in the initial movement, least at the mid point Ex: bench press, bicep curls, etc.

7 Types of strength training movements Isokinetic Variable resistance with fixed speed Resistance accommodates to match the force applied Machine is required

8 Types of strength training movements Eccentric Negative work Muscle lengthened while weight is lowered Produce great strength gains, but more muscle soreness Ex: down movement of bicep curl

9 Types of strength training movements Concentric Positive work Muscle shortens as weight is lifted Ex: up movement of bicep curl

10 Types of strength training movements Closed chain exercises Distal segment is fixed Allows strength gains of several muscle groups Ex: body squats, lunges, push ups

11 Types of strength training movements Open chain exercise Distal segments are not fixed & freely moving in space Good at targeting one set of muscles, but increases the forces transmitted to the involved joint Ex: knee extensions, any throwing movement

12 Types of strength training movements Plyometrics Muscles are repeatedly and rapidly stretched (loaded) and then contracted The aim is to improve muscle power Maximize stretch reflex Rate is more important than the magnitude of the stretch Ex: jumps, bounds, skips, hops, medicine ball throws

13 Types of strength training movements Plyometrics cont. Stretch reflex stretch the muscle from its resting length immediately before the concentric contraction The greater the stretch, the greater the load (power generated) the muscle can lift.

14 Methods of resistance training Free weights Variety of exercise selection Athlete in control of range of motion Builds coordination Recruits stabilizing muscles to control movement

15 Methods of resistance training Weight machines Simple to use Relatively safe Don t require lots of coordination Limited to targeting one muscle group Body may not anatomically match the movement of the machine.

16 Methods of resistance training Exercise tubing Similar advantages to free weights High variety of exercise selection May not be able to generate enough force to increase strength gains as free weights

17 Methods of resistance training Body weight exercises Does not require any equipment Exercises can be very functional and sport specific Difficult for experienced athletes to achieve high level of intensity without high number of repetitions

18 Strength conditioning principles General guidelines Safety first Allow proper rest between exercises Balance training program to prevent injury and overuse Use a spotter

19 Strength conditioning principles Repetition: performing the particular exercise one time Set: grouping of a specific exercise into a number of repetitions Resistance: the opposing force to a muscle contraction Strength & size: high resistance / low repetitions Muscular endurance: low resistance / high repetitions Power: rapid movements

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