International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19

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1 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19

2 ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA AT KEARNEY General Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Theoretical Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Psychological Clinic at Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Department of Counseling and School Psychology at University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach Journal of Psychological Science 2016 / 19 Since 2008 Bi-annual 2016

3 EDITORIAL BOARD Co-Editors-In-Chief: Auksė Endriulaitienė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Tammi Ohmstede Beckman University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Co-Associate Editors: Laura Šeibokaitė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Douglas R Tillman University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Consulting Editors: Loreta Gustainienė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Juan Pablo Gamboa Navarro University of Valencia, Spain David Hof University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Aistė Pranckevičienė Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania Aleksandrs Kolesovs University of Latvia, Latvia Bojan Musil University of Maribor, Slovenia Natalija Minajeva The Russian Prezidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russian Federation Anna-Maija Lämsä University of Jyväskylä, Finland Goda Perlavičiūtė University of Groningen, Netherlands Gintautas Šilinskas University of Jyväskylä, Finland Türker Özkan Middle East Technical University, Turkey Sofia Marques da Silva University of Porto, Portugal Elvira Cicognani University of Bologna, Italy Christopher Roseman The University of Toledo, USA Detlef H. Rost South West University Chongqing (CN), P.R. China, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany Catarina Pinheiro Mota University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal Rita Žukauskienė Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania Kamonwan Tangdhanakanond Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Thomas J Sweeney Ohio University, USA Loreta Bukšnytė-Marmienė Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Saulė Raižienė Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania Andrejs Ozolins Linnaeus University, Sweden Rosita Lekavičienė Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania Evaldas Kazlauskas Vilnius University, Lithuania Aurelijus Veryga Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania Roy Kern Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania Jane E Myers University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA Lee Pearce Black Hills State University, USA Ewa Gruszczyńska University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland The ownership of International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is shared equally between University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA, and Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. It is published by VMU General Psychology Department, Theoretical Psychology Department, Psychological Clinic and UNK Department of Counseling and School Psychology. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is a peer-reviewed journal publishing articles in English. It is published twice a year. The journal is freely accessed on the internet. Since 2008 the Journal is referred in the Ulrich s Periodicals Directory. Since 2008 the Journal is indexed in the Index Copernicus database and since 2009 in EBSCO Academic Search Complete and LITUANISTICA databases. Since 2010 the Journal is added to PsycINFO Journal Coverage List. Addresses: Psychology Department Department of Counseling and School Psychology Vytautas Magnus University University of Nebraska at Kearney, Jonavos str , College of Education Building, Rm B-148 LT Kaunas, Lithuania Kearney, NE Tel./fax: Tel.: (308) (office), fax: (308) Internet address: University of Nebraska at Kearney, 2016 Vytautas Magnus University, 2016

4 CONTENTS SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Tomas Maceina, Gintautas Valickas, Jūratė Šipylaitė, Andrius Macas, Jevgenija Olševska, Pranas Puidokas 9 34 CLINICAL DECISION-MAKING OF ANESTHESIOLOGY RESIDENTS IN EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE Aistė Pranckevičienė, Justina Dimšaitė, Antanas Budėnas, Andrius Radžiūnas CATASTROPHIZING OF PAIN AS A PREDICTOR OF PRE- AND ACUTE POSTOPERATIVE PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME Eglė Sabaitytė, Aistė Diržytė PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL, SELF-COMPASSION, AND LIFE SATISFACTION OF UNEMPLOYED YOUTH Dovilė Petronytė-Kvedarauskienė, Gražina Gudaitė RELATIONSHIP WITH AUTHORITY IN NARCISSISM Lina Cirtautienė PERSONALITY TRAITS OF TEACHERS IN LITHUANIA: DO PRESCHOOL AND COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL EDUCATORS DIFFER? INFORMATION ABSTRACTS FROM THE 17 TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN PSYCHOLOGY AT UNK & VDU, APRIL 20 TH, ABSTRACTS FROM THE 18 TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN PSYCHOLOGY AT UNK & VDU, DECEMBER 6 TH, CONTRIBUTORS 123 JOURNAL REVIEWERS 125 INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

5 Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) EDITORIAL DEAR READERS, We would like to introduce the reader to the articles within this edition of the International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach. The article Clinical Decision-Making of Anesthesiology Residents in Emergency Medical Care presents interesting findings related to the way anesthesiology residents solved case vignettes with the provision of emergency medical care. Results of the study indicated an increase in anchoring and adjustment heuristics and decrease in the use of availability as the anesthesiology residents become more experienced. Besides, the researchers demonstrated one-third of anesthesiology residents to have heuristic thoughts. The article Psychological Capital, Self-Compassion and Life Satisfaction of Unemployed Youth revealed the relation between life satisfaction and positive individual resources, e.g. psychological capital, when examining unemployed youth. Researchers found that unemployed youth who are highly satisfied with life have higher levels of psychological capital and selfcompassion. The results also indicated that young unemployed people with higher compassion levels also have higher levels of psychological capital, gratitude, and self-compassion. Authors of Personality Traits of Teachers in Lithuania: Do Preschool and Comprehensive School Educators Differ? reported interesting findings that displayed some differences existing in the personality traits exhibited by educators in Lithuania. Results suggested educators with a university degree were associated with higher scores of social boldness while younger teachers were observed to have higher levels of liveliness and emotional stability. Preschool and comprehensive school teachers differed in emotional stability. These are interesting findings and could be attributed to personality characteristics that are more effective in teaching students of different ages. Article named Relationship with Authority in Narcissism presents findings from an extensive literature review which included the analysis of psychological concepts of relationship with authority and its part in inner dynamics of narcissism. The results of this analysis led to distinguishing 6

6 characteristic motives of a narcissistic relationship with authority, such as aggrandizement or depreciating one s own authority; fright, anger with regard to or fight against authority; abusive authoritative stance or excessive submissiveness; and idealization or devaluation of authorities. These findings become important to understand and notice the need to work with authority in narcissism. The final article Catastrophizing of Pain as a Predictor of Pre- and Acute Postoperative Pain in a Sample of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome focused on evaluating the level of pain before and one day after surgery reported by patients. Results revealed that the level of reported pain decreased significantly one day after the surgery, however, no significant correlations were found between pain catastrophizing and the average level of pain before and after the surgery. This study suggests that catastrophizing of the pain is not a significant predictor of pre- or acute postoperative pain in carpal tunnel syndrome patients. We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed their scholarly work to the journal and encourage readers to explore each of the articles included. Tammi Ohmstede Beckman 7

7 Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) INFORMATION ABSTRACTS FROM THE 18 TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN PSYCHOLOGY AT UNK & VDU, DECEMBER 6 TH, 2016 ABSTRACTS BEHAVIORAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS SELF-PERCEPTION OF READINESS TO PROVIDE TELE-HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY INTERVENTIONS Olga Morozan, Fulbright Scholar University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA The advances in technology and the high demand for behavioral health services in rural and remote areas have fostered an increased interest in using Tele-Health in counseling services. Recent studies (Gulliver, Griffiths & Christensen, 2010) have shown that online therapy, when used correctly, reduces problematic mental health symptoms. However, the behavioral health professionals still hesitate to embrace the online delivery of psychotherapy (Shepler et al., 2016), worrying about the difficulties in building the client-therapist relationship (Haberstreh et al., 2007), or approaching the crisis intervention and the client s cyber security issues (Core, Corey & Callanan, 2005). The above-mentioned divergence revealed the necessity to study the self-perception of behavioral health professionals on their readiness to provide online counseling services. This presentation summarizes the results of a study conducted by a team of researchers from the College of Education and the Department of Counseling at the University of Nebraska at Kearney that outlines the attitudes, knowledge and skills of future and current counselors/mental health practitioners essential in providing Tele-Health services. The results revealed a series of concerns and needs for special Tele-Health training across different levels of professional experience. Suggestions for steps moving forward are presented. 111

8 Information CHANGES OF SECOND GRADERS SOCIAL SKILLS DURING TRAINING PROGRAM BASED ON INTEGRATED THEORETICAL MODEL: SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM EFFECT Miglė Motiejūnaitė, Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania The middle childhood (6-11 years) is an important period for the development of child s social skills. Despite the fact that there are various social skills training programs (e.g. Life Skills Education Program, Zippy s Friends) in Lithuania, social and behavioral difficulties in children population still remain (two of the three Lithuanian schoolchildren face with bullying). This can indicate that existing intervention programs are not effective to help solving children problems in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate short-term and long-term effect of the social skills training program based on integrated theoretical model on the second grade schoolchildren. Methods: 42 second grade students from 2 classes of primary school participated in this research. From all participated students, 24 children were chosen and were divided in two groups: 12 were in experiment group, and 12 in control group. The experimental group participated in the social skills training. The first screening of social skills was carried out before the activities; the second screening was carried out one week after the activities. The control group was measured twice in the same period of time. The third screening was carried out 3 months after the training. Social skills were measured using the Social Competence Scale for primary school (SKPMK) (teacher s evaluation; three times) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ -lit) (parent s evaluation; two times - before and after the training). Experiment group had 6 sessions of training, each took 45 minutes once a week. The program was based on integrated theoretical model: social learning theory, cognitive-behavioral and behavioral theories. The purpose of the training was to teach children nonverbal language, empathy, conflict resolution and problems solving skills. Results: The results have shown that self-control and conflict resolution skills significantly improved in experimental group after the training, while emotional problems, problems with peers, social relationship behavior, ability to solve casual problems did not change significantly. Also, self-control skills became significantly better three months after participating in social skills program compared to the skills assessed before participating. In the control group, emotional problems and problems with peers did not change significantly directly after the training program. The same results were gained evaluating self-control, conflict resolution, social relationship behavior, and ability to solve casual problems, also these skills did not change significantly three months after the training program. Conclusions and implication: This study have shown that social skills training program can contribute significantly to the development of the second grade students conflict resolution and can have a long-term effect on self-regulation skills. This study also has some limitations that warrant consideration. Results could be affected by small sample size, and research could have small statistical power because of nonparametric statistical tests. Future studies should evaluate the social skills program using larger sample size and statistical tests which have higher statistical power. 112

9 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 19, p. PREDICTING READING ACHIEVEMENT AND GROWTH IN EARLY ELEMENTARY Lindsey Lewis, Keri Messersmith University of Nebraska at Kearney These studies look at the reading achievement and growth of students in the first, second, and third grade using Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) reading scores. The factors being considered as influences of growth were socioeconomic status, English language status, and gender. The early academic measures being considered as predictors were the Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BRSA), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the AIMSweb reading curriculum-based measurements. The BSRA and MAP reading measures in kindergarten proved to have predictive power on the MAP reading scores of students at all three grade levels and growth was comparable among the socio-demographic factors at all three grade levels. However, students of higher socioeconomic status had significantly higher initial reading skills in the 1st grade compared to students of lower socioeconomic status. LINKS BETWEEN POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND COPING STRATEGIES AMONG CANCER PATIENTS Karine Sergian Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania Oncological illnesses and mental health issues are one of the most relevant health topics lately. Post-traumatic stress disorder, despite being a rather new ailment, is already indrawn into diagnostic sources, such as TLK-10 or DSM-IV. Among somatic and physiological discomforts and dysfunctions, cancer patients also experience psychological challenges and often see their health state as a traumatizing experience. It is noticed that a great number of cancer patients experience severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Thus, cancer patients are believed to be one of the most vulnerable patients for PTSD. According to some sources, the display and degree of these symptoms can be linked to many factors, one of which are coping strategies. However, despite the importance of such research, there has been very few that concentrate on PTSD among cancer patients and coping strategies, and non in Lithuania. The aim of this research is to determine the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies among cancer patients. Also, the tasks for this research were to determine the level of post-traumatic stress disorder among cancer patients; to determine what coping strategies cancer patients use and to evaluate the links between different coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder levels. 113

10 Information The research was conducted in LHSU Kaunas Clinics, Oncology, hematology and chemotherapy in-patient departments, also Kaunas clinics subsidiary clinic Kaunas Oncology hospital. Patients of the named institutions (n = 100) participated in this research and filled in questionnaires made from three sections sociological-demographic and illness related questions, impact of events scale-revised (IES-R) and Four stress factor coping scale. The results were processed with MS Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics 20 programs. Defined statistical significance was when p 0,05, statistical tendency p = The results showed that the participants expressed a moderate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) level (score of 1,99, standard deviation.78). PTSD was expressed more among female participants (mean IES-R score of 2,27) than among male participants (mean score of 1,86), and among patients awaiting planned future cancer treatment, finished treatment or with unknown cancer treatment. Also, the results showed PTSD is significantly less expressed among patients who use social support (r = -.325, p <.05), problem solving (r = -.494, p <.05) and emotional discharge (r = -.391, p <.05) as coping strategies. Meanwhile, participants who use avoidance as a coping strategy expressed significantly more PTSD symptoms (r =.389, p <.05). Referring to results of this study, it is possible to state that social-demographic and illness related indicators have little impact on PTSD symptoms only gender and future treatment or finished treatment are related to expressed PTSD symptoms. However, all cancer patients feel and express moderate PTSD symptoms. Such coping techniques as social support, problem solving or emotional discharge help patients cope with PTSD symptoms while avoidance coping techniques do the opposite and are related to more expressed PTSD symptoms. THE IMPORTANCE OF NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS TO PREDICT ANGER AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AMONG ADOLESCENTS Erika Kobzakaitė, Dovilė Valiūnė, Aidas Perminas Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania Introduction. Aggression is characterized by the intention to cause physical or emotional harm to another (Ballard et al., 2004). Buss and Perry (1992) state that anger constitutes the emotional component of aggression and that hostile aggression includes cruelty, which constitutes the cognitive component of aggression. Anger, as all emotions, is natural and universal, and when expressed in a healthy manner, can improve interpersonal communication; however, it can become uncontrollable and destructive (Yavuzer, Karatas, 2013). Shekarey et al. (2013) state that aggressive behaviors are common in many schools and this behavior can become a serious problem to the student and can cause damage to the surrounding. Beck (2001) state that person s interpretation of a particular situation, which is influenced by past interpretations of similar situations, are automatic thoughts which can cause aggression. There is much research findings of which prove that automatic thoughts 114

11 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 19, p. cause aggressive behavior (Beck, Freeman, 1990; Calvete et al., 2005; Kurtoglu, 2009; Schniering, Rapee, 2004; Yavuzer, Karatas, 2013). However, there is still a question which automatic thoughts have the most influence to these constructs. As such, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between automatic thoughts, anger and aggression in adolescents, and which automatic thoughts affect aggressive behavior the most. The purpose of the study was to find the relationship between negative automatic thoughts, anger, and aggressive behavior among adolescents. Methods. The sample of study contained 575 adolescent students (281 females and 294 males) from various Lithuanian schools. The participants age ranged 13 to 17 (average age was 15.2 years, SD = 1.1). Aggression questionnaire (Buss and Perry, 1992) measures these components of aggression: Physical Aggression (α =.718), Verbal Aggression (α =.602), Anger (α =.713); The instrument Children s Automatic Thoughts (Schniering and Rapee, 2002) measures these components of automatic thoughts: Physical Threat (α =.876), Social Threat (α =.905), Personal Failure (α =.930), Hostile Intent (α =.830) were used for the study. Results. Linear regression analysis showed that the thoughts of hostility were related to girls anger and physical aggression. The thoughts of hostility and physical threat were related to girls verbal aggression. The thoughts of hostility and physical threat were related to boys anger and physical aggression. The thoughts of hostility were related to boys verbal aggression. Conclusions. The present findings showed the significant relationship between negative automatic thoughts, anger and aggression among adolescents. However, there was a difference in relationship between boys and girls negative automatic thoughts, anger and aggression. Girls anger, verbal aggression had the highest relationship with hostility and boys anger, and physical aggression had the highest relationship with the physical threat. One of the possibilities to reduce anger is to work with automatic thoughts. Therefore, school psychologist should pay attention to automatic thoughts. Intervention based on cognitive approach is orientated into thoughts changing. EFFECTIVENESS OF A STRUCTURED ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAM ON INTERNATIONAL STUDENT S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Parth Chaudhari University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Academic success of international students was measured from GPA. The part time English Language Institute (ELI), and part time Undergraduate students were compared with full time undergraduate students of University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK). From independent student T test, it was determined that both groups have similar means in academic success. Together the finding suggest that ELI program is a great start for international students with low English proficiency to transition to UNK. 115

12 Information INFLUENCE OF JOY AND ANXIETY ON EGOCENTRIC DECISIONS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS Karina Kravčenko, Laura Šeibokaitė Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania Introduction. Egocentrism phenomenon of young adulthood attracts increasing interest of foreign scientists, while in Lithuania, the manifestation of this phenomenon is a relatively new research object. Scientists argue that egocentricity, i.e. the inability to adopt proper initial approach when facing environmental objections, is one of the major sources of interpersonal conflicts and disagreements. On the other hand, the ability to see things from other peoples perspectives, which is the opposite to egocentricity, is a prerequisite for reaching the quality of communication and social compatibility. Daily functioning of a young adult is inherent from social interactions which are accompanied by various emotions, among them the joy and anxiety. Therefore, in order to deepen the understanding of the interpersonal conflicts or causes of disagreements and improve the quality of the interactions in various spheres of relationship, it is important to understand how joy and anxiety may influence the egocentricity of young adults. Methodology. The study was performed at Vytautas Magnus University. 35 students from 1 st to 4 th study year in psychology, social work, sociology and anthropology, creative industries, and career and occupational information took part in the research (27 of them female and 8 male students). Average age of the subjects was 21.4 years. The experiment in which the emotions of joy and anxiety were manipulated was performed during the study. In order to cause the aforementioned emotions, the exercise of the autobiographic memory was used. The egocentricity evaluation technique consisted of 10 descriptions of the stories and the same number of voice messages belonging to each story. The participants of the study had to read every story, listen to the recording of voice message and guess how would the message be evaluated by its recipient who has no contextual information known to the subject who reads the story. The main results. The obtained results of the study showed that all subjects inside the control, anxiety and joy groups displayed a higher number of egocentric decisions when compared to the non-egocentric ones. The results also showed that the emotions of joy and anxiety did not increase the occurrence probability of the egocentric decisions. Conclusions and implication. According to the main results, the presumption can be made that the emotions of joy and anxiety do not influence egocentric decisions of young adults (aged 18 to 29 years). Another presumption is that young adults are essentially egocentric, regardless various internal or external factors. Nevertheless, since the results of this study do not confirm the results of the previous researches that analyzed the influence of joy and anxiety on the egocentric decisions, the further research in this field is needed. 116

13 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 19, p. EXPLORING THE WILDERNESS: NARRATIVES OF RURAL SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS ADVOCATING FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE Jackie Griffiths University of Nebraska at Kearney, USA Recently, social justice has been emerging on the radar of professionals in a variety of settings. This new theme of social justice has become a popular topic for research; however, additional exploration is still needed around certain aspects of this subject. One area that needs to be further examined is the views of professional school psychologists working in rural school districts. This study examined the views, beliefs, and actions of rural school psychologists who act as social justice advocates. The definition was found to be similar to previous research (Briggs, 2009; Grimes et al., 2013; Moy et al., 2014; Shriberg et al., 2008). The barriers of social justice included many external factors in the school, community, and culture of the area. The drivers for social justice were a mix of internal and external factors including personal beliefs, success stories, new services, and the close knit relationships in rural communities. 117

14 Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) CONTRIBUTORS Antanas Budėnas, Student, Faculty of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Scientific interests: Prognostic factors of pain after the median nerve decompression surgery. Address: Eiveniu st. 4, LT Kaunas, Lithuania Lina Cirtautienė, PhD student, Psychology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University. Scientific interests: Intercultural factors of effective leadership. Leadership in the IT sector. Psychological and organizational leadership performance factors. Leadership Psychology. Address: Jonavos st , LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone/Fax: Justina Dimšaitė, Student, Faculty of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Scientific interests: Prognostic factors off pain after the median nerve decompression surgery. Address: Eiveniu st. 4, LT Kaunas, Lithuania Aistė Diržytė, PhD, Professor, Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology. Scientific interests: Psychological factors of life s quality, positive psychological capital, positive organizational behavior. Address: Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Phone: Fax: Gražina Gudaitė, PhD in psychology, Professor. Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University. Director at the Center of Practical Psychology Studies. Jungian psychoanalyst with a membership in International Association of Analytical Psychology. President of Lithuanian Association for Analytical Psychology. Scientific interests: Analytical psychology, clinical psychology, psychotherapy research, clinical psychological diagnostic. Address: Universiteto st. 9/1, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone:

15 Contributors Andrius Macas, MD, Professor, Department of Anaesthesiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Scientific interests: Anesthesiology, intensive care medicine, burn out, medical simulation. Address: Eivenių st. 2, LT Kaunas, Lithuania Phone: Tomas Maceina, PhD student, Vilnius University, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of General Psychology. Scientific interests: Social information processing and decision making. Address: Universiteto st. 9/1, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: Jevgenija Olševska, anaesthesiologist reanimatologist, Center of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Treatment, Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Clinics. Scientific interests: Anesthesiology and intensive care medicine. Phone: Dovilė Petronytė Kvedarauskienė, PhD student of Psychology, Vilnius University. Jungian psychoanalyst with a membership in International Association for Analytical Psychology. Medical psychologist at Zirmunu Mental Health Center. Private psychotherapy practice. Scientific interests: Clinical psychology, Analytical psychology, psychotherapy research, qualitative research. Narcissism and relationship with authority. Address: Universiteto st. 9/1, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: Aistė Pranckevičienė, PhD, medical psychologist and researcher, Neuroscience Institute, Laboratory of Clinical Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Scientific interests: Validity and efficacy of psychological and neuropsychological assessment instruments. Address: Eiveniu st. 4, LT Kaunas, Lithuania, Pranas Puidokas, M.S., clinical psychologist. Scientific interests: Social information processing and decision making

16 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, 19, p. Andrius Radžiūnas, MD, PhD student and researcher, Neuroscience Institute, Laboratory of Clinical Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Scientific interests: Clinical outcome improvement trough patient centred approach. Address: Eiveniu st. 4, LT Kaunas, Lithuania Eglė Sabaitytė, Phd student, Mykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Welfare, Institute of Psychology. Scientific interests: Positive psychological capital, self-compassion, the effectiveness of subjective well-being intervention programs. Address: Ateities st. 20, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: Fax: Jūratė Šipylaitė, MD, Professor, Clinic of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine. Scientific interests: Anesthesiology and intensive care medicine. Address: M. K. Čiurlionio st. 21, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone: Gintautas Valickas, PhD, Professor, Vilnius University, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of General Psychology. Scientific interests: Forensic psychology, procedural justice, stress and coping, decision making. Address: Universiteto st. 9/1, LT Vilnius, Lithuania Phone:

17 Biopsychosocial Approach 2016 / 19 ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) JOURNAL REVIEWERS The Editors thank our reviewers in 2016: Loreta Bukšnytė-Marmienė, Prof. Dr. Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Juan Pablo Gamboa Navarro, PhD Ewa Gruszczyńska, PhD Loreta Gustainienė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. David Hof, PhD Evaldas Kazlauskas, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Albina Kepalaitė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Roy Kern, PhD, Prof. Audronė Miškinytė, Dr. Andrejs Ozolins, PhD Aidas Perminas, Prof. Dr. Aistė Pranckevičienė, Dr. Rūta Sargautytė, Dr. Assoc. Prof. Sofia Marques da Silva, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Douglas Tillman, PhD Daina Voita, PhD Asta Zbarauskaitė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. 123

18 Biopsychosocial Approach ISSN (Print), ISSN X (Online) INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS OF THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY: A BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH MISSION STATEMENT AND OBJECTIVES The scope of the International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach is to study the phenomena of human mental processes and behaviour, based on the viewpoint that both mind and behaviour originate, develop and function due to close interaction between biological and psychological factors, and social environment. Such holistic understanding of mental phenomena as well as human behaviour stresses the necessity to integrate different branches of science. Therefore, the priority will be given to the topics analysing psychological issues within the broader context, including biological, psychological, and social aspects. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach encourages discussions among scientists and academic communities of Lithuania, USA and other countries, strives for collaboration of scientists representing various scientific fields and branches in order to promote the development of Psychology, and to expand possibilities of practical implementation enabling to find the most appropriate solution of problems faced both by the individual and the community within the rapidly changing social milieu. The authors are encouraged to submit original empirical as well as theoretical articles with diverse methodology and methods of statistical analysis, which would expand the knowledge in the field of Psychology, and (or) have importance for practical psychologists. 1. Manuscripts must be prepared according to general international standards for publications in social sciences (recommended Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Washington DC, latest edition). 2. Manuscripts must be submitted in English language. Writing should be concise and correct. 3. Manuscript should cover: title (as brief as possible, but informative); first names and surnames of all authors, educational degrees of the authors, institution(s) to which the authors are affiliated, position, scientific interests, address, phone number, fax, address, corresponding author; abstract (not exceeding words) should reflect the structure of the manuscript (background, purpose, material and methods, results, conclusions); 3 5 keywords (they should not repeat the title of the manuscript, but be informative; e. g., they may be selected from the MeSH catalogue). Different terms in keywords and title increase the probability for publication to be easier found within the databases. Keywords, in comparison with the title, might represent the term in broader or more narrow understanding (if you title your manuscript as The role of personality in risky driving of young drivers, you provide extraversion, neuroticism, impulsiveness, driving errors, traffic rule violations as keywords). If authors 125

19 Instructions for authors consider cultural context or geographical reference as the important factors to understand the presented data, related keywords could be introduced (e.g. young drivers, Lithuania ) introduction (operationalization of problem and relevance of publication, object and aim of manuscript, hypotheses or research questions if necessary); methods (if manuscript covers report of empirical data, research methods, procedures, and subjects have to be described precisely, if a manuscript presents theoretical article or overview of literature, logics of the analysis must to be presented); analysis of the results or scientific problem (tables and pictures must be clear, using comfortably readable text font; data in the tables and pictures only complement the text, but not duplicate); tables and (or) pictures should be placed in the appropriate place in the text (not at the end of the manuscript, and not in a separate file); discussion of the results (results in relation with the hypotheses, the interpretation and implication of results, results in relation with findings of previous studies, study limitations if applicable); reference list in an alphabetical order, not numbered, DOI included. 4. Articles, which present empirical data, should not exceed words. Theoretical articles or literature reviews may reach words. 5. One electronic copy of the manuscript in Microsoft Windows Word format (text body 12 font size, Times New Roman font, double-spaced, margins: 2 cm top, bottom, and right, 3 cm left) has to be submitted to the Editorial Board using the online submission system. Author should store one copy and all required documents to guard against loss. 6. Use only black and white pictures and tables, grey scale colors have to contrast clearly. Scanned pictures are undesirable; exceptionally, upon agreement with the editors, pictures should be in.tiff format with resolution not less than 300 inch/dpi. 7. If necessary, acknowledge people or institutions contributed to preparation of the manuscript. People who consulted the authors but have not been assigned as authors might be acknowledged with their functions or level of contribution, e.g., scientific consultant, data collectors, participation in research, etc. 8. Authors are required to include the following in their submission letter (scanned): a statement that the aim and the content of the article correspond to the scope of the journal; a statement that the empirical data, description of the sample, and methods used in the article are compliant with ethical standards of psychological research (e.g., WMA Declaration of Helsinki; permission of bioethical committee, etc.); a statement disclosing conflicts of interest between the author and Editorial Board of the Journal, between the author and research sponsor, between the author and the publisher, etc.; a statement that all listed authors have contributed significantly to the manuscript and consent to their names on the manuscript; a statement that the manuscript or the data have not been published previously and they are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The whole document is signed by all authors. suggestion of a reviewer (name, institution, ) with expertise in the publication topic, indicating the reason for selecting a particular reviewer. Editorial Board is not obliged to recruit the suggested person for the review. 126

20 A Biopsychosocial Approach 2016, Manuscripts go through a blind review procedure. After receiving a manuscript at least two reviewers qualified scientists with expertise in relevant scientific areas and branches are assigned by the editors. Reviewing process is based on the principles of objectiveness, professionalism and originality. Editorial Board does not take responsibility for precision and fairness of data, text, illustrations, etc. Position of the authors expressed in a publication might not be shared by the editors or publishers. 10. Manuscripts which do not meet requirements are returned to a corresponding author without any evaluation. 11. Copyright belongs to publishers. 12. Manuscript should be submitted electronically in: php?n=en.submitarticle. 13. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach uses the ithenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit Copyright Notice Articles submitted to the journal should be original contributions and should not be under consideration for any other publication at the same time. Authors submitting articles warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. For ease of dissemination and to ensure a proper policing of use, papers and contributions become the legal copyright of the publisher unless otherwise agreed. The International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach applies the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) licence to articles and other works published. Under this Open Access licence, authors agree that anyone can remix, tweak or build upon their articles in whole or part for free for non-comercial purposes using proper citation. Readers may copy and distribute the material of this Journal in any medium or format, or reuse its content non-commercially as long as the authors of ideas and original source are properly cited. Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. Users may not use the material of this Journal for commercial purposes without notification and agreement of copyright holders. 127

21 International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach = Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris / General Psychology Departament at Vytautas Magnus University, Theoretical Psychology Department at Vytautas Magnus University, Psychological Clinic at Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Counseling and School Psychology at University of Nebraska at Kearney. T. 1 (2008)-. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, [Vol.] 19. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas ; Vilnius : Versus aureus, p. ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) This journal provides a good example of collaboration between the two universities as well as support to the biopsychosocial model. The papers explore the importance of new issues in diverse fields of psychology. International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris 2016 / 19 English language editor Elena Gytautė Lithuanian language editor Agnė Bolytė Cover designers Aistė Pranckevičienė, Aras Pranckevičius Graphic designer Zita Petrauskienė A run of 15 copies. 9,25 printing sheets. Order No. K Published by Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio g. 58, LT Kaunas Versus aureus Publishers, Rūdninkų g. 18, LT-Vilnius