The Cell Cycles Practice Test

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1 The ell ycles Practice Test Multiple hoice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Figure Which of the cells depicted in the line graph in Figure 9-2 are most likely cancerous? a. c. b. d. 2. If cancer is present, what is the likely explanation for what happened to the cells depicted in the curves labeled and in Figure 9-2? a. They thrived with the cancerous cells. b. They were harmed by radiation therapy. c. They died off due to natural causes. d. They died off because the cancerous cells deprived them of nutrients. 3. Which of the following does not occur as a cell grows larger and larger in size? a. difficulty obtaining nutrients b. difficulty eliminating wastes c. ratio of surface area to volume increases d. diffusion across the cell membrane is impaired 4. Why is the synthesis stage called this? a. because protein synthesis is taking place b. because N synthesis is taking place c. because it combines several smaller stages into one d. because the chromosomes come together

2 Figure Figure 9-4 illustrates which stage of mitosis? a. anaphase c. prophase b. metaphase d. telophase 6. cell has 12 chromosomes. How many chromosomes will each daughter cell have? a. 4 c. 12 b. 6 d The cell cycle is regulated by a. cyclins c. hormones b. enzymes d. sugars 8. What is cancer caused by? a. cell-membrane damage c. mutation b. metabolic poisoning d. immune-system damage Figure The cell in Figure 9-5 is undergoing mitosis. Which stage of mitosis will follow this one? a. anaphase c. prophase b. metaphase d. telophase 10. cell that undergoes repeated mitosis without cytokinesis would have a. many daughter cells. c. many nuclei. b. fewer chromosomes. d. cancerous properties. 11. The typical growth period of a cell occurs during which stage of the cell cycle? a. Gap 1 c. synthesis b. interphase d. mitosis 12. stem cell has potential medical uses because it a. undergoes mitosis. b. is not specialized in structure and function. c. is similar to a cancer cell, providing a study system. d. undergoes apoptosis. 13. s a cell becomes larger, its a. volume increases faster than its surface area. b. surface area increases faster than its volume.

3 c. volume increases, but its surface area stays the same. d. surface area stays the same, but its volume increases. 14. ll of the following are problems that growth causes for cells EXEPT a. more demands on N. b. excess oxygen. c. obtaining enough food. d. expelling wastes. 15. The process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called a. cell division. b. metaphase. c. interphase. d. mitosis. 16. n advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction a. takes less time b. requires more time c. provides genetic diversity d. produces identical offspring Figure Which advantage of having the a cell s N bundled into separate chromosomes is illustrated in Figure 10 1 above? a. uring N replication, the number of chromosomes is cut in half. b. uring N replication, the number of chromosomes stays the same. c. uring cell division, each daughter cell will get the same number of genes. d. uring cell division, each daughter cell will get a random number of genes. 18. Which of the following lists structures from smallest to largest? a. chromosome, chromatid, chromatin, N b. chromosome, N, chromatin, chromatid

4 c. N, chromatin, chromatid, chromosome d. nucleosome, coil, N, chromosome 19. uring which phase in the cell cycle does mitosis happen? a. G 1 phase b. G 2 phase c. M phase d. S phase 20. Which pair includes a phase of the cell cycle and a cellular process that occurs during that phase? a. G 1 phase, N replication b. G 2 phase, preparation for mitosis c. S phase, cell division d. M phase, cell growth 21. ell division is represented in Figure 10 3 by the letter a.. b.. c.. d.. Figure The structures labeled in Figure 10 5 are called a. centromeres. b. centrioles. c. sister chromatids. Figure 10 5

5 d. spindles. 23. Which of the following represents the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence? a. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase b. interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase c. interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase d. prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase 24. What is the role of the spindle fibers during mitosis? a. They help separate the chromosomes. b. They break down the nuclear membrane. c. They duplicate the N. d. They make the chromosomes visible. 25. ancer cells form masses of cells called a. tumors. b. cyclins. c. growth factors. d. p The numbers in Figure 10-1 represent the chromosome number found in each of the dog cells shown. The processes that are occurring at and are. Figure 10-1 a. mitosis and fertilization c. mitosis and pollination b. meiosis and fertilization d. meiosis and pollination Figure 10-8

6 27. In Figure 10-8, which set of chromatids illustrates the result of a single crossover of the homologous chromosomes? a. c. b. d. 28. Which event during meiosis leads to a reduction in chromosome number from 2n to n? a. Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equator. b. N undergoes replication. c. Homologous chromosomes travel to opposite sides of the cell. d. Sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere. 29. The typical human body cell contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in a typical human sperm? a. 23 c. 46 b. 45 d. 92 Figure onsider the cell labeled X in Figure 10-9 containing 4 chromosomes. Which of the four cells below it represents a healthy gamete that could be produced from this cell? a. c. b. d.

7 The ell ycles Practice Test nswer Section MULTIPLE HOIE 1. NS: ancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells. No, the number of cells is going down. id you consider all the factors? PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 254 NT: LS_1d TOP: NS: When unchecked, cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normal cells, resulting in loss of tissue function. Look at the graph again. See page 254 for help. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level E REF: 254 NT: LS_1d TOP: NS: If a cell continues to grow, the ratio of surface area to volume will decrease. This means the cell will have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products. iffusion across the cell membrane will not be affected. id you consider all the factors? See page 245 for help. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 245 NT: LS_1d ST: II.1.3 TOP: NS: Synthesis refers to the synthesis of N during this phase. This is not what is being made. It refers to something being made.

8 Review the material on page 247. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 247 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: uring metaphase, the spindle apparatus aligns the sister chromatids in the center, or equator, of the cell. See page 250 for help. Look at what the chromosomes are doing. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 250 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: uring mitosis, the cell s replicated genetic material separates and the cell prepares to divide into two cells. id you consider all the factors? Too low. This would occur in meiosis. That's too many. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 248 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: The normal cell cycle is regulated by cyclin proteins. Good try. See page 253 for help. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 253 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: ancer can have diverse causes, all of which result in mutation in a cell s N. This will just kill a cell. This doesn't cause cancer. That's right! Have a look at page 254. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 254 NT: LS_1d TOP: NS:

9 In this stage, the chromosomes are condensing and the spindle is beginning to form. Therefore, this stage is prophase. The one to follow it is metaphase. That's a later stage. This cell is currently in prophase. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: Mitosis is the division of the nucleus. Without cytokinesis, or cell division, mitosis alone will lead to a multinucleate cell. This occurs in many organisms, especially fungi. ytokinesis is what produces the daughter cells. The chromosome numbers would not decrease. That's right! ancer is a result of uncontrolled cell division; in this case division is not occurring. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 246 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: The normal growth of the cell occurs in Gap 1 before the chromosomes are replicated. This is after synthesis, does that make sense? The cell is busy replicating N during this period. Have a look at page 247. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 247 NT: LS_1d ST: III.1.1 TOP: NS: stem cell s usefulness lies in the fact that it is unspecialized and therefore has the potential to develop into cells of different kinds that might be used to repair damaged tissue. Many cells undergo mitosis; this is not their usefulness. That's right! They are not especially similar to cancer cells. This is not their usefulness. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_1f TOP: NS: PTS: 1 IF: L2 REF: p. 275 OJ: Explain the problems that growth causes for cells. ST: L2.p1 2.1 L2.p2 LM: comprehension

10 14. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L2 REF: p. 274 p. 276 OJ: Explain the problems that growth causes for cells. ST: L2.p1 2.1 L2.p2 LM: comprehension 15. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L1 REF: p. 276 OJ: ompare asexual and sexual reproduction. ST: L4.p1 L4.p1 LM: knowledge 16. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L3 REF: p. 278 OJ: ompare asexual and sexual reproduction. ST: L4.p1 L4.p1 LM: evaluation 17. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L3 REF: p. 280 p. 281 OJ: escribe the role of chromosomes in cell division. ST: 4.3 LM: synthesis 18. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L3 REF: p. 280 OJ: escribe the role of chromosomes in cell division. ST: 4.3 LM: analysis 19. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L1 REF: p. 282 OJ: Name the main events of the cell cycle. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: knowledge 20. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L2 REF: p. 281 OJ: Name the main events of the cell cycle. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: analysis 21. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L1 REF: p. 281 OJ: Name the main events of the cell cycle. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: knowledge 22. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L1 REF: p. 282 OJ: escribe what happens during the four phases of mitosis. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: knowledge 23. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L2 REF: p. 282 p. 283 OJ: escribe what happens during the four phases of mitosis. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: analysis 24. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L2 REF: p. 282 OJ: escribe what happens during the four phases of mitosis. ST: L2.p1 2.1 LM: application 25. NS: PTS: 1 IF: L1 REF: p. 289 OJ: Explain how cancer cells are different from other cells. ST: 4.4b LM: knowledge 26. NS: Meiosis involves the reduction in chromosome number prior to fertilization. If this were mitosis, then step would not lead to a reduction in chromosome number. orrect. Pollination occurs in plants. Pollination occurs in plants. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 275 NT: LS_2b ST: III.1.2 TOP: 10-2

11 27. NS: single crossover will cause and b to change positions relative to and a on just two chromatids. The other two chromatids will be unaffected, one would remain and the other aa. The chromatids that experience the crossover will contain b and a. This is correct. This shows the effect of zero crossovers. This shows the effect of two crossovers. There should be 2 copies of. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level E REF: NT: LS_2b ST: III.3.2 TOP: NS: Reduction in chromosome number occurs when homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated during meiosis I. The cell is still 2n at this point. heck page 272. orrect. The cells are already n at this point. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_2b ST: III.3.2 TOP: NS: The sperm contains half the number of chromosomes found in a body cell. orrect. Sperm contain a haploid number of chromosomes. body cell has twice the number of chromosomes as a sperm. See pages PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_2b ST: III.1.2 TOP: NS: The healthy gamete would have half the original number of chromatids. In this case, the number is. orrect. The chromatids in the gamete would not be joined at the centromere. There should be two chromatids in the gamete. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 275 NT: LS_2b ST: III.3.2 TOP: 10-1

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