Osteoporosis Management in Older Adults

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1 Osteoporosis Management in Older Adults Angela M Cheung, MD, PhD, FRCPC, CCD Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto

2 Disclosures Relationship with Commercial Entities: Honoraria from: Amgen, Eli Lilly, Merck Grants to institution: Amgen, Eli Lilly Relationship with Non-commercial Entities: Chair, Osteoporosis Canada Scientific Advisory Council Chair, Canadian Bone Strength Working Group Director, CESHA at University of Toronto Director, Osteoporosis Program at University Health Network / Mount Sinai Hospital

3 Learning Objectives 1) Understand the epidemiology and risks associated with osteoporosis 2) Appreciate the latest developments in the pharmacological management of osteoporosis 3) Be aware of some of the current controversies around the treatment of osteoporosis

4 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISKS OF OSTEOPOROSIS

5 Annual incidence of common diseases Prevalence of Fractures in Canadian Women 200, ,000 * Canadian hip fractures from (1); Non-hip fracture data extrapolated from (2). Other represents non-osteoporotic fractures sites (humerus, clavicle, hands/fingers, patella, tibia, fibula) ,400 41,500 Other 80,000 38,900 Vertebral 32,700 Wrist 49,220 40,000 30,000 Hip 22, ,300 Pelvis Osteoporotic fractures 1,2 Heart Attack 3 Stroke 3 Breast Cancer 4 1. Leslie WD, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: Burge J, et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22: Canadian Institute for Health Information (2009) Health Indicators. 4. Canadian Cancer Society

6

7 Patients first response The floor was slippery I was clumsy The store owner should have cleaned up the spill It was an accident

8 % of all fractures that are fragility fractures 95% 90% 85% Overall: 81% 91.8% 80% 75% 75.7% 70% 65% 60% Age groups Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:79-86.

9 % of patients being treated Post-fracture Care Gap: Comparison with Heart Attack How do we shift this paradigm? ~80% 20 ~15% 0 Anti-osteoporosis medication post fracture Beta-blockers post heart attack 1. Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: Austin PC, et al. CMAJ 2008; 179(9):

10 In women with hip fractures: Fracture begets future fracture Deteriorated quality of life Long-term care admission Mortality 40% had prior fracture 1 40% need assistance walking 2 18% enter LTC 3 23% die within 1 year 4 Lifetime risk of hip fracture in women >50 is 12.1% 5 1. Hajcsar EE, et al. CMAJ 2000, 163: ; 2. Cooper C. Am J Med. 1997:103:12S-19S; 3. Jean et al. JBMR 2012 On-line September Ioannidis G, et al. CMAJ 2009;181: Hopkins et al Osteo Intl 2012; 23:

11 NEJM Case

12 PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT

13 Hip fracture risk (% per 10 Years) Age & Risk of Fracture with Low BMD AGE Risk increases with age BMD T-score Kanis et al, Osteopor Int 2001

14 Two Tools for Fracture Risk Assessment These tools incorporate other risk factors for fracture in addition to BMD 1. OC Guidelines tool available at: 2. FRAX tool available at: 3. National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines:

15 Femoral neck T-score Calculating 10-Year Absolute Fracture Risk for Postmenopausal Women: CAROC Increases to the next risk category Low risk (<10%) Prior fragility fracture after age 40 Prolonged corticosteroid therapy* Moderate risk (10-20%) High risk (> 20%) Prior hip or vertebral or >1 nonvertebral fragility fracture Age (years) Lumbar spine or total hip T-score -2.5: consider the individual to be at least at moderate risk Calibrated using Canadian fracture data and have been directly validated in Canadians 2 *At least three months cumulative use during the preceding year at a prednisone-equivalent dose 7.5 mg daily 1. Papaioannou A, et al. CMAJ. 2010;182: Leslie WD, et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:

16 High 10-Year Fracture Risk Those with: Hip Fractures Vertebral Fractures >2 fragility fractures >1 fragility fracture + steroid use

17 Femoral neck T-score CAROC Fracture Risk Assessment CAROC Assessment Tool Stratification Women (treatment naive) Most patients >age 75 are at Moderate to High risk of Fracture Low risk (<10%) based on age alone Moderate risk (10-20%) High risk (> 20%) Age (years) Hip / vertebral fracture High risk (> 20%) > 1 fragility fracture * At least three months cumulative use during the preceding year at a prednisone-equivalent dose 7.5 mg daily Papaioannou A, et al CMAJ 2010.

18 2010 Treatment Guidelines Low risk (<10%) Lifestyle Modification Moderate risk Lifestyle? Treat High risk (>20%) Treat Papaioannou A, et al. CMAJ. 2010;182:

19 Moderate Risk Treat if: Over 65 with wrist fracture Lumbar spine << Femoral neck T-score Medications (e.g. AI, ADT) Conditions (e.g. RA) Falls Patient preference

20 Consequences of Falls in Osteoporotic Patients Falls are a major contributor to fractures: Over 90% of hip fractures are the result of a fall Up to 14% of falls result in hip fractures Age 80 Age Grisso JA et al. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:

21 Pharmocological therapy First Line Therapies with Evidence for Fracture Prevention in Postmenopausal Women* Type of Fracture Antiresorptive Therapy Bisphosphonates Denosumab Raloxifene Estrogen** (Hormone Alendronate Risedronate Zoledronic therapy) Acid Bone Formation Therapy Teriparatide Vertebral Hip Non- Vertebral In clinical trials, non-vertebral fractures are a composite endpoint including hip, femur, pelvis, tibia, humerus, radius, and clavicle. * For postmenopausal women, indicates first line therapies and Grade A recommendation. For men requiring treatment, alendronate, risedronate, and zoledronic acid can be used as first line therapies for prevention of fractures [Grade D]. ** Estrogen or hormone therapy can be used as first line therapy in women with menopausal symptoms.

22 Special Considerations for the Geriatrics Population Falls risk Sarcopenia Poor Nutrition Poor Renal Function Multiple Comorbidities and Medications How many times has she fallen in the past 12 months?

23 Fall Prevention Strategies Assessment of fall risk: on admission/after a fall Patient education on risk of falls Environmental modification: reduction of fall hazards Reduce use of restraints for patients in care Adequate vitamin D Medication review Exercise: Tai chi, balance and strength training Hip protectors Compliant flooring Registered Nurse Association of Ontario (RNAO) Prevention of Falls and Falls injuries in Older Adults Recommendations.

24 Exercise To order: ext 5926

25 Assistive Devices

26 Different Types of Hip Protectors

27 Conditions

28 SmartCells: commercially available compliant floor for injury prevention SmartCells Installation of compliant flooring (SmartCells) in a demonstration bedroom of Delta View Rehabilitation Centre in Delta, BC

29 CURRENT CONTROVERSIES

30 CBC News closed with: People should consult their physicians before taking more than 800IU of vitamin D

31 CBS News: Vitamin D supplements won t help bones in healthy adults

32 Vitamin D Oversimplification of action of vitamin D Adequacy aiming for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: 75nmol/L (2010 OC guidelines) 50nmol/L (IOM guidelines for healthy adults) Reid meta-analysis: baseline mean serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D level > 50nmol/L in 15 studies Canadian Guidelines: 400IU 2000IU a day is safe

33

34 Calcium potential benefits US Preventive Services Task Force meta-analysis 2011: 16 RCTs 12% reduction in all fractures institionalized elderly RR= 0.71 (95%CI: ) community-dwelling RR=0.89 (95%CI: ) p=0.07 Tang et al meta-analysis 2007: 9 RCTs 10% reduction in all fractures Reid et al meta-analysis 2008: 3 RCTs 50% increase in hip fractures

35 Calcium potential harm Cardiovascular: Bolland 1 st meta-analysis 2010: 15 RCTs of Ca alone OR= 1.31 (95%CI: ) Bolland 2 nd meta-analysis 2011: 15 RCTs of Ca+/-D OR= 1.21 (95%CI: ) Wang et al meta-analysis 2010 (Included all WHI) Ca + D: RR = 1.04 (95%CI: ) Ca alone: RR = 1.14 (95%CI: )

36 Calcium Other side effects: constipation and bloating, constipation and bloating -- mild kidney stones: RR = 1.17 (dose-dependent) Current guidelines for total calcium intake per day : 2010 Osteoporosis Canada = 1200mg/day (diet + supplements) 2011 IOM = 1200mg/day (F>age50) = mg/day (M>age 50)

37 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Exposed non-healing bone for 6 to 8 weeks

38 Incidence of BP associated ONJ (# cases/# pts -Rx filled) Overall number of patients ODB +PP Number of cancer patients (IV bisphosphonate) Brogan Rx data Number of patients with osteoporosis or metabolic bone disease Brogan Rx data Number in Ontario with bisphosphonate use at any time between Number of patients* with ONJ between ,513 2, , Three year cumulative incidence ~5 per 100,000 ~7 per 1,000 ~2 per 100,000 Average annual incidence ~2 per 100,000 ~2 per 1,000 ~1 per 100,000

39 Other risk factors Cancer (lymphoma, breast, prostate, multiple myeloma) Chemo and radiation High dose bisphosphonates for high calcium levels or for bone mets Steroids Diabetes Poor dental hygiene Invasive dental procedure

40 Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) low-trauma stress fractures in subtrochanteric or shaft region of the femur can be associated with bisphosphonate or denosumab therapy

41 Hip Fractures Subcapital Femoral neck Inter trochanteric Subtrochanteric

42 Radiographic Images of AFFs Transverse fracture line Transverse fracture line Focal Periosteal Reaction on Lateral cortex Subtrochanteric Mid-diaphyseal Oblique extension Medial spike ASBMR AFF Task Force Report, JBMR 2010, 25 (11): 2267

43 Imaging using other modalities Plain X-rays Bone Scan MRI DXA ASBMR AFF Task Force Report, JBMR 2010, 25 (11): 2282

44 Incidence of Complete AFFs Ontario CANADA Data Kaiser Permanente California Data ~1-2/1000 py after 6-7 years ~1/1000 py after years JAMA, February 23, 2011 Vol 305 (8): 783 JBMR,

45 Is long-term therapy still effective?* Is Is Long-term Long-term Therapy Therapy Still Still Effective?* Effective?* In In long-term long-term trials, trials, BMD BMD continued continued to to increase increase or or remained remained stable stable In long-term trials, BMD continued to increase or remained stable Pivotal Study Medication Pivotal Study Medication Extension Extension Risedronate Risedronate 1 VERT-MN 1 VERT-MN Treatment Treatment Duration Duration (yrs) (yrs) # of of Participants Participants % Change Change Lumbar Lumbar Spine BMD Spine BMD Ŧ Ŧ % Change Change Total Hip Total Hip BMD BMD Ŧ Ŧ Alendronate Alendronate 2 FLEX FLEX HORIZON Zoledronic HORIZON Zoledronic Acid Acid 3 (interim analysis (interim analysis of 9 year study) of year study) FREEDOM FREEDOM Denosumab Denosumab 4 (interim analysis (interim analysis of 10 year study) of 10 year study) * Not head to head analyses: Results cannot be compared due to differing study populations and methodologies. Ŧ * Represents Not head to % head change analyses: from BL Results of Pivotal cannot Trial. be compared due to differing study populations and methodologies. Ŧ Represents 10 % mg change dose from only. BL of Pivotal Trial. Represents 10 mg dose only. 1. Mellstrom D et al. Calcif Tissue Int 2004;75: Bone HG et al. N Engl J Med 2004;350: Black Mellstrom DM, et D et al. al. J Bone Calcif Miner Tissue Res. Int 2004;75: ; 27(2): Bone 4. Brown HG et JP, al. et N al. Engl 2011 J Med ACR 2004;350: Annual Meeting. Presentation L8 3. Black DM, et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27(2): Brown JP, et al ACR Annual Meeting. Presentation L8 1. Mellstrom D et al. Calcif Tissue Int 2004;75: Bone HG et al. N Engl J Med 2004;350: Black DM et al. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27(2) Brown JP et al ACR Annual Meeting. Presentation L

46 Drug Holiday for low and moderate risk 2010 CAROC tool: Assessment of Basal 10-year Fracture Risk Women Men

47 Summary 1) the epidemiology and risks associated with osteoporosis 2) the latest developments in the pharmacological management of osteoporosis 3) the current controversies around the treatment of osteoporosis

48 Which of the conditions below is most common in women age 50 and over? a. Heart disease b. Breast cancer c. Stroke d. Osteoporotic fractures

49 Which of the conditions below is most common in women age 50 and over? a. Heart disease b. Breast cancer c. Stroke d. Osteoporotic fractures

50 Which of the patients below are at high risk of another major osteoporotic fracture in the next 10 years? a. Those with BMD T-score less than or equal to -2.5 and on prednisone 10mg a day for the past year b. Those with hip fractures irrespective of BMD c. Those with vertebral fractures irrespective of BMD d. Those with more than 1 fragility fracture irrespective of BMD e. All of the above

51 Which of the patients below are at high risk of another major osteoporotic fracture in the next 10 years? a. Those with BMD T-score less than or equal to -2.5 and on prednisone 10mg a day for the past year b. Those with hip fractures irrespective of BMD c. Those with vertebral fractures irrespective of BMD d. Those with more than 1 fragility fracture irrespective of BMD e. All of the above

52 Which of the following drug therapies is/ are first line therapy/ies for osteoporosis in the elderly? a. Oral bisphosphonates (daily, weekly, monthly) b. Intravenous bisphosphonate once a year c. Subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months d. Subcutaneous teriparatide every day for 2 years e. All of the above

53 Which of the following drug therapies is/ are first line therapy/ies for osteoporosis in the elderly? a. Oral bisphosphonates (daily, weekly, monthly) b. Intravenous bisphosphonate once a year c. Subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months d. Subcutaneous teriparatide every day for 2 years e. All of the above

54 WHI Calcium/Vit D 36,282 women age 50 to 79 yrs mg calcium with 400 IU Vit D 3 (CaD) versus placebo After 7 yrs: o non-significant reductions hip, clinical vertebral and total fracture. o CHD and cancer similar in the 2 groups Mean Ca intake in placebo group = 1154mg/ day

55 WHI Calcium/Vit D: 5 yrs after Trial 86% of participants CaD n=15025 and PBO n=14837 Fractures were self-reported Vertebral fractures: HR 0.87 (0.76, 0.98) Clinical vertebral fractures: HR 0.83 (0.71, 0.98) Hip fractures: HR 0.95 (0.78, 1.15) Total fractures: HR 1.00 (0.94, 1.06) No difference: total cancers, CVD, mortality

56

57 Questions? THANK YOU!

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