Infection Control. Three Ways Germs Are Spread Germs are spread in the environment three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and droplet spread.

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1 Infectin Cntrl Infectin cntrl is preventing the spread f germs that cause illness and infectin. Infectin cntrl starts with understanding germs and hw they are spread. Abut Germs Everyne cmes in cntact with millins f germs (micrrganisms) each day. All germs need warmth, misture, darkness and xygen t live and grw. Many germs are harmless and are needed fr ur bdies t functin in a healthy way. Fr example, certain kinds f germs r bacteria are needed fr the digestin f fd and fr the eliminatin f waste prducts (feces and urine) frm ur bdies. Sme germs are very harmful and cause infectins, diseases, and illnesses by rapidly multiplying and verwhelming the bdy s natural defenses. An infectin can be lcal in ne spt, like an infected cut, r it can be systemic, thrughut the whle bdy, like fd pisning r pneumnia. Three Ways Germs Are Spread Germs are spread in the envirnment three ways: direct cntact, indirect cntact, and drplet spread. 1. Direct Cntact means that germs are spread frm ne infected persn t anther persn. An example f direct cntact is the persn infected with a cld putting his hands t his muth while cughing r sneezing and then tuching r cntacting anther persn befre he has washed his hands. A similar situatin happens when the persn has an infected r pen sre r wund r bdy fluids that are full f germs(feces, urine) r bld (HIV, AIDS, Hepatitis A, B, r C) r saliva that is cntaminated, and the ther persn is cntacted directly by the germs. 2. Indirect Cntact means that germs are spread frm ne infected persn t anther persn thrugh an bject. The germ frm the persn infected cntaminates the bject, and the persn wh tuches the bject is then cntaminated. Indirect cntact is a cmmn way fr germs t spread between peple wh live, wrk, and play tgether. The spread f germs thrugh indirect cntact can happen when eating cntaminated fd (E. cli, salmnella), handling siled linens, siled equipment, using siled utensils and cups, and drinking r using cntaminated water. Dysentery, a serius gastrintestinal infectin, can be spread indirectly. The hepatitis B virus can live up t 10 days in dried bld and can als be spread indirectly. 3. Drplet Spread means that germs are spread thrugh the air frm ne infected persn t anther persn. The germs are airbrne and are carried ver shrt distances. When peple talk, cugh, r sneeze, they are spreading germs thrugh the air. The germs f the cmmn cld, flu, and even tuberculsis travel frm ne persn t anther by drplet spread. Cntrlling the Spread f Germs Knwing hw germs are spread is the first step in practicing infectin cntrl and preventing illness. Knwing hw t cntrl the spread f germs is the secnd step. Yu can prtect yurself and the individuals with whm yu wrk frm germs r cntaminatin by ding the fllwing: 1. Knw and practice standard precautins (defined in next sectin), especially Infectin Cntrl Page 1 6/26/2014

2 hand washing and glving. 2. Keep yurself, the individual, and the envirnment clean. 3. Be aware f the signs and symptms f illness and infectin, and accurately recrd and reprt them t the dctr. Standard Precautins Standard precautins, including hand washing and using dispsable glves and the wearing f persnal prtective equipment, prtect bth the individual yu wrk fr and yu frm the spread f germs and infectin. Standard precautins are a set f infectin cntrl safeguards. They are especially imprtant t prevent the spread f bld-brne and ther infectius diseases (AIDS, Hepatitis A, B, and C). Yu shuld use these precautins when cming in cntact with bld and all bdy fluids, secretins, and excretins (urine and feces), whether r nt they cntain visible bld; when tuching mucus membranes such as the eyes r nse; and when dealing with skin breakdwn such as a cut, abrasin, r wund. Bdy fluids include: Bld Bld prducts Secretins Semen Vaginal secretins Nasal secretins Sputum Saliva frm dental prcedures Excretins Urine Feces Vmit Hand Washing Frequent, thrugh, and vigrus hand washing will help in decreasing the spread f infectin. Germs are spread mre frequently by hands and fingers than by any ther means. When emplyee s Shuld Wash Their Hands Emplyees shuld always wash their hands when they cme t wrk and befre leaving. Hands shuld be washed at wrk befre tuching: Fd An individual s medicine Kitchen utensils and equipment Smene s skin that has cuts, sres, r wunds Befre putting n dispsable glves Befre using the bathrm Emplyee s shuld always wash their hands after: Using the bathrm. Infectin Cntrl Page 2 6/26/2014

3 Sneezing, cughing, r blwing ne s nse. Tuching ne s eyes, nse, muth, r ther bdy parts. Tuching bdily fluids r excretins. Tuching smene s siled clthing r bed linens. Glving Practicing standard precautins als includes the wearing f dispsable (single use) latex glves whenever yu cme in cntact with bdy fluid. (Nn-latex glves shuld be purchased fr peple wh are allergic t latex.) Putting n dispsable glves and taking them ff crrectly is especially imprtant in preventing the spread f germs and infectin. Glves shuld be used nly ne time and changed after each use. New glves shuld be put n each time yu wrks with a different individual. Used r cntaminated glves shuld be thrwn away. Glves becme cntaminated after each use and can spread germs between individuals if used mre than nce and if they are nt prperly dispsed. If bdily fluid r bld tuches the skin, wash the area vigrusly and thrughly with sap and warm water. If the glves tear r break, take them ff and vigrusly and thrughly wash yur hands. Put n a new pair f glves and cntinue assisting the individual. Emplyees shuld fllw the prcedure fr putting n dispsable glves at the end f this unit. Emplyee s shuld always use glves when prviding r assisting an individual with: Rectal r genital care. Tth brushing r flssing Shaving with a blade razr Menstrual care Bathing r Shwering Cleaning bathrms Cleaning up urine, feces, vmit, r bld Cleaning tilets, bed pans, urinals Prviding wund care Handling siled linen r clthing Giving care when the DSP has pen cuts r zing sres n his r her hands Prviding first-aid Dispsing f waste in leak prf, airtight cntainers Always use a new pair f glves fr each activity Always use a new pair f glves fr each individual Always wash yur hands befre and after using glves Never wash glves and use again Since hand washing can easily dry ut a persn s skin, remember t apply hand ltin r cream ften thrughut the day. It is a best practice t keep natural nails shrt and avid the use f artificial nails when prviding persnal care. Many hspitals have banned artificial nails and natural lng nails fr emplyees wh prvide persnal care. Research has shwn that healthcare wrkers wh wear artificial nails are mre likely t Infectin Cntrl Page 3 6/26/2014

4 harbr germs than thse wh dn t. Emplyees with lng nails are at risk f puncturing r tearing dispsable glves. Alchl based hand rubs r hand sanitizers may als be used. They prvide a great alternative t hand washing fr the fllwing reasns: Alchl-based hand rubs (fam r gel) kill mre effectively and mre quickly than hand washing with sap and water. They are less damaging t skin than sap and water, resulting in less dryness and irritatin. They require less time than hand washing with sap and water. Bttles/dispensers can be placed at the pint f care s they are mre accessible. Other Prtective Equipment Depending n yur jb, yu may be expected t wear ther Persnal Prtective Equipment (PPE), such as a face mask r eye shields. The type f PPE used will vary based n the level f precautins required; e.g., Standard and Cntact, Drplet r Airbrne Infectin Islatin. Emplyees shuld always remember t: Keep hands away frm face Limit surfaces tuched Change glves when trn r heavily cntaminated Perfrm hand hygiene If yu must use PPE yu shuld put the equipment n in the fllwing rder: 1. Gwn - Fully cver trs frm neck t knees, arms t end f wrists, and wrap arund the back. Fasten in back f neck and waist. Wear a gwn during prcedures that are likely t generate splashes r sprays f bld, bdily fluids, secretins, r excretins. Remve a siled gwn as sn as pssible, and wash hands after remving the gwn. 2. Mask r Respiratr - Secure ties r elastic bands at middle f head and neck. Fit flexible band t nse bridge. Fit snug t face and belw chin. Fit-check respiratr. 3. Gggles r Face Shield - Place ver face and eyes and adjust t fit. Wear a mask and eye prtectin, r a face shield, during prcedures that are likely t generate splashes r sprays f bld, bdily fluids, secretins, and excretins. 4. Glves - Extend t cver wrist f islatin gwn. Yu shuld use glves when hands may becme cntaminated with bld, bdy fluids, excretins, r secretins r when tuching mucus membranes r nn-intact skin, r cntaminated surfaces r bjects. If this equipment is required in yur wrk setting yu shuld receive training n the lcatin, prper use and dispsal f the PPE. Cleaning and Disinfecting The secnd way fr emplyee s t prevent the spread f germs is thrugh cleaning and disinfecting the envirnment. Emplyees shuld be careful nt t transfer infectin t thers and equally imprtant, the emplyee shuld be careful nt t be infected by Infectin Cntrl Page 4 6/26/2014

5 thers. This can be dne by being clean themselves, keeping the hme clean and germ free, and assisting the individuals in the hme t maintain gd persnal hygiene. Rutine, daily cleaning f husehld surfaces and ther items with sap and water is the mst effective methd fr remving germs. Smetimes, an additinal cleaning is needed t be germ free. This extra step is called disinfectin. Disinfectin is the prcess f killing germs after cleaning with sap and water, then rinsing with clear water. Disinfecting usually requires saking r drenching the surface r item fr several minutes with a special cleaning slutin. This saking allws the cleaning slutin t kill the remaining germs. One f the mst cmmn cleaning slutins is husehld bleach and water. Tw recipes fr a disinfectant cleaning slutin can be fund at the end f this unit. The recipes are easy t mix, safe if handled prperly (as a txic substance), and kill mst infectius agents. Remember, this slutin will disclr fabric and carpeting. The slutins lse effect very quickly and must be made fresh every 24 hurs r daily. Husehld Hints fr Reducing the Spread f Infectin Clean mst surfaces with sap and water t remve germs. Always clean up spills frm the less siled t the mst siled t limit the spread f germs. Handle siled laundry as little as pssible. Wash siled clthing and linens separately frm ther clthes. Use paper twels thrughut the huse. Make sure everyne fllws gd hand-washing practices (fr example, befre tuching fd, after using the bathrm). Keep clean hands away frm the face and ther areas f the bdy. Make sure individuals use their wn tiletries and equipment (fr example, cmbs, brushes, razrs, etc.) I have read and understand the training regarding Infectin Cntrl and Bld Brne Pathgens. Signed: Date: My emplyer is: Infectin Cntrl Page 5 6/26/2014

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