Bihong Zhao, M.D, Ph.D Department of Pathology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Bihong Zhao, M.D, Ph.D Department of Pathology"

Transcription

1 Bihong Zhao, M.D, Ph.D Department of Pathology

2 Is tumor self or non-self?

3 How are tumor antigens generated? What are they?

4 How does immune system respond?

5 Introduction Tumor Antigens/Categories of Tumor Antigens Effectors Mechanisms in Tumor Immunity Limitations of the Effectiveness of The Immune Response Against Tumors Immunodiagnosis Tumor Immunoprophylaxis Immunotherapy

6

7 Deaths and percentage of total deaths for the 10 leading causes of death, by sex: United States, 2004 Causes of Death Male Female Rank Death Percentage of Death Rank Death Percentage of Death All causes 1,181, ,215, Diseases of heart 1 321, , Malignant neoplasms 2 286, , By Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention

8 #1 cause of death

9 #1 cause of death By Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention

10 Multiple step process Both spatially and temporally Happens all the time, in different locations Accumulation of multiple genetic alterations Deletion Insertions Point mutations Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) Chromosomal translocation

11 Example: Breast cancer. So different from individual to individual, in course, cause and manifestation

12 A physiologic function of the immune system Recognize and destroy clones of transformed cells before they grow into tumors and to kill tumors after they are formed Proposed by Mac Burnet in the 1950 s (1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine) We all have cancerous cells that arise all the time. However, our body is able to control these events.

13 Common criteria for antigens: 1. Foreignness 2. High molecular weight 3. Chemical complexity 4. Degradability with the ability to interact with host MHC antigens

14 Developmental Differentiation Mutation Integrated Viral gene products

15 CML (Chronic myelogenous leukemia) Aka. Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11) FISH Generation of a chimeric protein with dysfunctional properties Tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments (such as imatinib and sunitinib)

16 Transcription factor Important in regulates The cell cycle DNA repair Apoptosis Tumor suppressor "the guardian of the genome, "the guardian angel gene," "master watchman, Molecule of the year (1993)

17 Relatively easy to develop mutations in p53

18 Li-Fraumeni syndrome. More than 50 percent of tumors contain a mutations or deletions of the TP53 gene. Restoring endogenous p53 function holds a lot of promise

19

20 Proto-oncogenes (c-onc) A normal gene that functions Growth factor receptors Signal transducers Become an oncogene Mutations Increased expression Chief mechanisms Chromosomal translocation Point mutation Gene amplification Viral infection

21 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene Proto-Oncogenes activated by gene rearrangement, point mutation, or gene amplification

22 AIDs: Increase in cancer indicence Lymphoma lymphocytes Carcinoma epithelial origin Sarcoma - connective tissue Table 19.3 Listed malignant neoplasms in immune deficient patients

23

24 Innate immune system Response is non-specific Exposure leads to immediate maximal response Cell-mediated and humoral components No immunological memory Found in nearly all forms of life Adaptive immune system Pathogen and antigen specific response Lag time between exposure and maximal response Cell-mediated and humoral components Exposure leads to immunological memory Found only in jawed vertebrates

25

26 Histological Evidence for Lymphocytic Activity in Cancer Invasive Squamous cell carcinoma ->

27

28 Professional APCs. Dendritic cells Macrophages B-cells Non-professional APCs Fibroblasts (skin) Thyroid epithelial cells Glial cells (brain) Pancreatic beta cells Vascular endothelial cells

29 APC Nu cle us Tumor antigens Class I HMC APC Nucleus Tumor antigens Class II HMC CD8 T-cell receptor CD4 Cytotoxic T cells (CD4+) T-cell receptor IL-2 and IFN-γ Cytotoxic T cells (CD8+)

30 The principal mechanism of tumor immunity is killing of tumor cells by CD8+ CTLs

31 Without sensitization Without MHC restriction Lyse a variety of target cells Have receptors for the Fc region of IgG Secrete tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) LAK cells also play a role Cytokine activated killers. TILs.

32 IgM and IgG In the presence of complement Effective against leukemia and lymphoma Reducing metastases Ineffective in a solid tumor

33

34 FIGURE Three phases of cancer immunoediting: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. (Adapted from GP Dunn, LJ Old, and RD Schreiber (2007): Immunity 21:137.)

35

36 Downregulate Class I or class II MHC molecule expression Lose expressions of antigens that elicit immune responses Fail to express co-stimulators The products of tumor cells may suppress antitumor immune responses

37

38

39

40

41

42 PSA CA-125 CD199 α-afp CEA

43 Immunohistochemical (IHC) Stain

44 Antibodies against antigens specific to tumor cells Carcinoma: p53 Prostatic adenocarcinoma: Racemase Liver: Hepar-1 Antibodies against tissue specific antigens Lung and Thyroid: TTF-1 Prostatic adenocarcinoma: PSA Neuroendocrine: Chromogranin, Synaptophysin

45 Prostate Tissue

46 No need to memorize table in syllabus (p285)

47 Estimated new cases and deaths from cervical (uterine cervix) cancer in the United States in 2008: New cases: 11,070 (invasive cancer) Deaths: 3,870 (1/3) Once the most common cause of death

48

49 Gardasil (cervical cancer) Produced by Merck Pharmaceuticals Approved by the FDA on June 8, 2006 Females 9-26 years old Is being tested for its effectiveness in other age groups and in combination with other vaccines Ineffective for treating women with pre-existing HPV infections (August 15, 2007)

50 Produced by GlaxoSmithKline In Phase III clinical trials HPV types 16 and 18 Contains chemicals designed to increase the immune response More than 18,000 women internationally between the ages of 15 and 25 Found a 92 % efficacy rate against new infection and 100 % protection against persistent HPV infection

51

52 Trastuzumab is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) First humanized antibody Target and block the function of HER2 protein over-expression Her-2/Neu positive +/- metastasized

53 Gleevec is a unique treatment for certain forms of cancer Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) and Another cancer protein, called Kit, that is the suspected cause of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

54 First antibody approved for immunotherapy in non-hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma and other B- cell lymphoproliferative disorders Efficacy of Rituxan treatment has been reported in nonmalignant autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis Crosslinking of CD20 molecules by Rituxan induces therapeutic B-cell depletion

55 Nonspecific stimulation of the immune system Augmentation of host immunity with cytokines and co-stimulators

56 Tumor antigens Effector mechanisms in tumor immunity: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes Immuno-diagnosis Immunoprophylaxis/Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology. Wirsma Arif Harahap Surgical Oncology Consultant

Tumor Immunology. Wirsma Arif Harahap Surgical Oncology Consultant Tumor Immunology Wirsma Arif Harahap Surgical Oncology Consultant 1) Immune responses that develop to cancer cells 2) Escape of cancer cells 3) Therapies: clinical and experimental Cancer cells can be

More information

CANCER IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. Eryati Darwin Faculty of Medicine Andalas University

CANCER IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. Eryati Darwin Faculty of Medicine Andalas University CANCER IMMUNOPATHOLOGY Eryati Darwin Faculty of Medicine Andalas University Padang 18 Mei 2013 INTRODUCTION Tumor: cells that continue to replicate, fail to differentiate into specialized cells, and become

More information

Tumor Immunology. Tumor (latin) = swelling

Tumor Immunology. Tumor (latin) = swelling Tumor Immunology Tumor (latin) = swelling benign tumor malignant tumor Tumor immunology : the study of the types of antigens that are expressed by tumors how the immune system recognizes and responds to

More information

Immune surveillance hypothesis (Macfarlane Burnet, 1950s)

Immune surveillance hypothesis (Macfarlane Burnet, 1950s) TUMOR-IMMUNITÄT A.K. Abbas, A.H. Lichtman, S. Pillai (6th edition, 2007) Cellular and Molecular Immunology Saunders Elsevier Chapter 17, immunity to tumors Immune surveillance hypothesis (Macfarlane Burnet,

More information

Harnessing the Immune System to Prevent Cancer: Basic Immunologic Mechanisms

Harnessing the Immune System to Prevent Cancer: Basic Immunologic Mechanisms Harnessing the Immune System to Prevent Cancer: Basic Immunologic Mechanisms (the language of immunology) Barbara K. Dunn NCI/Division of Cancer Prevention October 23, 2017 Harnessing the Immune System

More information

The Adaptive Immune Responses

The Adaptive Immune Responses The Adaptive Immune Responses The two arms of the immune responses are; 1) the cell mediated, and 2) the humoral responses. In this chapter we will discuss the two responses in detail and we will start

More information

T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH

T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH Ned Braunstein, MD The Major T Cell Subsets p56 lck + T cells γ δ ε ζ ζ p56 lck CD8+ T cells γ δ ε ζ ζ Cα Cβ Vα Vβ CD3 CD8 Cα Cβ Vα Vβ CD3 MHC II peptide

More information

Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host

Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host 17 Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Define antigen, epitope, and hapten. Explain the function

More information

Defensive mechanisms include :

Defensive mechanisms include : Acquired Immunity Defensive mechanisms include : 1) Innate immunity (Natural or Non specific) 2) Acquired immunity (Adaptive or Specific) Cell-mediated immunity Humoral immunity Two mechanisms 1) Humoral

More information

Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer

Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer CHAPTER 19 THE ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF EUKARYOTIC GENOMES Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer 1. Cancer results from genetic changes that affect the cell cycle 2. Oncogene proteins and faulty

More information

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 19 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD.

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 19 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD. Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 19 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD. Chapter 19: Tolerance, Autoimmunity, and Autoinflammation Prepared

More information

5% of patients with genetic immunodeficiency develop a cancer during their lifetime (200x)

5% of patients with genetic immunodeficiency develop a cancer during their lifetime (200x) Immune surveillance 5% of patients with genetic immunodeficiency develop a cancer during their lifetime (200x) Transplanted patients following an immunosuppressor therapy are 80 times more likely to develop

More information

Activation of cellular proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. How was active Ras identified?

Activation of cellular proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. How was active Ras identified? Dominant Acting Oncogenes Eugene E. Marcantonio, M.D. Ph.D. Oncogenes are altered forms of normal cellular genes called proto-oncogenes that are involved in pathways regulating cell growth, differentiation,

More information

Chapter 23 Immunity Exam Study Questions

Chapter 23 Immunity Exam Study Questions Chapter 23 Immunity Exam Study Questions 1. Define 1) Immunity 2) Neutrophils 3) Macrophage 4) Epitopes 5) Interferon 6) Complement system 7) Histamine 8) Mast cells 9) Antigen 10) Antigens receptors 11)

More information

Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells

Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells Andrew H. Lichtman, M.D. Ph.D. Department of Pathology Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard

More information

Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes ~ 4.6 -

Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes ~ 4.6 - Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes - 4.2 ~ 4.6 - Many retroviruses carrying oncogenes have been found in chickens and mice However, attempts undertaken during the 1970s to isolate viruses from most types of

More information

Spontaneous. Tumour induction. Immunosuppression

Spontaneous. Tumour induction. Immunosuppression Tumor immunology is the study of : 1- The antigenic properties of the tumor cells 2- The host IR to these tumor cell 3- The immunologic consequences to the host of the growth of the malignant cells 4-

More information

Immunology and Immunotherapy 101 for the non-immunologist

Immunology and Immunotherapy 101 for the non-immunologist Immunology and Immunotherapy 101 for the non-immunologist SITC Advances in Immunotherapy Seattle, WA 2016 Laura QM Chow Associate Professor University of Washington Associate Professor, Fred Hutchison

More information

Topics in Parasitology BLY Vertebrate Immune System

Topics in Parasitology BLY Vertebrate Immune System Topics in Parasitology BLY 533-2008 Vertebrate Immune System V. Vertebrate Immune System A. Non-specific defenses against pathogens 1. Skin - physical barrier a. Tough armor protein KERATIN b. Surface

More information

There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and. Specific. (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell

There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and. Specific. (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and Specific (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell Development of the Immune System ery pl neu mφ nk CD8 + CTL CD4 + thy TH1 mye

More information

ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY The recognition of specific antigen by naïve T cell induces its own activation and effector phases. T helper cells recognize peptide antigens through

More information

Chapter 9, Part 1: Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread

Chapter 9, Part 1: Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Name Chapter 9, Part 1: Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread I. Cancer Characteristics and Terminology Neoplasm new growth, involves the overgrowth of tissue to form a neoplastic mass (tumor).

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Jeffrey K. Actor, Ph.D. MSB 2.214,

Adaptive Immunity. Jeffrey K. Actor, Ph.D. MSB 2.214, Adaptive Immunity Jeffrey K. Actor, Ph.D. MSB 2.214, 500-5344 Lecture Objectives: Understand role of various molecules including cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory and adhesion molecules in the development

More information

Tumor immunology. Tried to make things a simple as they can get,,, hope that u enjoy it! ال تخافوا بس أربع صفحات وشوي

Tumor immunology. Tried to make things a simple as they can get,,, hope that u enjoy it! ال تخافوا بس أربع صفحات وشوي Tumor immunology Tried to make things a simple as they can get,,, hope that u enjoy it! ال تخافوا بس أربع صفحات وشوي Tumors can occur, they can be considered as something foreign that should be dealt with

More information

T-cell activation T cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues where they interact with antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and other lymphocytes:

T-cell activation T cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues where they interact with antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and other lymphocytes: Interactions between innate immunity & adaptive immunity What happens to T cells after they leave the thymus? Naïve T cells exit the thymus and enter the bloodstream. If they remain in the bloodstream,

More information

General Overview of Immunology. Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center

General Overview of Immunology. Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center General Overview of Immunology Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Objectives Describe differences between innate and adaptive immune responses

More information

Immunity to Viruses. Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly September 25, 2008

Immunity to Viruses. Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly September 25, 2008 Immunity to Viruses Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly September 25, 2008 The Immune System Deals with a Huge Range of Pathogens Roitt, 2003 Immune Responses to Viruses Viruses are dependent on the host cell

More information

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

White Blood Cells (WBCs) YOUR ACTIVE IMMUNE DEFENSES 1 ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 2! Innate Immunity - invariant (generalized) - early, limited specificity - the first line of defense 1. Barriers - skin, tears 2. Phagocytes - neutrophils,

More information

I. Lines of Defense Pathogen: Table 1: Types of Immune Mechanisms. Table 2: Innate Immunity: First Lines of Defense

I. Lines of Defense Pathogen: Table 1: Types of Immune Mechanisms. Table 2: Innate Immunity: First Lines of Defense I. Lines of Defense Pathogen: Table 1: Types of Immune Mechanisms Table 2: Innate Immunity: First Lines of Defense Innate Immunity involves nonspecific physical & chemical barriers that are adapted for

More information

Test Bank for Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9th Edition by Kumar

Test Bank for Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9th Edition by Kumar Link full download:https://getbooksolutions.com/download/test-bank-for-robbinsand-cotran-pathologic-basis-of-disease-9th-edition-by-kumar Test Bank for Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9th

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. T-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. T-cells The Adaptive Immune Response T-cells T Lymphocytes T lymphocytes develop from precursors in the thymus. Mature T cells are found in the blood, where they constitute 60% to 70% of lymphocytes, and in T-cell

More information

American Society of Cytopathology Core Curriculum in Molecular Biology

American Society of Cytopathology Core Curriculum in Molecular Biology American Society of Cytopathology Core Curriculum in Molecular Biology American Society of Cytopathology Core Curriculum in Molecular Biology Chapter 1 Molecular Basis of Cancer Molecular Oncology Keisha

More information

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: The New Breakout Stars in Cancer Treatment

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: The New Breakout Stars in Cancer Treatment Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: The New Breakout Stars in Cancer Treatment 1 Introductions Peter Langecker, MD, PhD Executive Medical Director, Global Oncology Clinipace Worldwide Mark Shapiro Vice President

More information

Cell Cycle and Cancer

Cell Cycle and Cancer 142 8. Cell Cycle and Cancer NOTES CELL CYCLE G 0 state o Resting cells may re-enter the cell cycle Nondividing cells (skeletal and cardiac muscle, neurons) o Have left the cell cycle and cannot undergo

More information

Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, Dan Stetson

Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, Dan Stetson Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, 2016 Dan Stetson stetson@uw.edu 441 Lecture #2 Slide 1 of 26 CLASS ANNOUNCEMENT PLEASE NO TREE NUTS IN CLASS!!! (Peanuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, etc)

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 16 THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? The adaptive immune system protects us from many infections The adaptive immune system has memory so we are not infected by the same pathogen

More information

Chapter 24 The Immune System

Chapter 24 The Immune System Chapter 24 The Immune System The Immune System Layered defense system The skin and chemical barriers The innate and adaptive immune systems Immunity The body s ability to recognize and destroy specific

More information

Innate immunity (rapid response) Dendritic cell. Macrophage. Natural killer cell. Complement protein. Neutrophil

Innate immunity (rapid response) Dendritic cell. Macrophage. Natural killer cell. Complement protein. Neutrophil 1 The immune system The immune response The immune system comprises two arms functioning cooperatively to provide a comprehensive protective response: the innate and the adaptive immune system. The innate

More information

Immunity and Infection. Chapter 17

Immunity and Infection. Chapter 17 Immunity and Infection Chapter 17 The Chain of Infection Transmitted through a chain of infection (six links) Pathogen: Disease causing microorganism Reservoir: Natural environment of the pathogen Portal

More information

Chapter 17. Immunity. Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 17. Immunity. Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Immunity Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Overview Key Terms allergy dendritic cells mast cell anaphylaxis gamma globulin natural killer (NK) cell antibody

More information

Concepts of cancer immunotherapy

Concepts of cancer immunotherapy Concepts of cancer immunotherapy History Paul Ehrlich first conceived the idea that tumor cells can be recognized as foreign and eliminated by the immune system. Subsequently, Lewis Thomas and Macfarlane

More information

Chapter 21: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

Chapter 21: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Chapter 21: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses I. 2 main types of body defenses A. Innate (nonspecific) defense: not to a specific microorganism or substance B. Adaptive (specific) defense: immunity to

More information

Cell-mediated Immunity

Cell-mediated Immunity Cellular & Molecular Immunology Cell-mediated Immunity Nicholas M. Ponzio, Ph.D. Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine April 6, 2009 Today s Presentation: Overview Cellular Interactions In Humoral

More information

Clinical Basis of the Immune Response and the Complement Cascade

Clinical Basis of the Immune Response and the Complement Cascade Clinical Basis of the Immune Response and the Complement Cascade Bryan L. Martin, DO, MMAS, FACAAI, FAAAAI, FACOI, FACP Emeritus Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics President, American College of Allergy,

More information

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) An introduction to adaptive immune system before we discuss MHC B cells The main cells of adaptive immune system are: -B cells -T cells B cells: Recognize antigens

More information

Karyotype analysis reveals transloction of chromosome 22 to 9 in CML chronic myelogenous leukemia has fusion protein Bcr-Abl

Karyotype analysis reveals transloction of chromosome 22 to 9 in CML chronic myelogenous leukemia has fusion protein Bcr-Abl Chapt. 18 Cancer Molecular Biology of Cancer Student Learning Outcomes: Describe cancer diseases in which cells no longer respond Describe how cancers come from genomic mutations (inherited or somatic)

More information

Frontiers in Cancer Therapy. John Glod, M.D., Ph.D.

Frontiers in Cancer Therapy. John Glod, M.D., Ph.D. Frontiers in Cancer Therapy John Glod, M.D., Ph.D. September 15, 2017 Objectives The Past: Alkylating agents The Present: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors The Future: Gene Expression, Metabolic cancers, CAR

More information

Posters and Presentations

Posters and Presentations Posters and Presentations June 2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual - Preliminary Correlative Analysis of PD-L1 expression from the SUNRISE Study. View April 2017: American Association

More information

Tumor responses (patients responding/ patients treated)

Tumor responses (patients responding/ patients treated) Table 1. ACT clinical trial tumor responses and toxicities. a Target antigen Cancer(s) Receptor type Tumor responses (patients responding/ patients treated) Immune-mediated toxicities (patients experiencing

More information

Where do these cells come from?

Where do these cells come from? Immunotherapy, and Personalized Medicine What Do They Mean? Community Lunch and Learn Presentation Thomas C. Shea, MD Professor of Medicine UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center Where do these cells

More information

Vaccins anti-cancer. Claude Leclerc. 7 novembre 2011

Vaccins anti-cancer. Claude Leclerc. 7 novembre 2011 Vaccins anti-cancer Claude Leclerc 7 novembre 2011 2010: FDA panel passes first cancer vaccine Cancer, a worldwide burden 1st cause of mortality in France In Europ, in 2006: - 1.7 million deaths from cancer

More information

1. The scavenger receptor, CD36, functions as a coreceptor for which TLR? a. TLR ½ b. TLR 3 c. TLR 4 d. TLR 2/6

1. The scavenger receptor, CD36, functions as a coreceptor for which TLR? a. TLR ½ b. TLR 3 c. TLR 4 d. TLR 2/6 Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 8th Edition By Abul K. Abbas, MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, MD, PhD and Shiv Pillai, MBBS, PhD. Chapter 4 (pages 62-74): Innate Immunity

More information

- A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells.

- A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells. 1 Cancer A. What is it? - A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells. * In some the rate is fast; in others, slow; but in all cancers the cells never stop dividing.

More information

Autoimmunity. Autoimmunity arises because of defects in central or peripheral tolerance of lymphocytes to selfantigens

Autoimmunity. Autoimmunity arises because of defects in central or peripheral tolerance of lymphocytes to selfantigens Autoimmunity Autoimmunity arises because of defects in central or peripheral tolerance of lymphocytes to selfantigens Autoimmune disease can be caused to primary defects in B cells, T cells and possibly

More information

Immune Surveillance. Immune Surveillance. Immune Surveillance. Neutrophil granulocytes Macrophages. M-cells

Immune Surveillance. Immune Surveillance. Immune Surveillance. Neutrophil granulocytes Macrophages. M-cells he immune system is everywhere Some organs have developed strategies towards the immune system to keep it out or to put it under control Immune privileged organs: Brain Eye estis hyroid gland Humoral immunity

More information

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccines for Cervical Cancer

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccines for Cervical Cancer Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccines for Cervical Cancer Geneva, March 2003 Immune response against cancer? Lymphocytes as killers Lymphocyte Nucleus granules FasL Fas Perforine Granzymes Activation

More information

Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular Immunology

Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Class meets MWF 1:00-2:30PM (*exceptions: no class Fri Sept 23, Fri Oct 14, Nov 11, or Wed Nov 23) Lectures are open to auditors and will be live-streamed

More information

The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection. Components of Human Immune System

The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection. Components of Human Immune System Chapter 17: Specific Host Defenses: The Immune Response The Immune Response Immunity: Free from burden. Ability of an organism to recognize and defend itself against specific pathogens or antigens. Immune

More information

Adeno-Associated Virus for immuno-gene therapy

Adeno-Associated Virus for immuno-gene therapy Adeno-Associated Virus for immuno-gene therapy Paul L. Hermonat, PhD Professor of Internal Medicine Professor of OB/GYN VA Research Career Scientist Mehta-Stebbins Chair in Medicine Director, Gene Therapy

More information

Immuno-Oncology Applications

Immuno-Oncology Applications Immuno-Oncology Applications Lee S. Schwartzberg, MD, FACP West Clinic, P.C.; The University of Tennessee Memphis, Tn. ICLIO 1 st Annual National Conference 10.2.15 Philadelphia, Pa. Financial Disclosures

More information

PD-L1 and Immunotherapy of GI cancers: What do you need to know

PD-L1 and Immunotherapy of GI cancers: What do you need to know None. PD-L1 and Immunotherapy of GI cancers: What do you need to know Rondell P. Graham September 3, 2017 2017 MFMER slide-2 Disclosure No conflicts of interest to disclose 2017 MFMER slide-3 Objectives

More information

5. Over the last ten years, the proportion of HIV-infected persons who are women has: a. Increased b. Decreased c. Remained about the same 1

5. Over the last ten years, the proportion of HIV-infected persons who are women has: a. Increased b. Decreased c. Remained about the same 1 Epidemiology 227 April 24, 2009 MID-TERM EXAMINATION Select the best answer for the multiple choice questions. There are 60 questions and 9 pages on the examination. Each question will count one point.

More information

Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer

Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer Student Learning Outcomes: Describe the cell cycle: steps taken by a cell to duplicate itself = cell division; Interphase (G1, S and G2), Mitosis.

More information

Lines of Defense. Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing. Immunology Terminology

Lines of Defense. Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing. Immunology Terminology Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing Lines of Defense If the First and Second lines of defense fail, then the Third line of defense is activated. B and T lymphocytes undergo a selective

More information

Page 4: Antigens: Self-Antigens The body has a vast number of its own antigens called self-antigens. These normally do not trigger immune responses.

Page 4: Antigens: Self-Antigens The body has a vast number of its own antigens called self-antigens. These normally do not trigger immune responses. Common Characteristics of B and T Lymphocytes Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction While B and T lymphocytes

More information

Tumor Immunity (Clynes)

Tumor Immunity (Clynes) Tumor Immunology Does it exist? i.e., does the immune system recognize and eradicate cancer cells? Is there any evidence for immunological surveillance (Burnett and Thomas)? How can the immune system recognize

More information

The immune response against cancer

The immune response against cancer The immune response against cancer Maries van den Broek Institute of Experimental Immunology vandenbroek@immunology.uzh.ch The immune system Main cells of the immune system Dendritic cell Monocyte Macrophage

More information

Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology

Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology Each student gets a set of 6 questions, so that each set contains different types of questions and that the set of questions

More information

Transforming patients lives through cellular immunotherapy. Next Generation Cellular Immunotherapy June 2017

Transforming patients lives through cellular immunotherapy. Next Generation Cellular Immunotherapy June 2017 Transforming patients lives through cellular immunotherapy Next Generation Cellular Immunotherapy June 2017 1 Overview of Cell Medica Mission: Transform the treatment of cancer with cellular immunotherapy

More information

EBV and Infectious Mononucleosis. Infectious Disease Definitions. Infectious Diseases

EBV and Infectious Mononucleosis. Infectious Disease Definitions. Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease Definitions Infection when a microorganism invades a host and multiplies enough to disrupt normal function by causing signs and symptoms Pathogencity ability of an organism to cause

More information

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14 th Edition CHAPTER 22 The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to: 1. Understand the lymphatic system structure and function

More information

Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow

Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow 1. DNA rearrangements establish the primary repertoire, creating diversity 2. Allelic exclusion ensures that each clone expresses a single antibody on

More information

IMMUNITY AND DISEASE II

IMMUNITY AND DISEASE II IMMUNITY AND DISEASE II A. Evolution of the immune system. 1. Figure 1--57.25, p. 1167 from Raven and Johnson Biology 6 th ed. shows how the immune system evolved. Figure 1. How the immune system evolved.

More information

Immunotherapy of HNC: immune mechanisms and therapeutic targets

Immunotherapy of HNC: immune mechanisms and therapeutic targets Immunotherapy of HNC: immune mechanisms and therapeutic targets Ourania Tsitsilonis, MD, PhD Department of Biology National & Kapodistrian University of Athens What does the Immune System see in Cancer?

More information

T cell development October 28, Dan Stetson

T cell development October 28, Dan Stetson T cell development October 28, 2016 Dan Stetson stetson@uw.edu 441 Lecture #13 Slide 1 of 29 Three lectures on T cells (Chapters 8, 9) Part 1 (Today): T cell development in the thymus Chapter 8, pages

More information

STATE OF THE ART 4: Combination Immune Therapy-Chemotherapy. Elizabeth M. Jaffee (JHU) James Yang (NCI) Jared Gollob (Duke) John Kirkwood (UPMI)

STATE OF THE ART 4: Combination Immune Therapy-Chemotherapy. Elizabeth M. Jaffee (JHU) James Yang (NCI) Jared Gollob (Duke) John Kirkwood (UPMI) STATE OF THE ART 4: Combination Immune Therapy-Chemotherapy Elizabeth M. Jaffee (JHU) James Yang (NCI) Jared Gollob (Duke) John Kirkwood (UPMI) Topics for Consideration What are the rules for integrating

More information

Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer

Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer - Previously we have talked about cancer which is an uncontrolled cell proliferation and we have discussed about the definition of benign, malignant, metastasis

More information

Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan. 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1

Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan. 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1 Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1 Major components of IS & their properties Definitions IS = cells & molecules responsible for: 1- Physiologic; protective

More information

Cell Mediated Immunity CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY. Basic Elements of Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)

Cell Mediated Immunity CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY. Basic Elements of Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) Chapter 16 CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY Cell Mediated Immunity Also known as Cellular Immunity or CMI The effector phase T cells Specificity for immune recognition reactions TH provide cytokines CTLs do the

More information

T Cell Differentiation

T Cell Differentiation T Cell Differentiation Ned Braunstein, MD MHC control of Immune Responsiveness: Concept Whether or not an individual makes an immune response to a particular antigen depends on what MHC alleles an individual

More information

Immunology The innate and adaptive immune systems

Immunology The innate and adaptive immune systems Immunology The innate and adaptive immune systems The immune system is the collection of cells, tissues and molecules that protects the body from numerous pathogenic microbes and toxins in our environment.

More information

Innate Immunity. By Dr. Gouse Mohiddin Shaik

Innate Immunity. By Dr. Gouse Mohiddin Shaik Innate Immunity By Dr. Gouse Mohiddin Shaik Types of immunity Immunity Innate / inborn Non-specific Acquired / adaptive Specific 3rd line of defense Physical barriers Skin, Saliva, Mucous, Stomach acid,

More information

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 1 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti.

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 1 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti. Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 1 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti. Chapter 1: Overview of Immunology Prepared by David Scott, MD, Scripps

More information

The mutations that drive cancer. Paul Edwards. Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge

The mutations that drive cancer. Paul Edwards. Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge The mutations that drive cancer Paul Edwards Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge Previously on Cancer... hereditary predisposition Normal Cell Slightly

More information

Effector T Cells and

Effector T Cells and 1 Effector T Cells and Cytokines Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Cytokines Subsets of CD4+ T cells: definitions, functions, development New

More information

ACTR (Antibody Coupled T-cell Receptor): A universal approach to T-cell therapy

ACTR (Antibody Coupled T-cell Receptor): A universal approach to T-cell therapy ACTR (Antibody Coupled T-cell Receptor): A universal approach to T-cell therapy European Medicines Agency Workshop on Scientific and Regulatory Challenges of Genetically Modified Cell-based Cancer Immunotherapy

More information

MHC class I MHC class II Structure of MHC antigens:

MHC class I MHC class II Structure of MHC antigens: MHC class I MHC class II Structure of MHC antigens: MHC class I antigens consist of a transmembrane heavy chain (α chain) that is non-covalently associated with β2- microglobulin. Membrane proximal domain

More information

Cancer Immunotherapy INTRODUCTION HUMAN TUMOR ANTIGENS. Cancer/Germ-Line Antigens

Cancer Immunotherapy INTRODUCTION HUMAN TUMOR ANTIGENS. Cancer/Germ-Line Antigens 14 Cancer Immunotherapy Steven A. Rosenberg, Paul R. Robbins, Giao Phan, Steven Feldman, and James Kochenderfer INTRODUCTION Progress in understanding basic aspects of cellular immunology and tumor host

More information