Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS"

Transcription

1 Physiology Unit 1 METABOLISM OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS

2 Alternate Fuel Sources When glucose levels are low Proteins and Triglycerides will be metabolized Tissues will use different fuel sources depending on: The metabolic activity of the tissue Fuel sources available Diet Fasting

3 Proteins Proteins are digested to amino acids in the stomach and small intestine by proteases Amino acids used to: Make ATP Biosynthesis Non-essential amino acids Metabolic intermediates Glucose Fats Intracellular proteins

4 Amino Acids

5 Amino Acids as Fuel Glucogenic Amino Acids Amino acids converted to α keto acids (pyruvate) Pyruvate Converted to glucose Occurs in the liver Production increases during catabolysis (fat and muscle tissue breakdown) Produced by transamination and oxidative deamination Ketogenic Amino Acids Amino acids degraded to acetyl-coa Produced by oxidative deamination Acetyl-CoA: Is the precursor of ketones Used to make fatty acids Used to make ATP Can not be converted to glucose (WHY?)

6

7 Transamination Make another type of amino acid by transferring an amine (NH 2 ) from an existing amino acid to a keto acid Example An amine group is transferred from L-alanine to α-ketoglutarate to make pyruvate and L-glutamate Amine group is BLUE

8 Oxidative Deamination Glutamate is commonly deaminated to α-ketoglutarate by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) The amine (NH 2 ) from an amino acid is removed (deamination) Oxygen replaces the nitrogen Oxygen comes from splitting H 2 O The removed amine group gives rise to NH 3 (then to urea) The product is a α keto acid and/or a ketone Occurs mostly in the liver and kidneys

9 Keto Acids α keto acid Pyruvate Many fates Oxaloacetate Kreb s Cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate Kreb s Cycle intermediate Coenzyme function in cell signaling Commonly used in transamination reactions β keto acid Acetoacetate A ketone released from the liver to be used by other cells that can not utilize fatty acids as a fuel source

10 Triglycerides as Fuel Triglyceride metabolism Triglycerides are stored in adipocytes and used as fuel for cellular metabolism Lipolysis Breakdown of a triglyceride into glycerol and free fatty acids Occurs in adipose tissue Used to liberate stored energy during exercise and fasting Induced by: glucagon, NE, Epi, GH, ANP, cortisol

11 Typical Triglyceride Palmitic Acid Oleic Acid Alpha Linolenic Acid Glycerol + Fatty Acid Tails

12 Triglycerides as Fuel Fate of glycerol Glycerol is moved out of the adipocyte by aquaporins Glycerol is moved into hepatocytes by aquaporins In the liver: Glycerol is converted to DHAP then 3-PGAL Gluconeogenesis Glycogenesis In most cells: Glycolysis Glycerol enters glycolysis as PGAL Fate of fatty acids β-oxidation Produces Acetyl-CoA Many fates Dependent on the needs of the cell EXCEPTIONS 1. RBC s lack mitochondria 2. The brain Fatty acids have to be converted to ketones (in the liver) to be metabolized Long chain fatty acids can not cross the BBB

13 Fatty Acid Catabolism β-oxidation

14 Fatty Acid Catabolism β-oxidation Fatty acid catabolism consists of: 1. Fatty acids are moved into the cell Activation and membrane transport of free fatty acids into cells by binding to Co-A. 2. Fatty acid-co-a shuttled into the mitochondria 3. Oxidation of the β carbon to a carbonyl group (C=O). 4. Enzymes cleavage off 2-carbon segments resulting in acetyl-coa. 5. Needs of the cell determine what happens next

15 Triglyceride Structure Palmitin: A homotriglyceride made up of 3 palmitic acids (C 16 H 32 O 2 ) Found in chocolate!!

16 How Much ATP is Formed from Palmitin? 7 bonds 1 NADH + H FADH 2 per bond CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC 8 acetyl CoA each acetyl CoA -----> Krebs cycle 1 ATP X 8 = 8 ATP 3 NADH + H + X 8 = 24 NADH + H + 1 FADH 2 X 8 = 8 FADH 2

17 ATP From β Oxidation of 1 Fatty Acid ATP = NADH + H = 31 NADH + H + 31 X 3 = FADH = 15 FADH 2 15 X 2 = 8 ATP 93 ATP 30 ATP 8 ATP 93 ATP +30 ATP Cost of initiating β-oxidation 131 ATP -1 ATP 130 ATP

18 How Much ATP for the Entire Triglyceride? Glycerol converted back to PGAL Yields 20 ATP Three 16-C fatty acid chains 3 x 130 ATP = 390 ATP Grand total = 410 ATP

19 Ketones Acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate Ketosis: The liver forms ketones from fatty acids for other tissues to use as fuel instead of glucose Not all tissues can metabolize fatty acids Ketogenic diet: High fat, low carbohydrate diet Fasting Extreme/Strenuous Exercise There are 2 ketones used by brain, heart, muscle and kidney 1. Acetoacetate (4C) 2. β-hydroxybutyrate (4C) In the brain Used to make long chain fatty acids that can not pass the BBB Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) High levels of ketones causing plasma to become acidic

20 Ketones Acetone Acetone is a ketone that is not used as a fuel source Acetone (3 carbon) is produced as a waste product when acetoacetate is metabolized Diffuses to the lungs and is exhaled as a gas

21

Protein & Amino Acid Metabolism

Protein & Amino Acid Metabolism Pathophysiology 101-823 Unit 4 Metabolism & Metabolic Disease Protein & Amino Acid Metabolism Paul Anderson FALL 2008 Learning Objectives 1. List the metabolic functions of proteins & amino acids. 2. Explain

More information

BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS

BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS BASIC SCIENCES & BIOCHEMISTRY FOR BETZPAENIC BRIMBLERS Lymphatic Vessels One main lymph vessel receives lymph from the right upper arm and the right side of the head and the thorax and empties into the

More information

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.4 Lipid Catabolism 3.4a Fatty Acid Degradation 3.4b Ketone Bodies

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.4 Lipid Catabolism 3.4a Fatty Acid Degradation 3.4b Ketone Bodies Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY 3.4 Lipid Catabolism 3.4a Fatty Acid Degradation 3.4b Ketone Bodies Section 3.4a: Fatty Acid Degradation Synopsis 3.4a - Triglycerides (or fats) in the diet or adipose

More information

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. Dietary fats are important because: a. they keep blood pressure normal.

More information

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of

More information

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Mobilization of stored fats and oxidation of fatty acids Lippincott s Chapter 16 What is the first lecture about What is triacylglycerol Fatty acids structure

More information

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.5 Protein Catabolism 3.5a Protein Degradation 3.5b Amino Acid Breakdown 3.5c Urea Cycle

Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY. 3.5 Protein Catabolism 3.5a Protein Degradation 3.5b Amino Acid Breakdown 3.5c Urea Cycle Part III => METABOLISM and ENERGY 3.5 Protein Catabolism 3.5a Protein Degradation 3.5b Amino Acid Breakdown 3.5c Urea Cycle Section 3.5a: Protein Degradation Synopsis 3.5a - Dietary proteins are degraded

More information

Metabolism of proteins and amino acids

Metabolism of proteins and amino acids BIOQUÍMICA E BIOLOGIA CELULAR António Ascensão, José Magalhães Metabolism of proteins and amino acids Faculdade de Desporto, Universidade do Porto, 1º Ciclo, 1º Ano 202_2013 Humans degradation of ingested

More information

AMINO ACID METABOLISM. Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI

AMINO ACID METABOLISM. Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI AMINO ACID METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI Amino acids derived from dietary protein absorbed from intestine through blood taken up by tissues used for biosynthesis

More information

Fate of Dietary Protein

Fate of Dietary Protein Fate of Dietary Protein Dietary protein Stomach: l, pepsin Denatured and partially hydrolyzed protein (large polypeptides) small intestine: proteases Amino acids and dipeptides intestinal lining: proteases

More information

Metabolism: From Food to Life

Metabolism: From Food to Life CHAPTER 7 Metabolism: From Food to Life Chapter Summary Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical and physical processes by which the body catabolizes and anabolizes molecules. Metabolic pathways are

More information

Amino Acid Metabolism

Amino Acid Metabolism Amino Acid Metabolism Fate of Dietary Protein Dietary protein Stomach: l, pepsin Denatured and partially hydrolyzed protein (large polypeptides) small intestine: proteases Amino acids and dipeptides intestinal

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor

number Done by Corrected by Doctor number 20 Done by Corrected by Rana Ghassan Doctor Only 4 questions in the mid-term exam are based on the 4 lectures to be given by Dr Faisal. Dr Faisal will give us 10 lectures, the first 4 are included

More information

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes

Unit 2: Metabolic Processes How is energy obtained biologically? Recall: Red Ox Reactions Unit 2: Metabolic Processes Oxidation Is the chief mechanism by which chemical potential energy is released This energy comes from reduced

More information

AMINOACID METABOLISM FATE OF AMINOACIDS & UREA CYCLE

AMINOACID METABOLISM FATE OF AMINOACIDS & UREA CYCLE AMINOACID METABOLISM FATE OF AMINOACIDS & UREA CYCLE SOURCE & FATE OF AA The aminoacids obtained from DIETARY SOURCE or BODY PROTEIN TURNOVER are utilized for protein biosynthesis and the production of

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib number 22 Done by Baraa Ayed Corrected by Yaseen Fatayer Doctor Faisal Al-Khatib 1 P a g e Today we are going to cover these concepts: Oxidation of odd number fatty acids Oxidation of very long fatty acids

More information

Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories

Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories Energy stores in different organs for a 155 lb male, in Calories Organ Glucose/ Glycogen Triacyl Glycerols* Liver 400 450 400 Brain 8 0 0 Mobile Proteins Muscle 1,200 450 24,000 Adipose Tissue 80 135,000

More information

SCBC203 Amino Acid Metabolism

SCBC203 Amino Acid Metabolism Breakdown of proteins Route I: Dietary protein breakdown SCBC203 Amino Acid Metabolism Dr Sarawut Jitrapakdee Professor of Biochemistry Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Science Mahidol University

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8 How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 8 Impacts, Issues: When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels More than forty disorders related to defective mitochondria are known (such as Friedreich s ataxia); many

More information

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle)

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as: Kreb s cycle Sir Hans Krebs Nobel prize, 1953 TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle The citric acid cycle requires aerobic conditions!!!!

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE? A. They are generally endergonic. B. They usually require ATP. C. They are part of metabolism. D.

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Outline PART 1: NUTRIENTS (pp ; Figs ; Table 24.1) 24.

Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Outline PART 1: NUTRIENTS (pp ; Figs ; Table 24.1) 24. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Outline PART 1: NUTRIENTS (pp. 915 922; Figs. 24.1 24.3; Table 24.1) 24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are used as building

More information

NITROGEN METABOLISM An Overview

NITROGEN METABOLISM An Overview 1 University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine and Health Sciences Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PBL Seminar & Health Sciences NITROGEN METABOLISM

More information

Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17

Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17 Lehninger 5 th ed. Chapter 17 December 26, 2010 Prof. Shimon Schuldiner Email: Shimon.Schuldiner@huji.ac.il Phone: 6585992 CHAPTER 17 Fatty Acid Catabolism Key topics: How fats are digested in animals

More information

Fatty Acid Degradation. Catabolism Overview. TAG and FA 11/11/2015. Chapter 27, Stryer Short Course. Lipids as a fuel source diet Beta oxidation

Fatty Acid Degradation. Catabolism Overview. TAG and FA 11/11/2015. Chapter 27, Stryer Short Course. Lipids as a fuel source diet Beta oxidation Fatty Acid Degradation Chapter 27, Stryer Short Course Catabolism verview Lipids as a fuel source diet Beta oxidation saturated Unsaturated dd chain Ketone bodies as fuel Physiology High energy More reduced

More information

Nitrogen Metabolism. Pratt and Cornely Chapter 18

Nitrogen Metabolism. Pratt and Cornely Chapter 18 Nitrogen Metabolism Pratt and Cornely Chapter 18 Overview Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid biosynthesis Nonessential aa Essential aa Nucleotide biosynthesis Amino Acid Catabolism Urea Cycle Juicy Steak

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

Amino Acid Oxidation and the Urea Cycle

Amino Acid Oxidation and the Urea Cycle Amino Acid Oxidation and the Urea Cycle Amino Acids: Final class of biomolecules whose oxidation contributes significantly to the generation of energy Undergo oxidation in three metabolic circumstances

More information

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1

Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism 1 Mobilization of stored fats and oxidation of fatty acids Lippincott s Chapter 16 What is the first lecture about What is triacylglycerol Fatty acids structure

More information

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012 How cells release Chemical Energy 1 7.1 OVERVIEW OF CARBOHYDRATE BREAKDOWN PATHWAYS Organisms stay alive by taking in energy. Plants and all other photosynthetic autotrophs get energy

More information

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217

Chem 109 C. Fall Armen Zakarian Office: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chem 109 C Fall 2014 Armen Zakarian ffice: Chemistry Bldn 2217 Chapter 25 o Glycolysis : fates of pyruvate NADH, H + H + C 2 NADH, H + H - (S)-lactic acid lactate dehydrogenase; anaerobic conditions -

More information

Nitrogen Metabolism. Overview

Nitrogen Metabolism. Overview Nitrogen Metabolism Pratt and Cornely Chapter 18 Overview Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid biosynthesis Nonessential aa Essential aa Nucleotide biosynthesis Amino Acid Catabolism Urea Cycle Juicy Steak

More information

2/25/2015. Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis. Alternate Endpoints. Gluconeogenesis fate of end products

2/25/2015. Anaerobic Pathways. Glycolysis. Alternate Endpoints. Gluconeogenesis fate of end products Anaerobic Pathways Glycolysis Glucose + 2 ATP 4 ATP + 2 Pyruvate No oxygen required Fairly low energy yield Lactate byproduct Resting levels low Tolerances 40 mmole/kg in humans, 200 mmole/kg in sea turtles

More information

2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and end and some intermediates

2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and end and some intermediates 1 Life 20 - Glycolysis Raven & Johnson Chapter 9 (parts) Objectives 1: Know the location of glycolysis in a eukaryotic cell 2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at

More information

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP Chapter 8 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Energy is stored in organic compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Heterotrophs eat

More information

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle

Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism. Entry of Pyruvate into the TCA cycle Citric Acid Cycle: Central Role in Catabolism Stage II of catabolism involves the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and aminoacids into acetylcoa In aerobic organisms, citric acid cycle makes up the final

More information

24 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION

24 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION CHAPTER 24 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION 1079 24 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION Figure 24.1 Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all energy-requiring and energy-consuming processes of the body. Many factors contribute

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush number 7 Done by حسام أبو عوض Corrected by Shahd Alqudah Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush 1 P a g e As we have studied before, in the fourth reaction of the Krebs cycle, α- ketoglutarate is converted into Succinyl-CoA

More information

BCH 4054 Spring 2001 Chapter 24 Lecture Notes

BCH 4054 Spring 2001 Chapter 24 Lecture Notes BCH 4054 Spring 2001 Chapter 24 Lecture Notes 1 Chapter 24 Fatty Acid Catabolism 2 Fatty Acids as Energy Source Triglycerides yield 37 kj/g dry weight Protein 17 kj/g Glycogen 16 kj/g (even less wet weight)

More information

Cellular Metabolism. Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69)

Cellular Metabolism. Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Metabolism Animation Breaking Down Glucose For Energy

More information

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP]

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] 3.7 Cell respiration ( Chapter 9 in Campbell's book) 3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] Organic compounds store

More information

Enzymes what are they?

Enzymes what are they? Topic 11 (ch8) Microbial Metabolism Topics Metabolism Energy Pathways Biosynthesis 1 Catabolism Anabolism Enzymes Metabolism 2 Metabolic balancing act Catabolism Enzymes involved in breakdown of complex

More information

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5 1. Which of the following statements about NAD + is false? a. NAD + is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. b. NAD + has more chemical energy than NADH. c. NAD + is reduced

More information

g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology

g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology g) Cellular Respiration Higher Human Biology What can you remember about respiration? 1. What is respiration? 2. What are the raw materials? 3. What are the products? 4. Where does it occur? 5. Why does

More information

CHAPTER 5 MICROBIAL METABOLISM

CHAPTER 5 MICROBIAL METABOLISM CHAPTER 5 MICROBIAL METABOLISM I. Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions A. Metabolism - The sum of all chemical reactions within a living cell either releasing or requiring energy. (Overhead) Fig 5.1 1. Catabolism

More information

METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI

METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI METABOLISM Sri Widia A Jusman Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology FMUI 1 METABOLISM Process of how cells acquire, transform, store and use energy Study of the chemistry, regulation and energetics

More information

Voet Biochemistry 3e John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Voet Biochemistry 3e John Wiley & Sons, Inc. * * Voet Biochemistry 3e Lipid Metabolism Part I: (Chap. 25, sec.1-3) Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O G o = -2823 kj/mol Fats (palmitic acid) C 16 H 32 O 2 + 23 O 2 16 CO 2 + 16 H 2 O G o

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky Enzymes and Metabolism Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb 1 Protein Macromolecules composed of combinations

More information

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Objectives Distinguish between fermentation and anaerobic respiration. Name the three stages of cellular respiration and state the region of the cell

More information

NUTRIENT DIGESTION & ABSORPTION

NUTRIENT DIGESTION & ABSORPTION NUTRIENT DIGESTION & ABSORPTION NUTR 2050: Nutrition for Nursing Professionals Mrs. Deborah A. Hutcheon, MS, RD, LD Lesson Objectives At the end of the lesson, the student will be able to: 1. Differentiate

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration 1. To perform cell work, cells require energy. a. A cell does three main kinds of work: i. Mechanical work, such as the beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism I. Overall concepts A. Definitions ANC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate) b.

More information

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University

Respiration 30/04/2013. Dr.M.R.Vaezi K., Hakim Sabzevari University Respiration Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is comprised of: anabolism synthesis of molecules, requires input of energy catabolism break down of molecules,

More information

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis. by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis. by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology BIOCHEMISTRY Glycolysis by Dr Jaya Vejayan Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology email: jayavejayan@ump.edu.my Chapter Description Overview This chapter is related to carbohydrate catabolism. It

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy You should be able to: 1. Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name and describe the three stages of cellular respiration;

More information

AMINO ACID METABOLISM

AMINO ACID METABOLISM AMINO ACID METABOLISM PHL-285 Biochemistry-2 Mahmoud N. Nagi, Ph.D. Professor of Biochemistry Overview of amino acid metabolism. Classification of amino acids. Biosynthesis of nonessential amino acids.

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms Energy flows into

More information

Releasing Chemical Energy

Releasing Chemical Energy Releasing Chemical Energy Ø Energy From Carbohydrates Ø Aerobic Respiration/ Stages Ø Fermentation Ø Food as a Source of Energy How Do Cells Access the Chemical Energy in Carbohydrayes? Aerobic Respiration

More information

METABOLISM CATABOLIC Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins

METABOLISM CATABOLIC Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Index: - Overview: Catabolism and Anabolism. Few concepts:, NADPH. - Overview: Metabolism glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. - Table summary: Principal anabolic and catabolic pathways, and their main

More information

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration 1. Respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport: an overview 2. Glycolysis

More information

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants Energy

More information

MBG304 Biochemistry Lecture 8- Metabolism: Lipid metabolism. Hikmet Geçkil, Professor Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics Inonu University

MBG304 Biochemistry Lecture 8- Metabolism: Lipid metabolism. Hikmet Geçkil, Professor Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics Inonu University MBG304 Biochemistry Lecture 8- Metabolism: Lipid metabolism Hikmet Geçkil, Professor Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics Inonu University In the past few lectures we have seen how energy can be

More information

Lecture 16. Finish lipid metabolism (Triglycerides, Isoprenoids/Steroids, Glyoxylate cycle) Amino acid metabolism (Urea cycle) Google Man III

Lecture 16. Finish lipid metabolism (Triglycerides, Isoprenoids/Steroids, Glyoxylate cycle) Amino acid metabolism (Urea cycle) Google Man III Lecture 16 Finish lipid metabolism (Triglycerides, Isoprenoids/Steroids, Glyoxylate cycle) Amino acid metabolism (Urea cycle) Google Man III The Powertrain of Human Metabolism (verview) CARBHYDRATES PRTEINS

More information

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Metabolism of Foods Food is broken down into carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins and sent through catabolic pathways to produce energy. Glycolysis glucose 2 P i 2 ADP

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatibe

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatibe number 24 Done by Mohammed tarabieh Corrected by Doctor Faisal Al-Khatibe 1 P a g e *Please look over the previous sheet about fatty acid synthesis **Oxidation(degradation) of fatty acids, occurs in the

More information

GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels

GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels GLYCOLYSIS Generation of ATP from Metabolic Fuels - Catabolic process degradative pathway - Energy stored in sugars (carbohydrates) released to perform biological work - Transforms GLUCOSE to PYRUVATE

More information

Jana Novotná, Bruno Sopko. Department of the Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles Univ.

Jana Novotná, Bruno Sopko. Department of the Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles Univ. Amino acid metabolism II. Urea cycle Jana Novotná, Bruno Sopko Department of the Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles Univ. Nitrogen balance Tissue proteins

More information

Lesson Overview. Cellular Respiration: An Overview. 9.2 process of cell respiration

Lesson Overview. Cellular Respiration: An Overview. 9.2 process of cell respiration 9.2 process of cell respiration Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of the 3-carbon molecule pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid is a reactant in the Krebs cycle. ATP and NADH

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism I. verall concepts A. Definitions ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors (glucose and lactate) 1) Uses glucose

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid ynthesis I. verall concepts A. Definitions ANC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid ynthesis 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors

More information

Chapter 17 - Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 17 - Citric Acid Cycle hapter 17 - itric Acid ycle I. Introduction - The citric acid cycle (A) was elucidated in the 1930's by ans Krebs, who first noticed that oxygen consumption in suspensions of pigeon breast muscle was greatly

More information

Module C CHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY REVIEW

Module C CHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY REVIEW Module C CHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY REVIEW Note: This module is provided for A&P courses that do not have a prerequisite class which includes chemistry and cell biology. Content covered by required prerequisite

More information

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions

CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions CHE 242 Exam 3 Practice Questions Glucose metabolism 1. Below is depicted glucose catabolism. Indicate on the pathways the following: A) which reaction(s) of glycolysis are irreversible B) where energy

More information

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE LECTURE CONTENT INTRODUCTION CITRIC ACID CYCLE (T.C.A) PRODUCTION OF ACETYL CoA REACTIONS OF THE CITIRC ACID CYCLE THE AMPHIBOLIC NATURE OF THE T.C.A CYCLE THE GLYOXYLATE CYCLE

More information

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS All the energy required for 'life' processes is obtained by oxidation of some macromolecules that we call 'food'.

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation

Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation Cellular Respiration Part V: Oxidative Phosphorylation Figure 9.16 Electron shuttles span membrane 2 NADH or 2 FADH 2 MITOCHONDRION 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate Pyruvate

More information

Fatty acid breakdown

Fatty acid breakdown Fatty acids contain a long hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxylate group. Most contain between 14 and 24 carbon atoms. The chains may be saturated or contain double bonds. The complete oxidation of

More information

Lipid Metabolism. Catabolism Overview

Lipid Metabolism. Catabolism Overview Lipid Metabolism Pratt & Cornely, Chapter 17 Catabolism Overview Lipids as a fuel source from diet Beta oxidation Mechanism ATP production Ketone bodies as fuel 1 High energy More reduced Little water

More information

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical change of

More information

Energy and life. Generation of Biochemical Energy Chapter 21. Energy. Energy and biochemical reactions: 4/5/09

Energy and life. Generation of Biochemical Energy Chapter 21. Energy. Energy and biochemical reactions: 4/5/09 Energy and life Generation of Biochemical Energy Chapter 21 1 Biological systems are powered by oxidation of biomolecules made mainly of C, H and O. The food biomolecules are mainly Lipids (fats) Carbohydrates

More information

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle BIOB111 CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY Session 21 Session Plan Gluconeogenesis Cori Cycle Common Metabolic Pathway The Citric Acid Cycle Stoker 2014, p859 Gluconeogenesis

More information

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work

Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. ATP powers most cellular work Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO + H O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O powers most cellular work Heat energy 1 becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes

More information

BPK 312 Nutrition for Fitness & Sport. Lecture 3

BPK 312 Nutrition for Fitness & Sport. Lecture 3 BPK 312 Nutrition for Fitness & Sport Lecture 3 Nutrient Roles in Bioenergetics 1. Learning Objectives for Lecture 3 2. Bioenergetics/Conservation of Energy 3. Redox Reactions 4. ATP/Phosphocreatine 5.

More information

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Citrate Cycle Lecture 28 Key Concepts The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Eight reactions of the Citrate Cycle Key control points in the Citrate Cycle regulate metabolic flux What role

More information

GENERAL FEATURES OF FATTY ACIDS BIOSYNTHESIS

GENERAL FEATURES OF FATTY ACIDS BIOSYNTHESIS 1 GENERAL FEATURES OF FATTY ACIDS BIOSYNTHESIS 1. Fatty acids may be synthesized from dietary glucose via pyruvate. 2. Fatty acids are the preferred fuel source for the heart and the primary form in which

More information

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish the chapter: 1, 3, 7, 10, 16, 19, 20 Additional Problem: Write out the eight reaction steps of the Citric Acid Cycle, using

More information

KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.

KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen. KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen. ! Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.

More information

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college

Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate(the product of glycolysis) passes by special pyruvatetransporter into mitochondria which proceeds as follows:

More information

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Key Concepts - The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions - Eight enzymatic reactions of the Citrate Cycle - Key control points in the citrate cycle regulate

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Cellular Respiration HO double membrane outer membrane inner membrane CO matrix Produces molecules Requires oxygen Releases carbon dioxide

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration ellular Respiration 1 ellular Respiration A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). 6 H

More information

Cell Respiration Ch 7. Both autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to make CO2 and water from

Cell Respiration Ch 7. Both autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to make CO2 and water from Cell Respiration Ch 7 Objectives: Identify the 2 major steps of cellular respiration Describe the major events in glycolysis Compare lactic acid fermentation with alcoholic fermentation Calculate the efficiency

More information

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1 CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1 web 2017 József Mandl Strategy of metabolism 1 Strategy of metabolism to extract energy ( hydrogen ) from the environment to store the energy excess to store hydrogen CH 3 O 2

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Assemble polymers, pump substances across membranes, move and reproduce The giant panda Obtains energy for its cells by eating plants which get

More information