Objective 3. Develop new and improved diagnostic tools, vaccines, and novel management approaches

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1 Objective 3. Develop new and improved diagnostic tools, vaccines, and novel management approaches Development of novel nanoparticle-base vaccines for infectious bronchitis PI, Mazhar I. Khan; CoPI, Peter Burkhard, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269

2 IBV Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes respiratory disease in poultry as well as affecting avian renal and reproductive systems. Controlling of IBV is mainly based on vaccination program. Current available lived attenuated or killed vaccines have been challenged by their effectiveness due to IBV variants and lack of cross-protection. Here, we are designing novel IBV vaccines using self-assembled peptide nanoparticle (SAPN) which called a highly innovative platform. One of the major immuonogenic genome encodes IBV is a spike (S) protein.

3 Self-assembled Peptide Nanoparticle (SAPN): A excellent platform for universal vaccine design for avian influenza virus: defined size and shape, epitope strings, flexibility, easily scale up, etc. Coiled-coil motifs dictate self-assemble of aligned-epitope monomers into a SAPN Hydrophobic and ionic interaction a b e g (modified image courtesy of Jaime Castillo-Leon, Book: Self-Assembled Peptide Nanostructure.) (Kaba et al., 2009, J Immunol 183:7268; Zhao et al., 2014 Vaccine, 32: )

4 Design of IBV Nanoparticle based vaccine prototypes

5 Sequence analysis of the IBV surface protein in order to identify the best B cell epitope to be displayed on the self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPN) AF (Keeler,C.L. Jr., Reed,K.L., Nix,W.A. and Gelb,J. Jr. Serotype Identification of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)), L10384(Jia,W., Karaca,K., Parrish,C.R. and Naqi,S.A. A novel variant of avian infectious bronchitis virus resulting from recombination among three different strains. Arch. Virol. 140 (2), (1995)) L18990 Wang,L., Junker,D., Hock,L., Ebiary,E. and Collisson,E.W. Evolutionary implications of genetic variations in the S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Res. 34 (3), (1994) and M21883 (Niesters,H.G., Lenstra,J.A., Spaan,W.J., Zijderveld,A.J., Bleumink-Pluym,N.M., Hong,F., van Scharrenburg,G.J., Horzinek,M.C. and van der Zeijst,B.A. The peplomer protein sequence of the M41 strain of coronavirus IBV and its comparison with Beaudette strains. Virus Res. 5 (2-3), (1986).

6 Research plan The S protein of IBV contains two coiled-coil sequences as the S protein of SARS. The second sequence (residues : ILDIDSEIDRIQGVIQGLNDSLIDLEKL) corresponds to the HRC sequence in SARS S protein (residues : VVNIQKEIDRLNEVAKNL NESLIDLQEL) and shares a high sequence homology. We have engineered this coiled-coil sequence onto the trimeric coiled-coil of several versions of our current SAPNs. Thus, these nanoparticles will present this epitope in a conformation-specific manner to the immune system, hence inducing conformation-specific antibodies with the potential to neutralize the virus in a viral infectivity assay.

7 Research plan A sequence alignment of these proteins revealed the coiled-coil heptad repeat regions of the proteins and the relevant portions of the head domain of the glycoprotein A sufficient sequences similarity between the different structures revealed that the optimal B cell determinant within IBV to be used in a design of an IBV prototype vaccine are the coiled-coil sequences of the stalk domain.

8 Also, after the heptad repeat pattern, a significant portion of the proteins are highly conserved between the different strains/viruses. These highly conserved regions are likely very important for the function of the glycoprotein of the virus and hence it was decided to keep those sequences at least in some designs of a prototype IBV nanoparticle vaccine.

9 Figure 2. Arrangement of two epitomic protein sequences in four different peptide monomers that are building blocks for four different nanoparticle constructs. Black: Histag; Green: pentameric coiled coil; Blue: trimeric coiled coil; Magenta: CD4 T cell epitope; Red: B cell epitope; Underscore: Restriction site for sub-cloning; Heptad sequences: The repeat pattern is indicated above the sequences (a d a d )

10 IBV SAPN constructs Selfassembly Figure 1. (left) 3D monomeric building block composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain (green) and trimeric de novo designed coiled-coil domain (blue) which is extended by the coiled-coil sequence of the S protein of IBV (red); (right) Computer model of the protein nanoparticle icosahedral symmetry (not drawn to size with monomer).

11 Approaches: Bioproduction of SAPN constructs: Expression of coiled-coil SAPN monoer in E.coli Purification of SAPN by His-Column Structural and biophysical analysis: Transmission electron microscopy Dynamic light scattering

12 Results

13 A Figure 3. Bio-production and characterization of IBV nanoparticle. A: SDS-PAGE; B: Dynamic light scattering; C: Transmission electron microscopy B C

14 Animal trial design: Two groups of chickens were intramuscularly received 3 doses of 100μg IBV nanoparticle or buffer. Chickens were bled four times (2wks post 1 st dose, 2 wks post 2 nd dose and 2 wks post 3 rd dose). Sera were evaluated by ELISA and virus neutralization test in embryonated eggs. ELISA plates were coated with whole inactivated virus M41 (Biochek kit) or plates coated with 1 μg/ml IBV nanoparticle. Virus neutralization assay, sera diluted at 1/10 and incubated with IBV M41 1 EID 50 1x for 1 hour at 37 C. Inoculum of virus+sera 100μL mixture were inoculated in SPF eggs and incubated for 8 days at 37 C. Weight of embryos were evaluated to asses neutralization effects. RNA was extracted from allantoic fluid from inoculated eggs and was evaluated by real time RT-PCR for relative gene copy numbers.

15 Fig 1. ELISA for antibodies induced by IBV-Long-long construct in chickens. Commercial kit (Biochek) was used. Plates were coated with M41 IBV. Sera were diluted at 1/500.

16 Figure 2. Evaluation of antibody ELISA titer to IBV-Long-long construct in chickens. A, two weeks post first dose of immunization; B, two weeks post second dose of immunization; C, two weeks post third dose of immunization.

17 Figure 2. Evaluation of ELISA antibody titer to IBV-Long-long construct in chickens. boosters Comparison of

18 Figure 3. Virus neutralization in embryonated eggs.

19 Figure 3. Virus neutralization in embryonated eggs.

20 Conclusions 1. ELISA antibody titer were gradually elevated began at 2 weeks post 2 nd dose and reached peak at 3 rd dose of immunization. 2. IBV long-long Nanoparticles construct slightly neutralized viral infection in embryos. Embryos were slightly protected by anti-ibv long sera showing slightly gain of weight 3. lower viral load and less lesion of disease while comparing to embryos inoculated with mixture of negative sera and M41 virus were observed.

21 Future Plan Optimize IBV long-long nanoparticle and test the other IBV nanoparticles (short-short; short-long combinations) and optimization Vaccine efficacy will be evaluated by challenging with IBV M41 in SPF chickens

22 Acknowledgement Pathobiology, UConn Jianping Li, Zeinab Helal and Qing Fan Molecular Cell Biology, UConn Peter Burkhard, Christopher Karch and Anmin Tan Supported by PRD-CAP USDA-NIFA

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