Population Percent C.I. All Hennepin County adults aged 18 and older 12.1% ± 1.2

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1 Overview ` Why Is This Indicator Important? Tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of disease, disability and death in the United States. How Are We Doing? In the past decade, smoking rate among Hennepin County adults has declined from 21.2% in 1998 to 12.1 % in 21, a 43% reduction. The success of smoking reduction is not equally shared by all adults in Hennepin County. Smoking rates remain significantly higher among US-born Blacks, residents of low income, low education, and those experiencing frequent mental distress, or being a member of LGBT. There is large variation in smoking rates across geographic areas with lowest in Northwest suburb outer ring (7.1%) to the highest in North Minneapolis (24%). Residents who reside in multiunit housing reported a significantly higher smoking rate than residents who reside in non-multiunit housing (18% vs. 9.8%). Data Source: SHAPE 21 Adult Survey, Hennepin County. Population C.I. All Hennepin County adults aged 18 and older 12.1% ± 1.2 Age (years) % ± % ± % ± % ± and older * 4.9% ± 1.2 Gender Male 14.% ± 2.2 Female 1.4% ± 1.1 Household income <2% federal poverty level * 24.7% ± 3.5 2% federal poverty level * Geographic region Minneapolis * Northwest suburbs West suburbs South suburbs 8.9% ± % ± % ± 2.4`` 9.3% ± % ± 2.8 * Denotes the difference in rates between this group and All Hennepin County is statistically significant at p<.5.

2 Technical Notes Definition of indicator: The current smoking status was derived from the responses to two questions: Have you smoked at least 1 cigarettes in your entire life? and Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days or not at all? A person who has smoked 1 cigarettes or more in his or her lifetime and now smokes every day or some days is classified as a current. A person will be classified as experiencing recent frequent mental distress if he or she reported that his or her mental health was not good for at least 14 days during the past 3 days. Definitions for other variables and factors used in this report can be found at Data source: The primary data source for this report is SHAPE 21 Adults Survey. Data from previous SHAPE surveys, including SHAPE 1998 Survey, SHAPE 22 Survey and SHAPE 26 Adult Survey are used to monitor this indicator over time. Data from SHAPE 26 is sued to report indicator by race and ethnicity as SHAPE 21 does not have enough sample to do so. Data sources used for the chart How does Hennepin County Compare includes Minnesota 21 Metro Adult Health Survey that covers six metro counties of Minnesota (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Ramsey, Scott and Washington), Minnesota 21 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) and median value from all 21 BRFSS participating states. Importance of this indicator: Tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of disease, disability and death in the United States. Each year, approximate 443, persons in US die from smoking related illness. For every one smoking-related death, another 2 people struggle with one or more serious smoking related illness. In addition to the loss of human life, smoking cost about 193 billion annually in direct health care expenses and lost productivity. Health disparities: Hennepin County has made considerable progress in reducing tobacco use in the past decade. The rate has been decreased from 21.2% in 1998 to 12.1% in 21, representing an equivalent of 64, fewer adult s than would have existed has no decrease occurred. The historic low smoking rate makes Hennepin County among those very few counties in United States that have reached the federal Health People 22 target of reducing adult smoking rate to 12%. The rate is significantly lower than the rates for the state and for the nation. The success of smoking reduction is not equally shared by all adults in Hennepin County. Disparities in smoking rates across adults groups are still evident. Residents who are disproportionately affected by current cigarette smoking include young adults, adult males, and those with low income, low education, experiencing recent frequent mental distress or being a member of LGBT. Residents who reside in multiunit housing reported a significantly higher rate of smoking than residents who reside in non-multiunit housing (18% vs. 9.8%). Large variation in smoking rates across geographic areas, ranging from 7.1% in Northwest suburb outer ring to 24% percent in North Minneapolis, is also observed. The most pronounced difference in smoking rates are found between US- born Blacks and African-born Blacks (32% vs. 2.8%). Notes on the charts and tables: An asterisk (*) indicates the difference in rates of the indicator between the particular subgroup and All Hennepin County adults is statistically significant. A set of double asterisks (**) indicates the difference in rates of the indicator across subgroups within the same variable or factor is statically significant. A set of three asterisks (***) indicates the difference in rates of the indicator between the Hennepin County and the nation is statistically significant. A set of four asterisks (****) indicates the difference in rates of the indicator between the Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota or other metro counties is statistically significant. The level of statistical significance was determined at p <.5.

3 Adults current smoking status 4 Adults currently smoking Trend trend Never smoked 61.3% Every day 7.2% Some days 4.9% Current 12.1% % 19.4% 17.1% 12.1% Former 26.6% 1 SHAPE Number of adults who currently smoke Trend Adults currently smoking in 21 How does Hennepin County compare? 2, 4 Number of adults 16, 12, 8, 172, 159, 146, 64, 18, 3 2 Healthy People 22 objective 15.3% 12.1% ***, **** 14.9% 19.4% 4, 1 12% Hennepin County Other metro counties Minnesota U.S.

4 Adults currently smoking by race and ethnicity Adults currently smoking by education** % * 3 3.8% % 17.1% % 18.3% % 13.5% 1 6.9% 2.8% * White US-born Black African-born Black Southeast Asian Hispanic/Latino All adults Less than high school High school Some college College or higher SHAPE 26 SHAPE 21 Adults currently smoking by housing type** Adults currently smoking by frequent mental distress and LGBT status % ** % % ** 1.6% 1 8.8% 1 7.7% Multi-unit housing Non-multiunit housing SHAPE 21 Yes No Yes No Experiencing recent frequent mental distress Being a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT) SHAPE 21

5 Indicator: Adults Currently Smoking Adults currently smoking by geographic areas** Minneapolis N Near-North, Camden E Northeast. University, Longfellow City of St. Anthony C Central, Phillips, Powderhorn S Calhoun-Isles, Southwest, Nokomis Suburban Hennepin NW1 Northwest Inner Ring Suburbs W1 West Inner Ring Suburbs S1 South Inner Ring Suburbs NW2 Northwest Outer Ring Suburbs W2 West Outer Ring Suburbs S2 South Outer Ring Suburbs SHAPE 21

Population Percent C.I * 6.3% ± * 20.7% ± % ± * 54.2% ± and older * 59.3% ± 2.9.

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