Prof. R. V. Skibbens. Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Cancer (Part 2)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Prof. R. V. Skibbens. Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Cancer (Part 2)"

Transcription

1 Prof. R. V. Skibbens November 22, 2010 BIOS 10: BioScience in the 21 st Century Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Cancer (Part 2)

2 Directionality - clocks go in only one direction G1 doesn t have replication-inducing activity S but not G2 can not induce G1 cell to replicate DNA S cells has feedback controls that ensure replication completion Molecular mechanism For gaining i and then losing an Activity...

3 Master Regulator of the Cell Cycle: Cyclin-dependent Kinase (CDK) Cell cycle progression requires CDK activity Controls timing of divison sequence of division Respond to cues Partners in crime: Cyclin binds/activates kinase subunit

4 Cyclin-CDK complexes: budding Different catalytic CDK kinase proteins vertebrate G1 Cdc28 CDK4, CDK6 CLN3 Cyclin D1-3 G1/S Cdc28 CDK2 CLN1,2 S Cdc28 CDK2 Cyclin E CLB5,6 Cyclin A M Cdc28 CDK1 CLB1-4 Cyclin B... And Different cyclins

5 Cyclin-dependent Kinase (CDK) Nuclear envelope breakdown Condense chromosomes (Lamins) (Histone 1) Microtubule re-organization (MAPs) Cell cycle progression requires CDK activity Different cyclins - different substrates Unidirectionality - cyclin expression and Transcription of DNA replication factors (Polymerase, RFCs) Initiate DNA replication (ORC)

6 CDK regulation Cyclin degradation d Mitotic cyclin degradation = Anaphase Promoting Complex or APC G1 and S-phase cyclin degradation SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F box complex)

7

8 Low CDK G1 cells can enter Quiescence (G 0 0) G 0 Differentiated cells or Cells that control the clock via external cues Understanding cancer often involves understanding how cells Reenter the cell cycle in the absence of cues!

9 G1 (and S) cyclin-cdk typically activated by external cues : Mitogens!! Releasing the brakes that keep cells in G1 MITOGENS PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor EGF epidermal growth factor TGF- Transforming growth factor

10 G1 cyclin-cdk activated by external cues: Mitogens!! Releasing the brakes that keep cells in G1 PDGF EGF Mitogen receptor activates small GTPase -> Ras pathway MAP kinase activates TFs TGF-

11 G1 cyclin-cdk activated by external cues: Mitogens!! Releasing the brakes that keep cells in G1 PDGF EGF TGF- Mitogen receptor activates small GTPase -> Ras pathway MAP kinase activates TFs TFs induce MYC expression Td!!Th Tada!! The target tof Mitogen activation...

12 Actions of MYC: 1. Express G1 cyclins G 0

13 Actions of MYC (plus Max binding partner): 1. Express G1 cyclins - G1-CDK will phosph p Rb Mitogen-induced?

14 E2F transcription factor

15 E2F - transcription factor... Rb (retinoblastoma protein) binds E2F > E2F OFF (inhibits cell cycle progression until external signal)

16 E2F - regulating a S-phase transcription factor... Rb (retinoblastoma protein) binds E2F > E2F OFF (inhibits cell cycle progression until external signal) G1-CDK phosphorylates Rb turn inhibitor off -> E2F ON

17 Actions of MYC (Mitogen induced!): 1. Express G1 cyclins - G1-CDK will phosph p Rb

18 Cancer pathways: Oncogene a stuck accelerator in a Driver s Ed Car... (2 of everything) Causes: mutation that falsely signals mitogen dosage too much

19 Overactive Accelerators - dosage effects General mechanisms of gene expansion

20 General mechanisms of gene expansion

21 Expansion of genes that regulate cell cycle progression: Myc proto-oncogene amplification homogenously staining regions (HSR)

22 Expansion of genes that regulate cell cycle progression: Examples of Myc proto-oncogene amplification homogenously staining regions (HSR) Double minute chromosomes

23 Myc expansion is downstream of mitogen... what htabout mitogenic i signal mis-regulation lti Unregulated ltdentry into it S

24 Overactive Accelerators loss of control receptor active without mitogen PDGF receptor No longer needs PDGF for Activation

25 Overactive Accelerators loss of control receptor active without mitogen - Dosage HER2 receptor - transmembrane tyrosine kinase (EGFR-like ) at high levels no longer Needs ligand for activation Her-2 OE accounts EGF-like 20-30% of all Her2 breast cancers dimerization Names change Herceptin: Ab that blocks Her2 dimerization i Tamoxifen small molecule l tyrosine kinase inhibitors -> gefitinib Estrogen HER2 E-receptor ERE

26 Cancer pathways: Oncogene a stuck accelerator Causes: mutation that falsely mimics mitogen dosage too much no longer dependent on mitogen

27 Cancer pathways: Rb, p53, viruses and BRCA1 Tumor Suppressors Brakes needed to slow car down! Driver ED car!!!!!!!!

28 Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) mutation need not be the same!!

29 Without Rb, E2F free to promote S-phase Bypasses G1-CDK activation via Mitogens X

30 p53 - gatekeeper of the cell p53 mutated ttdin ~1/2 of all cancers.. p53 highly hl unstable Associates with Mdm2 Ub-ligase co-factor X Made for destruction

31 p53 - gatekeeper of the cell DNA damage-induced id d p53 phosphorylation ATM/ATR CHK1 p53 - Mdm2 release -> stabilization by p53 kinase ATM = ataxia telangiectasia mutated ATR = ATM related i i h di i i patients with predisposition to cancer and extremely UV sensitive

32 p53 - gatekeeper of the cell Cells replication Damaged DNA p53 is transcription factor induces p21 expression X p21 IS a CKI!! CDK-Inhibitor BRAKES!!! cell locked in G1

33 Viral mechanisms of cancer progression papilloma virus genome stably maintained in epithelial cells

34 Viral mechanisms of cancer progression papilloma virus genome stably maintained in epithelial cells Viral E7 upregulated - binds and inactivates Rb Viral E6 upregulated - drives p53 proteoloysis

35 1 Breast Cancer Gene 1 - BRCA1 (tumor suppressor cell cycle brakes) Ring finger BRCT BARD1 MRN p300 CPB Mre11,Rad50,Nbs1 p53 prb BRCC complex = BACH1/FANCJ BRCA1/2, BARD1 CtIP Rad51, etc... H2AX E3 Ub-ligase Chromatin remodeling DNA damage signal Co-activator Modified from Boulton 2007

36 BRCA1 slows growth BRCA1 (Wt) Vector G1788V* *G1788V present in human brca1 patients K1601E Humphrey et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 2004

37 Chromosome segregation DNA replication

38 1. Cancer cells typically aneuploid inappropriate chromosome number chromosome segregation - microtubules 2. Cancer unregulated cell growth Tumor Suppressor Genes Oncogenes 3. Cancer cells often exhibit heightened migration Cell motility - actin

39 Metastasis cell migration and ignoring cues leaving home without a forwarding address

40 Wildtype cells Tumor cells Scratch test Time Tumor cells Show Increased mobility Zhu et al 2004

41 Cell motility how do cells move and where?

42 Limiting cell movement Reducing chromosome segregation g Infidelity Adhering to cell cycle cues: accelerators and brakes

Prof. R. V. Skibbens

Prof. R. V. Skibbens Prof. R. V. Skibbens September 8, 2017 BioScience in the 21 st Century Cell Cycle, Cell Division and intro to Cancer Cell growth and division What are the goals? I Cell Cycle what is this? response to

More information

Prof. R. V. Skibbens. BIOS 10 and BIOS 90: BioScience in the 21 st Century. Cell Cycle, Cell Division and intro to Cancer.

Prof. R. V. Skibbens. BIOS 10 and BIOS 90: BioScience in the 21 st Century. Cell Cycle, Cell Division and intro to Cancer. Prof. R. V. Skibbens August 31, 2015 BIOS 10 and BIOS 90: BioScience in the 21 st Century Cell Cycle, Cell Division and intro to Cancer Cell Cycle Why a cell cycle? What is the goal? trauma growth development

More information

Cell cycle, signaling to cell cycle, and molecular basis of oncogenesis

Cell cycle, signaling to cell cycle, and molecular basis of oncogenesis Cell cycle, signaling to cell cycle, and molecular basis of oncogenesis MUDr. Jiří Vachtenheim, CSc. CELL CYCLE - SUMMARY Basic terminology: Cyclins conserved proteins with homologous regions; their cellular

More information

Multistep nature of cancer development. Cancer genes

Multistep nature of cancer development. Cancer genes Multistep nature of cancer development Phenotypic progression loss of control over cell growth/death (neoplasm) invasiveness (carcinoma) distal spread (metastatic tumor) Genetic progression multiple genetic

More information

CELL CYCLE MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS

CELL CYCLE MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS CELL CYCLE MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS Summary of the regulation of cyclin/cdk complexes during celll cycle Cell cycle phase Cyclin-cdk complex inhibitor activation Substrate(s) G1 Cyclin D/cdk 4,6

More information

Karyotype analysis reveals transloction of chromosome 22 to 9 in CML chronic myelogenous leukemia has fusion protein Bcr-Abl

Karyotype analysis reveals transloction of chromosome 22 to 9 in CML chronic myelogenous leukemia has fusion protein Bcr-Abl Chapt. 18 Cancer Molecular Biology of Cancer Student Learning Outcomes: Describe cancer diseases in which cells no longer respond Describe how cancers come from genomic mutations (inherited or somatic)

More information

基醫所. The Cell Cycle. Chi-Wu Chiang, Ph.D. IMM, NCKU

基醫所. The Cell Cycle. Chi-Wu Chiang, Ph.D. IMM, NCKU 基醫所 The Cell Cycle Chi-Wu Chiang, Ph.D. IMM, NCKU 1 1 Introduction to cell cycle and cell cycle checkpoints 2 2 Cell cycle A cell reproduces by performing an orderly sequence of events in which it duplicates

More information

oncogenes-and- tumour-suppressor-genes)

oncogenes-and- tumour-suppressor-genes) Special topics in tumor biochemistry oncogenes-and- tumour-suppressor-genes) Speaker: Prof. Jiunn-Jye Chuu E-Mail: jjchuu@mail.stust.edu.tw Genetic Basis of Cancer Cancer-causing mutations Disease of aging

More information

Cancer genetics

Cancer genetics Cancer genetics General information about tumorogenesis. Cancer induced by viruses. The role of somatic mutations in cancer production. Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes (TSG). Hereditary cancer. 1

More information

Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer

Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer Chapt 15: Molecular Genetics of Cell Cycle and Cancer Student Learning Outcomes: Describe the cell cycle: steps taken by a cell to duplicate itself = cell division; Interphase (G1, S and G2), Mitosis.

More information

Lecture 8 Neoplasia II. Dr. Nabila Hamdi MD, PhD

Lecture 8 Neoplasia II. Dr. Nabila Hamdi MD, PhD Lecture 8 Neoplasia II Dr. Nabila Hamdi MD, PhD ILOs Understand the definition of neoplasia. List the classification of neoplasia. Describe the general characters of benign tumors. Understand the nomenclature

More information

Molecular Cell Biology (Bio 5068) Cell Cycle I. Ron Bose, MD PhD November 14, 2017

Molecular Cell Biology (Bio 5068) Cell Cycle I. Ron Bose, MD PhD November 14, 2017 Molecular Cell Biology (Bio 5068) Cell Cycle I Ron Bose, MD PhD November 14, 2017 CELL DIVISION CYCLE M G2 S G1 DISCOVERY AND NAMING OF CYCLINS A protein (called cyclin ) was observed to increase as cells

More information

Emerging" hallmarks of cancer, a. Reprogramming of energy metabolism b. Evasion of the immune system, Enabling characteristics, a.

Emerging hallmarks of cancer, a. Reprogramming of energy metabolism b. Evasion of the immune system, Enabling characteristics, a. HALLMARKS OF CANCER - Together dictate the malignant phenotype. 1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals 2. Insensitivity to growth inhibitory signals 3. Evasion of cell death 4. Limitless replicative potential

More information

Cancer. Questions about cancer. What is cancer? What causes unregulated cell growth? What regulates cell growth? What causes DNA damage?

Cancer. Questions about cancer. What is cancer? What causes unregulated cell growth? What regulates cell growth? What causes DNA damage? Questions about cancer What is cancer? Cancer Gil McVean, Department of Statistics, Oxford What causes unregulated cell growth? What regulates cell growth? What causes DNA damage? What are the steps in

More information

Determination Differentiation. determinated precursor specialized cell

Determination Differentiation. determinated precursor specialized cell Biology of Cancer -Developmental Biology: Determination and Differentiation -Cell Cycle Regulation -Tumor genes: Proto-Oncogenes, Tumor supressor genes -Tumor-Progression -Example for Tumor-Progression:

More information

Cancer. The fundamental defect is. unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells. Causes of Cancer. Altered growth and proliferation

Cancer. The fundamental defect is. unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells. Causes of Cancer. Altered growth and proliferation Cancer The fundamental defect is unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells Altered growth and proliferation Loss of growth factor dependence Loss of contact inhibition Immortalization Alterated

More information

Einführung in die Genetik

Einführung in die Genetik Einführung in die Genetik Prof. Dr. Kay Schneitz (EBio Pflanzen) http://plantdev.bio.wzw.tum.de schneitz@wzw.tum.de Prof. Dr. Claus Schwechheimer (PlaSysBiol) http://wzw.tum.de/sysbiol claus.schwechheimer@wzw.tum.de

More information

Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division

Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division The Cell Cycle Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division Why do cells divide? For reproduction asexual reproduction For growth one-celled organisms from fertilized

More information

Genomic instability. Amin Mahpour

Genomic instability. Amin Mahpour Genomic instability Amin Mahpour 1 Some questions to ponder What is Genomic instability? What factors contribute to the genomic integrity? How we identify these aberrations? 2 PART I: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

More information

BL 424 Test pts name Multiple choice have one choice each and are worth 3 points.

BL 424 Test pts name Multiple choice have one choice each and are worth 3 points. BL 424 Test 3 2010 150 pts name Multiple choice have one choice each and are worth 3 points. 1. The plasma membrane functions as a a. selective barrier to the passage of molecules. b. sensor through which

More information

Cancer. The fundamental defect is. unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells. Causes of Cancer. Altered growth and proliferation

Cancer. The fundamental defect is. unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells. Causes of Cancer. Altered growth and proliferation Cancer The fundamental defect is unregulated cell division. Properties of Cancerous Cells Altered growth and proliferation Loss of growth factor dependence Loss of contact inhibition Immortalization Alterated

More information

Cancer DEREGULATION OF CELL CYCLE CONTROL IN ONCOGENESIS. D. Kardassis Division of Basic Sciences University of Crete Medical School and IMBB-FORTH

Cancer DEREGULATION OF CELL CYCLE CONTROL IN ONCOGENESIS. D. Kardassis Division of Basic Sciences University of Crete Medical School and IMBB-FORTH E6 2006-2007: 2007: Molecular Biology of Cancer DEREGULATION OF CELL CYCLE CONTROL IN ONCOGENESIS D. Kardassis Division of Basic Sciences University of Crete Medical School and IMBB-FORTH Literature *

More information

-The cell s hereditary endowment of DNA -Usually packaged into chromosomes for manageability

-The cell s hereditary endowment of DNA -Usually packaged into chromosomes for manageability Binary Fission-Bacterial Cell Division -Asexual reproduction of prokaryotes -No mitosis -Circular DNA and organelles replicate, the copies migrate to opposite sides of the elongating cell, and the cell

More information

Answer ALL questions in Section A and ONE question from Section B.

Answer ALL questions in Section A and ONE question from Section B. UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA School of Biological Sciences Main Series UG Examination 2012-2013 CANCER BIOLOGY BIO-3C27 Time allowed: 3 hours Students are strongly advised to spend at least 30 minutes reading

More information

Cell Cycle and Cancer

Cell Cycle and Cancer 142 8. Cell Cycle and Cancer NOTES CELL CYCLE G 0 state o Resting cells may re-enter the cell cycle Nondividing cells (skeletal and cardiac muscle, neurons) o Have left the cell cycle and cannot undergo

More information

Regulation of cell cycle. Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D

Regulation of cell cycle. Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D Regulation of cell cycle Dr. SARRAY Sameh, Ph.D Control of cell cycle: Checkpoints Are the cell cycle controls mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. These checkpoints verify whether the processes at each phase

More information

The mutations that drive cancer. Paul Edwards. Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge

The mutations that drive cancer. Paul Edwards. Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge The mutations that drive cancer Paul Edwards Department of Pathology and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge Previously on Cancer... hereditary predisposition Normal Cell Slightly

More information

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth & Cell Division Where it all began You started as a cell smaller than a period at the end of a sentence Getting from there to here Cell

More information

Src-INACTIVE / Src-INACTIVE

Src-INACTIVE / Src-INACTIVE Biology 169 -- Exam 1 February 2003 Answer each question, noting carefully the instructions for each. Repeat- Read the instructions for each question before answering!!! Be as specific as possible in each

More information

Genetics and Cancer Ch 20

Genetics and Cancer Ch 20 Genetics and Cancer Ch 20 Cancer is genetic Hereditary cancers Predisposition genes Ex. some forms of colon cancer Sporadic cancers ~90% of cancers Descendants of cancerous cells all cancerous (clonal)

More information

Review II: Cell Biology

Review II: Cell Biology Review II: Cell Biology Rajan Munshi BBSI @ Pitt 2006 Department of Computational Biology University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine May 24, 2006 Outline Cell Cycle Signal Transduction 1 Cell Cycle Four

More information

RAS Genes. The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes.

RAS Genes. The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes. ۱ RAS Genes The ras superfamily of genes encodes small GTP binding proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes. Oncogenic ras genes in human cells include H ras, N ras,

More information

Early Embryonic Development

Early Embryonic Development Early Embryonic Development Maternal effect gene products set the stage by controlling the expression of the first embryonic genes. 1. Transcription factors 2. Receptors 3. Regulatory proteins Maternal

More information

Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 9 The Cell Cycle. 9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 9 The Cell Cycle. 9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 9 The Cell Cycle 9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how

More information

Cell Cyc Cell Cy l c e

Cell Cyc Cell Cy l c e Mechanisms of Cell Proliferation 1 Cell Cycle G 2 S G 1 2 Multi-cellular organisms depend on cell division/proliferation; Each organism has a developmental plan that determines its behavior and properties;

More information

Tumor suppressor genes D R. S H O S S E I N I - A S L

Tumor suppressor genes D R. S H O S S E I N I - A S L Tumor suppressor genes 1 D R. S H O S S E I N I - A S L What is a Tumor Suppressor Gene? 2 A tumor suppressor gene is a type of cancer gene that is created by loss-of function mutations. In contrast to

More information

PowerPoint Image Slideshow

PowerPoint Image Slideshow COLLEGE BIOLOGY PHYSICS Chapter 10 # Cell Chapter Reproduction Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 12 The Cell Cycle 2014 Pearson

More information

CYCLINS ON THE MOVE: A TIME AND A PLACE FOR CYCLIN A2 AND CYCLIN B1 IN THE HUMAN CELL CYCLE

CYCLINS ON THE MOVE: A TIME AND A PLACE FOR CYCLIN A2 AND CYCLIN B1 IN THE HUMAN CELL CYCLE From the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden CYCLINS ON THE MOVE: A TIME AND A PLACE FOR CYCLIN A2 AND CYCLIN B1 IN THE HUMAN CELL CYCLE Helena Silva Cascales

More information

Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Microtubules. LS1A Final Exam Review Friday 1/12/07. Processes occurring during cell cycle

Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Microtubules. LS1A Final Exam Review Friday 1/12/07. Processes occurring during cell cycle Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Microtubules LS1A Final Exam Review Friday 1/12/07 Processes occurring during cell cycle Replicate chromosomes Segregate chromosomes Cell divides Cell grows Cell Growth 1 The standard

More information

Mitosis Notes AP Biology Mrs. Laux

Mitosis Notes AP Biology Mrs. Laux I. Cell Cycle-includes interphase and mitosis (IPPMAT) A. Interphase 1. accounts for 90% of the cycle 2. cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division 3. produces proteins and

More information

Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer

Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer Chapter 18- Oncogenes, tumor suppressors & Cancer - Previously we have talked about cancer which is an uncontrolled cell proliferation and we have discussed about the definition of benign, malignant, metastasis

More information

Genetics of Cancer Lecture 32 Cancer II. Prof. Bevin Engelward, MIT Biological Engineering Department

Genetics of Cancer Lecture 32 Cancer II. Prof. Bevin Engelward, MIT Biological Engineering Department Genetics of Cancer Lecture 32 Cancer II rof. Bevin Engelward, MIT Biological Engineering Department Why Cancer Matters New Cancer Cases in 1997 Cancer Deaths in 1997 Genetics of Cancer: Today: What types

More information

MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS

MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS MOLECULAR BASIS OF ONCOGENESIS MUDr. Jiří Vachtenheim, CSc. 1 Cell processes which result also in cell cycle effects. Differentiation. Differentiated cells are usually in the G0 phase of the cell cycle.

More information

BIOL 4374/BCHS 4313 Cell Biology Exam #1 February 13, 2001

BIOL 4374/BCHS 4313 Cell Biology Exam #1 February 13, 2001 BIOL 4374/BCHS 4313 Cell Biology Exam #1 February 13, 2001 SS# Name This exam is worth a total of 100 points. The number of points each question is worth is shown in parentheses. Good luck! 1. (2) The

More information

Cell Division. During interphase, a cell s DNA is in a loose form called. It condenses into tightly coiled structures called chromosomes during.

Cell Division. During interphase, a cell s DNA is in a loose form called. It condenses into tightly coiled structures called chromosomes during. Cell Division The is a cell s total DNA. Prokaryotes DNA is found mostly in a single called the and also in small circles called. Eukaryotes have several DNA double helices packaged into. During interphase,

More information

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 22: The Mechanics of Cell Division

Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 22: The Mechanics of Cell Division Molecular Cell Biology - Problem Drill 22: The Mechanics of Cell Division Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of the following statements about mitosis is correct? Question #1 (A) Mitosis involves the dividing

More information

Cell Cycle Regulation. Adrian R. Black

Cell Cycle Regulation. Adrian R. Black Cell Cycle Regulation Adrian R. Black 845-3090 Adrian.black@roswellpark.org Loss of Growth Control Block of Apoptosis Evasion of Senescence Angiogenesis Invasion hases of the cell cycle Mitosis: Chromosome

More information

General Biology. Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division. Unicellular organisms

General Biology. Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division. Unicellular organisms General Biology Course No: BNG2003 Credits: 3.00 8. The Cell Cycle Prof. Dr. Klaus Heese Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The continuity of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell

More information

SSN SBPM Workshop Exam One. Short Answer Questions & Answers

SSN SBPM Workshop Exam One. Short Answer Questions & Answers SSN SBPM Workshop Exam One Short Answer Questions & Answers 1. Describe the effects of DNA damage on the cell cycle. ANS : DNA damage causes cell cycle arrest at a G2 checkpoint. This arrest allows time

More information

TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES. Molecular Oncology Michael Lea

TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES. Molecular Oncology Michael Lea TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES Molecular Oncology 2011 Michael Lea TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES - Lecture Outline 1. Summary of tumor suppressor genes 2. P53 3. Rb 4. BRCA1 and 2 5. APC and DCC 6. PTEN and PPA2 7. LKB1

More information

Cell Division and Cancer. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mount San Antonio College

Cell Division and Cancer. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mount San Antonio College Cell Division and Cancer By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mount San Antonio College The Cell Cycle Interphase: G 1, S, G 2, (G 0 ) Cell division and cytokinesis prophase metaphase anaphase telophase Interphase

More information

Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer

Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer CHAPTER 19 THE ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF EUKARYOTIC GENOMES Section D: The Molecular Biology of Cancer 1. Cancer results from genetic changes that affect the cell cycle 2. Oncogene proteins and faulty

More information

Early cell death (FGF) B No RunX transcription factor produced Yes No differentiation

Early cell death (FGF) B No RunX transcription factor produced Yes No differentiation Solution Key - Practice Questions Question 1 a) A recent publication has shown that the fat stem cells (FSC) can act as bone stem cells to repair cavities in the skull, when transplanted into immuno-compromised

More information

Cell division and mitosis

Cell division and mitosis Cell division and mitosis Universal functions of the cell cycle Replicate the DNA. Segregate it into daughter cells. Replicate and/or distribute organelles into daughter cells. Grow. The Cell Cycle Growth

More information

Lecture 14 - The cell cycle and cell death

Lecture 14 - The cell cycle and cell death 02.17.10 Lecture 14 - The cell cycle and cell death The cell cycle: cells duplicate their contents and divide The cell cycle may be divided into 4 phases The cell cycle triggers essential processes (DNA

More information

Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes ~ 4.6 -

Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes ~ 4.6 - Chapter 4 Cellular Oncogenes - 4.2 ~ 4.6 - Many retroviruses carrying oncogenes have been found in chickens and mice However, attempts undertaken during the 1970s to isolate viruses from most types of

More information

Basic tumor nomenclature

Basic tumor nomenclature Jonas Nilsson jonas.a.nilsson@surgery.gu.se Sahlgrenska Cancer Center Bilder gjorda av Per Holmfeldt och Jonas Nilsson Benign tumor Basic tumor nomenclature Malignant tumor = cancer Metastasis Carcinoma:

More information

Creating Identical Body Cells

Creating Identical Body Cells Creating Identical Body Cells 5.A Students will describe the stages of the cell cycle, including DNA replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms 5.D Students

More information

Molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer

Molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer Molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer Pr. Elisabeth Brambilla INSERM U823 Department of Pathology CHU Grenoble France Lung epithelial cells Carcinogen exposure genetic predisposition Auto- and paracrine

More information

Activation of cellular proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. How was active Ras identified?

Activation of cellular proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. How was active Ras identified? Dominant Acting Oncogenes Eugene E. Marcantonio, M.D. Ph.D. Oncogenes are altered forms of normal cellular genes called proto-oncogenes that are involved in pathways regulating cell growth, differentiation,

More information

Cell Signaling (III) Cell Cycle (I)

Cell Signaling (III) Cell Cycle (I) BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology Lecture 22: Cell Signaling (III) Cell Cycle (I) Chapter 15 BME42-620 Lecture 22, December 01, 2011 1 Comments on Reading Assignment 5 (I) I assume that this

More information

Viruses Tomasz Kordula, Ph.D.

Viruses Tomasz Kordula, Ph.D. Viruses Tomasz Kordula, Ph.D. Resources: Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, pp. 295, 1330, 1431 1433; Lehninger CD Movie A0002201. Learning Objectives: 1. Understand parasitic life cycle of

More information

Life Science 1A Final Exam. January 19, 2006

Life Science 1A Final Exam. January 19, 2006 ame: TF: Section Time Life Science 1A Final Exam January 19, 2006 Please write legibly in the space provided below each question. You may not use calculators on this exam. We prefer that you use non-erasable

More information

Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes by Professor Nigel Gooderham

Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes by Professor Nigel Gooderham Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes by Professor Nigel Gooderham The cancer cell phenotype includes disregard of signals to stop proliferating; disregard of signals to differentiate; capacity for sustained

More information

Section D. Genes whose Mutation can lead to Initiation

Section D. Genes whose Mutation can lead to Initiation This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

The Hallmarks of Cancer

The Hallmarks of Cancer The Hallmarks of Cancer Theresa L. Hodin, Ph.D. Clinical Research Services Theresa.Hodin@RoswellPark.org Hippocrates Cancer surgery, circa 1689 Cancer Surgery Today 1971: Nixon declares War on Cancer

More information

DNA Replication Stress as a Hallmark of Cancer

DNA Replication Stress as a Hallmark of Cancer Annu. Rev. Pathol. Mech. Dis. 2015. 10:425 48 The Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease is online at pathol.annualreviews.org This article s doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-012414-040424 Copyright

More information

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

Why do cells reproduce?

Why do cells reproduce? Outline Cell Reproduction 1. Overview of Cell Reproduction 2. Cell Reproduction in Prokaryotes 3. Cell Reproduction in Eukaryotes 1. Chromosomes 2. Cell Cycle 3. Mitosis and Cytokinesis Examples of Cell

More information

HST.161 Molecular Biology and Genetics in Modern Medicine Fall 2007

HST.161 Molecular Biology and Genetics in Modern Medicine Fall 2007 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu HST.161 Molecular Biology and Genetics in Modern Medicine Fall 2007 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

More information

7.012 Quiz 3 Answers

7.012 Quiz 3 Answers MIT Biology Department 7.012: Introductory Biology - Fall 2004 Instructors: Professor Eric Lander, Professor Robert A. Weinberg, Dr. Claudette Gardel Friday 11/12/04 7.012 Quiz 3 Answers A > 85 B 72-84

More information

Chapter 8 The Cell Cycle

Chapter 8 The Cell Cycle What molecule stores your genetic information or determines everything about you? DNA a nucleic acid How are DNA molecules arranged in the nucleus? As you can see DNA is: Chapter 8 The Cell Cycle 1. Arranged

More information

Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle the cell s life cycle that extends from one division to the next G1 phase, the first gap phase. S phase, synthesis phase

Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle the cell s life cycle that extends from one division to the next G1 phase, the first gap phase. S phase, synthesis phase Cell Cycle the cell s life cycle that extends from one division to the next G1 phase, the first gap phase Cell Cycle interval between cell division and DNA replication accumulates materials needed to replicate

More information

Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17

Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17 Agro/Ansc/Bio/Gene/Hort 305 Fall, 2017 MEDICAL GENETICS AND CANCER Chpt 24, Genetics by Brooker (lecture outline) #17 INTRODUCTION - Our genes underlie every aspect of human health, both in function and

More information

Dr Rodney Itaki Lecturer Anatomical Pathology Discipline. University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences Division of Pathology

Dr Rodney Itaki Lecturer Anatomical Pathology Discipline. University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences Division of Pathology Neoplasia Dr Rodney Itaki Lecturer Anatomical Pathology Discipline University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences Division of Pathology General Considerations Overview: Neoplasia uncontrolled,

More information

Origin of replication. Septum

Origin of replication. Septum Bacterial cell Bacterial chromosome: Double-stranded DNA Origin of replication Septum 1 2 3 Chromosome Rosettes of Chromatin Loops Chromatin Loop Solenoid Scaffold protein Scaffold protein Chromatin loop

More information

Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Ch. 19 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes BIOL 222 Differential Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Signal Cells in a multicellular eukaryotic organism genetically identical differential gene expression

More information

Cellular Signaling Pathways. Signaling Overview

Cellular Signaling Pathways. Signaling Overview Cellular Signaling Pathways Signaling Overview Signaling steps Synthesis and release of signaling molecules (ligands) by the signaling cell. Transport of the signal to the target cell Detection of the

More information

CARCINOGENESIS: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER

CARCINOGENESIS: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER CARCINOGENESIS: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER Nonlethal genetic damage lies at the heart of carcinogenesis. Mutation may be acquired by the action of environmental agents, such as chemicals, radiation,

More information

Breaking Up is Hard to Do (At Least in Eukaryotes) Mitosis

Breaking Up is Hard to Do (At Least in Eukaryotes) Mitosis Breaking Up is Hard to Do (At Least in Eukaryotes) Mitosis Prokaryotes Have a Simpler Cell Cycle Cell division in prokaryotes takes place in two stages, which together make up a simple cell cycle 1. Copy

More information

Name. A.P. Biology Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle

Name. A.P. Biology Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle A.P. Biology Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Name Living species MUST possess the ability to r if they are to flourish. The Cell Cycle follows the life of a cell from its o until its d. The Key Roles Of Cell

More information

Chapter 8 DNA Replication, Binary Fission, and Mitosis

Chapter 8 DNA Replication, Binary Fission, and Mitosis Chapter 8 DNA Replication, Binary Fission, and Mitosis World s tallest man Frederic J. Brown/AFP/Getty Images Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without

More information

Overview of the core ideas in cancer research

Overview of the core ideas in cancer research Overview of the core ideas in cancer research Paul Edwards Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge This lecture Overview of the ideas that provide the

More information

- A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells.

- A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells. 1 Cancer A. What is it? - A cancer is an uncontrolled, independent proliferation of robust, healthy cells. * In some the rate is fast; in others, slow; but in all cancers the cells never stop dividing.

More information

Mohammed El-Khateeb. Tumor Genetics. MGL-12 July 21 st 2013 台大農藝系遺傳學 Chapter 22 slide 1

Mohammed El-Khateeb. Tumor Genetics. MGL-12 July 21 st 2013 台大農藝系遺傳學 Chapter 22 slide 1 Mohammed El-Khateeb Tumor Genetics MGL-12 July 21 st 2013 台大農藝系遺傳學 601 20000 Chapter 22 slide 1 Cellular Basis of Cancer Cancer is a collection of diseases characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled growth

More information

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. Key Concepts in Chapter 12. Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division. Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development (time-lapse)

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. Key Concepts in Chapter 12. Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division. Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development (time-lapse) Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Dr. Wendy era Houston Community College Biology 1406 Key Concepts in Chapter 12 1. Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells. 2. The mitotic phase alternates

More information

Overview: Conducting the Genetic Orchestra Prokaryotes and eukaryotes alter gene expression in response to their changing environment

Overview: Conducting the Genetic Orchestra Prokaryotes and eukaryotes alter gene expression in response to their changing environment Overview: Conducting the Genetic Orchestra Prokaryotes and eukaryotes alter gene expression in response to their changing environment In multicellular eukaryotes, gene expression regulates development

More information

Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis

Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis The bcl-2 family proteins are involved in the response to apoptosis * pro-apoptotic: Bad, Bax or Bid cell death * anti-apoptotic: Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL cell survival

More information

Solution key Problem Set

Solution key Problem Set Solution key- 7.013 Problem Set 7-2013 Question 1 a) Neuronal path finding is crucial for structured cellular organization and development of neural circuits. The elongation or retraction of the growth

More information

Cell Birth and Death. Chapter Three

Cell Birth and Death. Chapter Three Cell Birth and Death Chapter Three Neurogenesis All neurons and glial cells begin in the neural tube Differentiated into neurons rather than ectoderm based on factors we have already discussed If these

More information

Drugging the addict: non-oncogene addiction as a target for cancer therapy

Drugging the addict: non-oncogene addiction as a target for cancer therapy Review Drugging the addict: non-oncogene addiction as a target for cancer therapy Remco Nagel, Ekaterina A Semenova & Anton Berns * Abstract Historically, cancers have been treated with chemotherapeutics

More information

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright

More information

Molecular Cell Biology Spring 2014, Michael Pavlov To read: relevant parts from chapters 20 and 25.

Molecular Cell Biology Spring 2014, Michael Pavlov To read: relevant parts from chapters 20 and 25. Molecular Cell Biology Spring 2014, Michael Pavlov To read: relevant parts from chapters 20 and 25. Lecture 10: Initiation of the Cell Cycle and its aberrations. Cip/Kip and Ink4 brake the cell cycle Inhibition

More information

Numbers in a Cell Population

Numbers in a Cell Population B. Control of Cell Number 1. Review of the mitotic cell cycle and cell death 2. Regulation of cell number and quality during mitosis 3. Regulation of cell type during mitosis Numbers in a Cell Population

More information