Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O. Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP. powers most cellular work. Heat energy

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1 Figure 9-01

2 LE 9-2 Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic + O molecules 2 powers most cellular work Heat energy

3 LE 9-UN161a becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron)

4 LE 9-UN161 becomes oxidized becomes reduced

5 LE 9-3 Products Reactants becomes oxidized CH4 2 O2 + CO2 C Energy 2 H2O + becomes reduced H H + H O O O C O H O H Methane (reducing agent) Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide Water H

6 LE 9-UN162a becomes oxidized becomes reduced

7 LE 9-UN162b Dehydrogenase

8 LE e + 2 H+ 2 e + H+ H+ NADH NAD+ Dehydrogenase + 2[H] (from food) Nicotinamide (oxidized form) + Nicotinamide (reduced form) H+

9 LE 9-5 H2 + 1/2 O2 + 2H 1 /2 O2 (from food via NADH) Free energy, G Explosive release of heat and light energy rt spo tran tron Elec Free energy, G 2 H+ + 2 e Controlled release of energy for synthesis of n chai 2 e /2 O2 1 2H + H2O Uncontrolled reaction H2O Cellular respiration

10 LE 9-5a Free energy, G H2 + 1/2 O2 Explosive release of heat and light energy H2O Uncontrolled reaction

11 LE 9-5b + 2H /2 O2 1 (from food via NADH) rt spo tran tron Elec Free energy, G 2 H+ + 2 e Controlled release of energy for synthesis of n chai 2 e 1 2H + H2O Cellular respiration /2 O2

12 LE 9-UN Glycolysis (color-coded teal throughout the chapter) 2. The citric (color-coded salmon) 3. Oxidation phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis (color-coded violet)

13 LE 9-6_1 Glycolysis Pyruvate Glucose Cytosol Mitochondrion Substrate-level phosphorylation

14 LE 9-6_2 Glycolysis Pyruvate Glucose Cytosol Mitochondrion Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate-level phosphorylation

15 LE 9-6_3 Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2 Electrons carried via NADH Glycolysis Pyruvate Glucose Cytosol Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis Mitochondrion Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation

16 LE 9-7 Enzyme Enzyme ADP P Substrate + Product

17 LE 9-8 Energy investment phase Glucose 2 used 2 ADP + 2 P Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation Energy payoff phase 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e + 4 H+ 4 formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O Net Glucose 4 formed 2 used 2 NAD+ + 4 e + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O 2 2 NADH + 2 H+

18 LE 9-9a_1 Glucose Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation

19 LE 9-9a_2 Glucose Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate Phosphoglucoisomerase Fructose-6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase ADP Fructose1, 6-bisphosphate Aldolase Isomerase Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation

20 LE 9-9b_1 2 NAD+ Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH + 2 H+ 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP Phosphoglycerokinase 2 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 2-Phosphoglycerate

21 LE 9-9b_2 2 NAD+ Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH + 2 H+ 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP Phosphoglycerokinase 2 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 2-Phosphoglycerate 2 H2O Enolase Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP Pyruvate kinase 2 Pyruvate

22 LE 9-10 MITOCHONDRION CYTOSOL NAD+ NADH + H+ Acetyl Co A Pyruvate Transport protein CO2 Coenzyme A

23 LE 9-11 Pyruvate (from glycolysis, 2 molecules per glucose) CO2 NAD+ NADH + H+ Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation CoA Acetyl CoA CoA CoA FADH2 2 CO2 3 NAD+ 3 NADH + 3 H+ FAD ADP + P i

24 LE 9-12_1 Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation Acetyl CoA H2O Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate

25 LE 9-12_2 Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation Acetyl CoA H2O Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate CO2 NAD+ NADH + H+ -Ketoglutarate NAD+ Succinyl CoA NADH + H+ CO2

26 LE 9-12_3 Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation Acetyl CoA H2O Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate CO2 NAD+ NADH + H+ Fumarate -Ketoglutarate FADH2 NAD+ FAD Succinate GTP GDP ADP Pi Succinyl CoA NADH + H+ CO2

27 LE 9-12_4 Glycolysis Oxidation phosphorylation Acetyl CoA NADH + H+ H2O NAD + Oxaloacetate Malate Citrate Isocitrate CO2 H2O NAD+ NADH + H+ Fumarate -Ketoglutarate FADH2 NAD+ FAD Succinate GTP GDP ADP Pi Succinyl CoA NADH + H+ CO2

28 LE 9-13 NADH 50 Free energy (G) relative to O2 (kcal/mol) FADH2 40 I FMN Multiprotein complexes FAD Fe S II Fe S Q III Cyt b 30 Fe S Cyt c1 Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis IV Cyt c Cyt a 20 Cyt a H+ + 1/2 O2 H2O

29 LE 9-14 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ A rotor within the membrane spins as shown when H+ flows past it down the H+ gradient. H+ A stator anchored in the membrane holds the knob stationary. A rod (or stalk ) extending into the knob also spins, activating catalytic sites in the knob. H+ ADP + Pi MITOCHONDRAL MATRIX Three catalytic sites in the stationary knob join inorganic phosphate to ADP to make.

30 LE 9-15 Inner mitochondrial membrane Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis H+ H+ H+ Intermembrane space H+ Cyt c Protein complex of electron carriers Q III I II FADH2 Inner mitochondrial membrane NADH + H+ IV synthase FAD 2H+ + 1/2 O2 H2O NAD+ Mitochondrial matrix ADP + P i (carrying electrons from food) H+ Electron transport chain Electron transport and pumping of protons (H+), Which create an H+ gradient across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation Chemiosmosis synthesis powered by the flow of H+ back across the membrane

31 LE 9-16 Electron shuttles span membrane CYTOSOL 2 NADH Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvate MITOCHONDRION 2 NADH or 2 FADH2 2 NADH 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 by substrate-level phosphorylation 6 NADH + 2 by substrate-level phosphorylation Maximum per glucose: About 36 or 38 2 FADH2 Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis + about 32 or 34 by oxidation phosphorylation, depending on which shuttle transports electrons form NADH in cytosol

32 LE 9-17a 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 Ethanol Alcohol fermentation 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 CO2 2 Acetaldehyde

33 LE 9-17b 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 Glycolysis 2 NAD+ 2 Lactate Lactic fermentation 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 CO2 2 Pyruvate

34 LE 9-18 Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O2 present Fermentation O2 present Cellular respiration MITOCHONDRION Ethanol or lactate Acetyl CoA

35 LE 9-19 Proteins Carbohydrates Amino s Sugars Glycerol Fatty s Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde-3- P NH3 Fats Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Oxidative phosphorylation

36 LE 9-20 Glucose Glycolysis Fructose-6-phosphate Inhibits AMP Stimulates + Phosphofructokinase Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Inhibits Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Oxidative phosphorylation Citrate

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