An Assessment of Carbohydrate Intake in Collegiate Distance Runners

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An Assessment of Carbohydrate Intake in Collegiate Distance Runners"

Transcription

1 International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 1995, 5, it 1995 Human Kinetics Publishers, inc. An Assessment of Carbohydrate Intake in Collegiate Distance Runners Jill A. Tanaka, Hirofumi Tanaka, and William Landis To determine the extent to which well-trained endurance athletes practice the dietary recommendations for maximizing muscle glycogen resynthesis, collegiate cross-country runners (14 males and 10 females) kept 4-day dietary and activity records during a training period and a competitive period in the regular cross-country season. The mean running mileages for men and women were 16.0 ± 1.0 and 10.7 ± 0.6 km/day during the training period and 14.6 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 0.5 km/day during the competitive period, respectively. Males reported adequate energy intake in both phases, whereas females fell short of the RDA. However, the percentage of calories from carbohydrate was found to be inadequate (<60%) for male runners. Although female runners derived 65-67% of calories from carbohydrate, the daily amount of carbohydrate taken was insufficient (<10 g/kg body weight). Carbohydrate was ingested immediately postexercise approximately 50% of the time or less, with even far less taken in suggested quantities (-1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight). There were no significant differences in dietary trends between training and competitive phases. The results suggest that these endurance athletes were not practicing the recommended feeding regimen for optimal muscle glycogen restoration. Key Words: exercise, nutrition, dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen It is well established that there is a significant relationship between muscle glycogen content and endurance capacity (2). Since muscle glycogen appears to be the major fuel both in competition and in daily training, the resynthesis of muscle glycogen is of primary importance for optimum endurance performance and training adaptations. A considerable amount of research (6, 13, 14) has been conducted in an attempt to design the optimum regimen for rapid repletion of muscle glycogen stores following strenuous exercise. It is recommended that, besides balancing daily energy intake with energy expenditure, endurance athletes who train exhaustively on successive days should consume a diet containing 60 to 70% of calories from carbohydrate or 10 g of carbohydrate/kg body weight/ day (5, 6, 21). In addition to the carbohydrate consumption in the daily diet, a J.A. Tanaka and W. Landis are with the Department of Home Economics, Ball State University, Muncie, IN H. Tanaka is with the Exercise Science Unit, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN Direct correspondence to H. Tanaka. 206

2 Carbohydrate Intake in Runners / -207 carbohydrate supplement of approximately 1 g/kg body weight should be consumed immediately after a glycogen-depleting exercise bout, especially during intensive training periods (13, 14). The continuation of supplementation every 2 hr will maintain a maximal rate of storage up to 6 hr after exercise (13, 14). Only when this regimen is carefully followed can muscle glycogen be resynthesized to at least preexercise levels within 24 hr of completion of strenuous exercise (13). A study by Costill et al. (4) suggested that endurance athletes experienced chronic muscle fatigue primarily because of depleted muscle glycogen, as a result of insufficient carbohydrate intake to match the energy demand of repeated days of intense training. This is in line with findings of Kirwan et al. (17), who reported a higher perceived exertion and lower running economy when endurance athletes consumed a moderate-carbohydrate diet. Thus, one can suspect that if an endurance athlete consumes an optimum amount of carbohydrate within the proper time frame, the risk of overtraining may be minimized due to maximized glycogen repletion. " Several studies (10, 24) have shown that few of today's endurance athletes consume adequate dietary carbohydrate. Likewise, it is suspected that most endurance athletes do not adhere to recommendations for maximizing muscle glycogen repletion immediately following exercise. Since no research has demonstrated whether endurance athletes practice the recommended carbohydrate feeding regimen, the primary purpose of this study was to compare collegiate cross-country runners' carbohydrate intakes with the dietary recommendations made to ensure maintenance of muscle glycogen levels. A unique aspect of this study was the special reference to carbohydrate intake immediately postexercise. Subjects Methods Intercollegiate male (n = 14) and female (n = 10) cross-country runners on a men's varsity team and a women's varsity team (NCAA Division I) served as subjects for this study. Prior to participation, the procedure was explained verbally and in writing, and informed consents were obtained in accordance with the procedures of the Institutional Review Board for Human Subjects. All the data were collected during the regular competitive cross-country season. The subject characteristics are shown in Table 1. Dietary Information Food intake records were used to collect dietary data for the regular cross-country season during a training period and during a competitive period, including an important racing day. A 4-day food record was chosen because 4 to 6 days are required to accurately quantify true average group macronutrient intake data (1). Moreover, I weekend day was included in the 4 days to obtain valid information on a group level (1). Less than a week before the first recording period, a registered dietitian gave each team standardized instructions on the procedures for completing the food intake records. The athletes were instructed to record the exact times of

3 208 / Tanaka, Tanaka, and Landis Table 1 Subject Characteristics Males (n = 14) Females (n = 10) Variable Al SE M SE Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) exercise and intake of any food or drink. The importance of accurately recording each food or beverage immediately after consumption was emphasized. Runners were asked to record supplements in a separate area on the food records. They were also instructed to follow their customary eating habits during recording days. At the end of the 4-day period for both occasions (training and competitive), the records were returned to a registered dietitian for review. When any information on the diet record was in question, clarification was immediately sought from the athlete via telephone. The dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content using Nutritionist IV (N-Squared Computing, Salem, OR). Carbohydrates consumed immediately postexercise were classified as glucose, fructose, sucrose, or other sugar (e.g., lactose or starch), based on the primary ingredient in each food/beverage. Only food and beverage sources of nutrients were included in the dietary analyses. When a food item was not available in the program, the food was broken down into its components. In cases where a subject recorded with uncertainty a food item eaten in the university's cafeteria, verification of portion sizes and ingredients was obtained via telephone from the food service managers. Moreover, to ensure consistency, all instructions and coding work were conducted by one investigator. During the 4-day recording periods, each athlete reported his or her daily running mileage along with the time of exercise, which was recorded on the same daily dietary intake records. Since the women performed deep water running once a week, their running mileage was assessed based on a mean of the days where land running was the sole mode of exercise. Statistical Analysis Standard descriptive statistics were used to calculate means and standard errors (SE). Test data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. When a significant F ratio was obtained, a post hoc test using Newman-Keuls procedure was used to further identify the difference among mean values. The level of significance was set at p <.05 in all comparisons. Results The mean running mileages for men were 16.0 ± 1.0 km/day in the training period and 14.6 ± 0.8 km/day in the competitive period. Most runners performed two or more bouts of running per day. The mean running mileages for women

4 Carbohydrate Intake in Runners / 209 were 10.7 ± 0.6 km/day in the training period and 8.7 ± 0.5 km/day in the competitive period. Daily energy-providing nutrient intakes are shown in Table 2. A significantly (p <.05) lower percentage of total calories was derived from carbohydrates among the men compared to the women in both phases. Unlike the females, male runners fell short of recommendations for carbohydrate intake (60-70%). Although female runners derived 65-67% of calories from carbohydrate, the daily amount of carbohydrate ingested was substantially lower than the recommended value (>10 g/kg/day) (19). When the carbohydrate intake was expressed in a fixed daily amount, male runners were closer to the recommendation than female runners (8 vs. 6 g/kg/day). Both males and females ingested significantly more simple carbohydrate during the training phase than during the competitive phase. Trends for postexercise carbohydrate ingestion are displayed in Table 3. Whereas females ingested carbohydrate approximately half of the time immediately postexercise, the males ingested carbohydrate less than 40% of the time during both phases. While the men had only a slight variation in frequency between training and competitive phases, the women ingested carbohydrate more often during the competitive phase. When the amounts of carbohydrate taken by these athletes were compared to amounts recommended (>1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) in the literature (13), less than a quarter of the time were the recommendations met during the training phase. Table 2 Mean (± SE) Daily Nutrient Intake of Male and Female Distance Runners Nutrient M SE Males M SE M SE Females M SE Energy (kcal)* 3, , , , (kcal/kg)* Total CHO (g)* (g/kg BW)* (% kcal)* Complex CHO (g)* Simple CHO (g)*# Protein (g)* (% kcal) Fat (g)* (% kcal)* Alcohol (g) Fiber (g)** *Males significantly different (p <.05) from females. # phase significantly different (p <.05) from competitive phase. **Males significantly different (p <.05) from females in training phase.

5 210 / Tanaka, Tanaka, and Landis As can be seen in Table 4, Combo (liquid and solid carbohydrate taken together, other than sources already used), such as cold cereal with milk, represented well over half of the carbohydrate forms consumed by the males immediately postexercise. Solids were the least ingested form of carbohydrate by males during both phases. In contrast, females preferentially consumed a solid form of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates with primary ingredients other glucose, fructose, and sucrose, including sweetened cereals and milk, doughnuts, and waffles, were the types selected most often by the men immediately postexercise. Similarly, other types of carbohydrate, mainly dry cereals and breads, were ingested by the women most often. While the male runners' next favorites were a relatively equal distribution of glucose and sucrose sources, such as bananas and sports drinks, the women's second choices were glucose and fructose, usually via sports bars and sports drinks. The men chose fructose the least often, and the women sucrose. Discussion The endurance athlete must balance daily energy intake with expenditure, as negative caloric balance can compromise successful muscle glycogen resynthesis. The male runners' mean energy intake was kcal/kg/day, which is very similar to the RDA of 58 kcal/kg/day for exceptionally active men. In contrast, kcal/kg/day, the female runners' mean energy intake, corresponds to the RDA for women whose activity is light to moderate. The inadequacy of caloric intake is in agreement with previous studies (7, 19) that have reported a negative caloric balance among female long-distance runners. This has been attributed to increased metabolic efficiency through aerobic exercise. Thompson et al. (23) reported a significantly lower 24-hr energy expenditure in endurance athletes with low energy intake than in athletes with adequate energy intake Table 3 Trends of Postexercise Carbohydrate Ingestion of Male and Female Distance Runners Males Females CHO intake immediately postexercise % of time CHO taken _ % of time recommended amounts of CHO were met' CHO intake at 2-hr intervals % of time CHO taken % of time recommended amounts of CHO were met' The recommended amount of CHO refers to?_ 1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight (14).

6 Carbohydrate Intake in Runners / 211 Table 4 Relative Percentages of the Forms and Types of Carbohydrate Ingested Immediately Postexercise in Distance Runners Males Females CHO forms Solid Liquid Combo CHO types Glucose Fructose Sucrose Other Note. Percentages include times in which the recommended amount of CHO 1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) (15) was not consumed as well. Combo represents both a solid and a liquid taken together, while Other represents a primary sugar besides those listed, such as lactose or starch. matched for lean body mass, body weight, and activity levels. However, Horton et al. (11), using trained female cyclists and lean controls, determined energy balance between energy expenditure measured with whole room indirect calorimetry and energy intake determined by a controlled feeding regimen. They found no significant difference in the energetic efficiency between the two groups. This is in line with findings of Edwards et al. (8), who compared dietary intake to energy expenditure using doubly labeled water. These results suggested that low caloric intake in female endurance athletes may have been the result of underreporting by the subjects. The prevalence of underreporting in the present study is difficult to determine since underreporting appears to be subconscious in nature. We cannot exclude the possibility that some female runners underreported their dietary intakes since underreporting is quite common in this weightconscious population (8). Along with adequate energy intake, the percentage of calories from carbohydrate should be approximately 60-70% to maintain muscle glycogen day to day (6, 21). The male runners in this study failed to ingest the recommended amount despite their adequate caloric intake. Unfortunately, when very high carbohydrate diets are practiced, the amount of food that should be ingested tends to exceed that required for satiety (5). Given the absolute amount of calories the male runners ingested, it seems likely that a feeling of fullness was responsible for their inadequate carbohydrate intake. Ellsworth et al. (9) reported that in a group of cross-country skiers, cafeteria eating at a training camp led to decreased carbohydrate intake because the food offered did not reflect personal choice. Interestingly, these skiers' overall intakes consisted of significantly greater amounts of carbohydrate when they ate on their

7 212 / Tanaka, Tanaka, and Landis own. The majority of the cross-country runners in the present study ate in the cafeteria, and it is possible that many of the athletes may have consumed more carbohydrates had more sources been available. Many studies have reported inadequate carbohydrate intake among female distance runners (7, 19). Surprisingly, the female runners in the present study ingested more than 65% of calories from carbohydrate in both phases. However, when carbohydrate intake was expressed in a fixed daily amount, their intake of 6.0 and 6.1 g/kg body weight/day was substantially lower than the amount recommended (<10 g/kg/day) in the literature (21). These results indicate that although the female distance runners in the present study chose carbohydrate as a primary energy source, they failed to meet the caloric requirements of this macronutrient, resulting from the lower total energy intake. Recently, Lamb et al. (18) reported no advantage of an 80% carbohydrate diet over 43% for maintaining strenuous swim training. The authors argued that a 43% carbohydrate diet provided a sufficient amount of carbohydrate to fully replenish muscle glycogen since the overall energy intake was high (18). These results suggest that the dietary recommendation for carbohydrate intake should be expressed as a daily amount of carbohydrate relative to body weight rather than as a percentage of energy from carbohydrate (21). Overall, no significant differences were found in carbohydrate intake between training and competitive phases. Both male and female cross-country runners failed to improve their diets in the competitive phase, when performance is highly regarded. The present finding is in line with other studies (15, 22) in which no significant differences were found in the carbohydrate intakes of endurance athletes between phases. Yet these investigators noted that calories from carbohydrate rose from an inadequate quantity to a desirable level, and their athletes were able to increase muscle glycogen resynthesis in a prerace period by increasing bread and fruit consumption. While bread consumption rose in both genders from the training period to the competitive period in the present investigation, the difference did not significantly affect carbohydrate adequacy. Carbohydrate intake immediately after exercise is important since the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis is enhanced during this time (14). In order for endurance athletes to fully replenish muscle glycogen stores on a daily basis, they not only must consume adequate calories consisting of 60-70% carbohydrate but also must follow a specific regimen in ingesting carbohydrates immediately after exercise. Ingesting carbohydrate in the quantity of approximately 1 g/kg body weight is suggested within the first 30 min following a bout of intense exercise (14). Slightly less than 40% of males and slightly more than 50% of females in the present study ingested carbohydrate immediately postexercise. In addition, the percentage of times carbohydrate was taken immediately in the recommended amounts was only about 20-25%. This trend was observed despite the fact that the athletic training rooms provide sports drinks for runners after practice. An overall grazing pattern was evident in the distance runners, as has been demonstrated in other studies (9, 12, 16). This nontraditional pattern of eating appears to allow athletes to meet their high energy demands without causing unwanted gastrointestinal distress. It seems that this frequent eating pattern would resemble the regimen for maximizing muscle glycogen resynthesis following exercise. Kirsch and von Ameln (16) reported that runners' and cyclists' average

8 Carbohydrate Intake in Runners / 213 frequency of intake was 8-10 times per day; the runners specifically showed a very low eating frequency the hour after training. Since heavy exercise tends to depress appetite immediately following the exercise bout, most endurance athletes would be less inclined to consume carbohydrate during a time critical for complete muscle glycogen repletion. These results suggest that coaches and trainers should encourage athletes to consume carbohydrate after intense exercise, along with providing these carbohydrate sources. While some studies (4, 5, 17) have reported beneficial effects of highcarbohydrate diets, other studies (18, 20, 21) do not support the hypothesis that reductions in dietary carbohydrate stores impair training adaptations or endurance performance. For example, Sherman et al. (20) recently reported that a highcarbohydrate diet had no significant benefit on training capability or exercise performance although it maintained muscle glycogen levels over 7 consecutive days of training. However, since dietary carbohydrate helps to maintain carbohydrate stores in the body and a high-carbohydrate diet does not impair endurance performance, endurance athletes should be advised to follow nutritional practices for maximizing muscle glycogen repletion, especially during intense training (20, 21). This investigation described dietary practices for endurance athletes. A unique aspect of this study was the examination of additional needs and strategies in respect to muscle glycogen repletion. Although it is uncertain whether these athletes were experiencing difficulties in maintaining normal exercise intensity or were experiencing a gradual deterioration in performance, it is evident that they were not following recommendations to maximize muscle glycogen stores. The results suggest that endurance athletes need to be educated on how to follow nutritional guidelines. Second, consistent support and encouragement by registered dietitians, coaches, and trainers are of great importance if athletes are to adhere to dietary practices on a regular basis. As these factors are implemented, following the dietary recommendations for reducing the risk of chronic fatigue, and thus promoting the change for optimal performance, may become a trend among endurance athletes. References 1. Basiotis, P.O.,. S.O. Welsh, F.J. Cronin, J.L. Kelsay, and W. Mertz. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J. Nutr. 117: , Bergstrom, J., L. Hemiansen, E. Hultman, and B. Saltin. Diet, muscle glycogen, and physical performance. Acta Physiol. Scand. 71: , Blair, S.N., N.M. Ellsworth, W.L. Haskell, M.P. Stern, J.N. Farquhar, and P.D. Wood. Comparison of nutrient intake in middle-aged men and women runners and controls. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 13: , Costill, D.L., M.G. Flynn, J.P. Kirwan, J.A. Houmard, J.B. Mitchell, R. Thomas, and S.H. Park. Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 20(3): , Costill, D.L., and J.M. Miller. Nutrition for endurance sport: Carbohydrate and fluid balance. Int. J. Sports Med. 1:2-14, Costill, D.L., W.M. Sherman, W.J. Fink, C. Maresh, M. Witten, and J.M. Miller. The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous running. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: , 1981.

9 214 / Tanaka, Tanaka, and Landis 7. Deuster, P.A., S.B. Kyle, P.B. Moser, R.A. Vigersky, A. Singh, and E.B. Schoomaker. Nutritional survey of highly trained women runners. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44: , Edwards, J.E., A.K. Linde, A.E. Mikesky, and J.M. Stager. Energy balance in highly trained female endurance runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25: , Ellsworth, N.M., B.F. Hewitt, and W.L. Haskell. Nutrient intake of elite male and female Nordic skiers. Physician Sportsmed. 13(2):78-92, Green, D.R., C. Gibbons, M. O'Toole, and W.B.O. Hiller. An evaluation of dietary intakes of triathletes: Are RDAs being met? J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 89: , l. Horton, T.J., H.J. Drougas, T.A. Sharp, L.R. Martinez, G.W. Reed, and J.O. Hill. Energy balance in endurance-trained female cyclists and untrained controls. J. Appl. Physiol. 76(5): , Houston, M.E. Diet, training, and sleep: A survey study of elite Canadian swimmers. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 5(3): , Ivy, J.L. Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise. Sports Med. 11(1):6-19, Ivy, J.L., M.C. Lee, J.T. Bronzinick, and MJ. Reed. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion. J. Appl. Physiol. 65: , Jensen, C.D., E.S. Zaltas, and J.H. Whittam. Dietary intakes of male endurance cyclists during training and racing. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 92(8): , Kirsch, K.A., and H. von Ameln. Feedings patterns of endurance athletes. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 47: , Kirwan, J.P., D.L. Costill, J.B. Mitchell, J.A. Houmard, M.G. Flynn, W.J. Fink, and J.D. Beltz. Carbohydrate balance in competitive runners during successive days of intense training. J. Appl. Physiol. 65(6): , Lamb, D.R., K.F. Rinehardt, R.L. Bartels, W.M. Sherman, and J.T. Snook. Dietary carbohydrate and intensity of interval swim training. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: , Pate, R.P., R.G. Sargent, C. Baldwin, and M.L. Burgess. Dietary intake of women runners. Int. J. Sports Med. 11: , Sherman, W.M., J.A. Doyle, D.R. Lamb, and R.H. Strauss. Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen, and exercise performance during 7 d of training. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57:27-31, Sherman, W.M., and G.S. Wimer. Insufficient carbohydrate during training: Does it impair athletic performance? Int. J. Sport Nutr. 1:28-44, Singh, A., P. Evans, K.L. Gallagher, and P.A. Deuster. Dietary intakes and biochemical profiles of nutritional status of ultramarathoners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25(3): , Thompson, J.L., M.M. Manore, J.S. Skinner, E. Ravussin, and M. Spraul. Daily energy expenditure in male endurance athletes with differing energy intakes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 27(3): , van Erp-Baart, A.M.J., R.A. Saris, R.A. Binkhorst, J.A. Vos, and J.W.H.. Elvers. Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes: Part 1. Energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Int. J. Sports Med. 10:S3-S10, 1989.

Dietary Intake of Female Collegiate Heavyweight Rowers

Dietary Intake of Female Collegiate Heavyweight Rowers International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 1995, 5, 225-231 0 1995 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Dietary Intake of Female Collegiate Heavyweight Rowers Suzanne Nelson Steen, Kirsten Mayer, Kelly D. Brownell,

More information

Food and Fluid Intake After Exercise

Food and Fluid Intake After Exercise Chapter 4 Food and Fluid Intake After Exercise When athletes finish a training session, nutrition is rarely the first thing on their minds. The intensity of the exercise often decreases appetite, so while

More information

SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE

SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE 70 VOLUME 11 (1998) SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE NUMBER 3 NUTRITION NEEDS FOR TEAM SPORT Clyde Williams, Ph.D. and Ceri W. Nicholas, Ph.D. Department of Physical Education, Sports Science and Recreation Management

More information

E n e r g y S o u r c e s

E n e r g y S o u r c e s 1 E n e r g y S o u r c e s When you turn the ignition key in your car, some source of fuel (gas, diesel, or fermented organic manure) must be delivered to the engine for it to fire. Even though the spark

More information

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Nutrition for the Athlete

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Nutrition for the Athlete Clinical Practice Guidelines: Nutrition for the Athlete DAILY MACRONUTRIENT AND ENERGY NEEDS Energy and macronutrient needs vary for each individual depending on the intensity, frequency, duration, and

More information

Chapter 1: Food, Nutrition, and Health Test Bank

Chapter 1: Food, Nutrition, and Health Test Bank Chapter 1: Food, Nutrition, and Health Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Promoting a health care service that improves diabetes management for the elderly in a community would assist in which of the following?

More information

AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF DIETARY INTAKE AND EXPENDITURE OF SPRINTERS AND MARATHONERS

AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF DIETARY INTAKE AND EXPENDITURE OF SPRINTERS AND MARATHONERS AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF DIETARY INTAKE AND EXPENDITURE OF SPRINTERS AND MARATHONERS 1 JAGTAR SINGH 2 BALJINDER SINGH 1 Asst. prof. SGGS College sec-26 Chandigarh, India 2 Asst. Prof G.H.G Khalsa College

More information

INTRODUCING HERBALIFE24. PROLONG Sustain performance with an isotonic carbohydrate-protein drink mix

INTRODUCING HERBALIFE24. PROLONG Sustain performance with an isotonic carbohydrate-protein drink mix INTRODUCING HERBALIFE24 PROLONG Sustain performance with an isotonic carbohydrate-protein drink mix 1 24-Hour Nutrition Line Nutrition extends beyond pre, during and post workout HERBALIFE24 PRODUCT LINE

More information

Nutritional Suggestions for Taekwon-Do Training (Part 2: Carbohydrates) By Boosabumnim Sanko Lewis

Nutritional Suggestions for Taekwon-Do Training (Part 2: Carbohydrates) By Boosabumnim Sanko Lewis Nutritional Suggestions for Taekwon-Do Training (Part 2: Carbohydrates) By Boosabumnim Sanko Lewis The main source used for this article is The Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition by Anita Bean (2003).

More information

Performance Nutrition: Translating Recommendations into Practice. Jacqueline Scaramella, MS, RD Sports Dietitian

Performance Nutrition: Translating Recommendations into Practice. Jacqueline Scaramella, MS, RD Sports Dietitian Performance Nutrition: Translating Recommendations into Practice Jacqueline Scaramella, MS, RD Sports Dietitian Topics Covered Athlete Plates Fueling Training Optimizing Hydration Recovery Nutrition Pediatric

More information

FOODS & FLUIDS FOR EXPLOSIVE POWER SPORTS

FOODS & FLUIDS FOR EXPLOSIVE POWER SPORTS FOODS & FLUIDS FOR EXPLOSIVE POWER SPORTS FUELING ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE FUELING ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE FOODS & FLUIDS FOR EXPLOSIVE POWER SPORTS Explosive power sports require an all-out effort. Jumping,

More information

Syllabus. Mar 19 7:45 AM. Critical Question 3 Big Heading: How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance?

Syllabus. Mar 19 7:45 AM. Critical Question 3 Big Heading: How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance? Syllabus Critical Question 3 Big Heading: How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance? Undertaking physical activity alters a person s need for energy, nutrients and fluids. By understanding

More information

Monitoring AFL Footballers and Training Load

Monitoring AFL Footballers and Training Load Monitoring AFL Footballers and Training Load David Buttifant Collingwood Football Club Australian Rules Football imposes a significant physiological load on the player. The physiological demands on AFL

More information

Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the frequency of carbohydrate feedings13

Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the frequency of carbohydrate feedings13 Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the frequency of carbohydrate feedings13 Louise M Burke, Gregory R Collier, Peter G Davis, Peter A Fricker, Andrew J Sanigorski, and Mark Hargreaves

More information

Running Threshold VO2 max Test Results

Running Threshold VO2 max Test Results Running Threshold VO2 max Test Results Peak Centre for Human Performance 1565 Maple Grove Rd Kanata, ON 613-737-7325 www.peakcentre.ca PERSONAL INFORMATION Name: Kristin Marvin Weight: 158.0 lbs Date:

More information

PROPER NUTRITION FOR ATHLETES: THE MISSING LINK

PROPER NUTRITION FOR ATHLETES: THE MISSING LINK Keynote Presentation at the 7 th SCSEPF Annual Conference PROPER NUTRITION FOR ATHLETES: THE MISSING LINK Nancy Clark Sports Nutrition Services, Healthworks Fitness Center, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts,

More information

Endurance and Ultra-endurance Athletes

Endurance and Ultra-endurance Athletes 26575_CH12_360-397.qxd 9/21/05 12:04 PM Page 360 Jones and Bartlett Publishers. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 12 Endurance and Ultra-endurance Athletes What is different about endurance athletes? What

More information

Take FORMULA 1 SPORT as a healthy meal or a snack any time during the day.

Take FORMULA 1 SPORT as a healthy meal or a snack any time during the day. FORMULA 1 SPORT HEALTHY MEAL FOR ATHLETES Gain confidence from your pre-competition nourishment. Balanced with carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, Formula 1 Sport establishes a solid nutritional

More information

TRUTH: On average, Canadians consume 11% of energy from added sugars, and consumption has been declining

TRUTH: On average, Canadians consume 11% of energy from added sugars, and consumption has been declining Uncover the truth about sugar: consumption Myth: Canadians are eating more and more sugar TRUTH: On average, Canadians consume 11% of energy from added sugars, and consumption has been declining Three

More information

How to boost performance in your players:

How to boost performance in your players: The traditional eating habits of footballers have been extremely poor, with a pint of lager and a curry making up their post match meal. However, now that many clubs have their own nutritionists, players

More information

Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete Andy Gunsaullus, MSc, CSCS, CISSN

Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete Andy Gunsaullus, MSc, CSCS, CISSN Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete Andy Gunsaullus, MSc, CSCS, CISSN Let s set some goals for today s talk Remove the fear of poor nutrition choices Dispel some sports nutrition myths Talk in

More information

Sheri R. Colberg, PhD, FACSM. Professor Emerita, Exercise Science Old Dominion University

Sheri R. Colberg, PhD, FACSM. Professor Emerita, Exercise Science Old Dominion University Sheri R. Colberg, PhD, FACSM Professor Emerita, Exercise Science Old Dominion University Issues for Discussion Optimal macronutrient distribution in diet Role of carbohydrates Role of protein Role of fat

More information

Lesson 14.1 THE BASICS OF SPORT NUTRITION

Lesson 14.1 THE BASICS OF SPORT NUTRITION Lesson 14.1 THE BASICS OF SPORT NUTRITION ~ ~ ~ TOPICS COVERED IN THIS LESSON (a) Macronutrients and Micronutrients (b) Dietary Fats: The Good and the Bad 2015 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. 1 Nutrients

More information

The Effects of Carbohydrate Loading on Muscle Glycogen Content and Cycling Performance

The Effects of Carbohydrate Loading on Muscle Glycogen Content and Cycling Performance International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 1995, 5, 25-36 O 1995 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. The Effects of Carbohydrate Loading on Muscle Glycogen Content and Cycling Performance Laurie H.G. Rauch,

More information

Unit 5 SPORTS NUTRITION Nutrition Lecture Notes

Unit 5 SPORTS NUTRITION Nutrition Lecture Notes Unit 5 SPORTS NUTRITION Nutrition Lecture Notes I. Introduction A. Proper nutrition is a vital consideration for athletes who seek to maximize their performance. B. Just as using the proper gasoline, oil,

More information

TRAINING NUTRITION MORNING FUEL ON THE GO FEEDING CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE SWEAT RATE RECOVERY

TRAINING NUTRITION MORNING FUEL ON THE GO FEEDING CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE SWEAT RATE RECOVERY TRAINING NUTRITION All you need to know about your nutritional needs before, during and after a half-marathon. Running a half marathon is demanding and a must for those with the goal of completing a full

More information

DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE AND PERFORMANCE OF BRIEF, INTENSE EXERCISE

DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE AND PERFORMANCE OF BRIEF, INTENSE EXERCISE S p o rts Science Exchange 79 Janet Walberg Rankin, Ph.D. Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise Virginia Tech Blacksburg, Virginia KEY POINTS A high-intensity exercise bout uses carbohydrate

More information

SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON CARBOHYDRATES AND EXERCISE

SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON CARBOHYDRATES AND EXERCISE SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON CARBOHYDRATES AND EXERCISE Dr Javier Gonzalez Department for Health, University of Bath, UK. j.t.gonzalez@bath.ac.uk Van Loon (2012) Energy Stores FAT: >100,000 kcal Van Loon (2012)

More information

Carbohydrate-loading diet By Mayo Clinic staff

Carbohydrate-loading diet By Mayo Clinic staff Definition Carbohydrate-loading diet By Mayo Clinic staff A carbohydrate-loading diet, also called a carb-loading diet, is a strategy to increase the amount of fuel stored in your muscles to improve athletic

More information

One of the building blocks of quality training is good nutrition. Every swimmer and parent needs to be aware of the following two points:

One of the building blocks of quality training is good nutrition. Every swimmer and parent needs to be aware of the following two points: PAGE 1 NUTRITION TIPS, FROM USA SWIMMING, AND COACH WATSON One of the building blocks of quality training is good nutrition. Every swimmer and parent needs to be aware of the following two points: 1. Food

More information

The following diet is suitable for a 70kg athlete aiming to carbohydrate load:

The following diet is suitable for a 70kg athlete aiming to carbohydrate load: Carbohydrate loading' is probably one of the most misunderstood terms in sports nutrition. People commonly think anyone involved in sport needs to 'carb up' and the way to do this is to eat 'flat out'

More information

Nutrient Intake of Elite Canadian and American Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury

Nutrient Intake of Elite Canadian and American Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Original Research Nutrient Intake of Elite Canadian and American Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury HEATHER R. GERRISH* 1, ELIZABETH BROAD 2, MELISSA LACROIX 3, DANA OGAN 1, ROBERT C. PRITCHETT 1, and KELLY

More information

1. How many calories do I need to eat if I want to maintain my current weight? Example for a 200 pound athlete who practices for 3 hours per day:

1. How many calories do I need to eat if I want to maintain my current weight? Example for a 200 pound athlete who practices for 3 hours per day: Nutrition Questions: 1. How many calories do I need to eat if I want to maintain my current weight? Step 1 Calculate your basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimal number of calories your body needs just

More information

Abstract. As competition increases, athletes continue to look for ways to gain a competitive edge. A

Abstract. As competition increases, athletes continue to look for ways to gain a competitive edge. A Nutrition Knowledge 2 Abstract As competition increases, athletes continue to look for ways to gain a competitive edge. A review of the sources reveals that athletes lack nutritional knowledge; this could

More information

Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance Nutrients 212, 4, 625-637; doi:1.339/nu47625 Article OPEN ACCESS nutrients ISSN 272-6643 www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate

More information

Weekly Questions for Dieters

Weekly Questions for Dieters Weekly Questions for Dieters In this document, you will find a schedule of questions that you, the coach, should ask your dieter during their time on the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method. First and foremost,

More information

How does the lifestyle and training of a sportsperson such as Mo Farrah help improve their performance? Health, training and exercise.

How does the lifestyle and training of a sportsperson such as Mo Farrah help improve their performance? Health, training and exercise. How does the lifestyle and training of a sportsperson such as Mo Farrah help improve their performance? Health, training and exercise GCSE Physical Education To answer the big question you will need to

More information

Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: The Influences of Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation During Endurance Exercise

Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: The Influences of Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation During Endurance Exercise University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 8-2011 Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: The Influences of Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

More information

UCLA Nutrition Bytes. Title. Permalink. Journal ISSN. Author. Publication Date

UCLA Nutrition Bytes. Title. Permalink. Journal ISSN. Author. Publication Date UCLA Nutrition Bytes Title Whey Protein- The Role of Protein Supplementation in Resistance Training Permalink https://escholarship.org/uc/item/07p2v5wd Journal Nutrition Bytes, 10(2) ISSN 1548-601X Author

More information

How to be a successful Tour de Cure cyclist with diabetes

How to be a successful Tour de Cure cyclist with diabetes How to be a successful Tour de Cure cyclist with diabetes Presented by TeamWILD Athletics: Set a Goal. Join Our Team. Change Your Life. Message from Mari Ruddy Founder of the Red Rider Recognition Program

More information

Carbohydrate (CHO) loading does improve endurance performance.

Carbohydrate (CHO) loading does improve endurance performance. BPK 312 Nutrition for Fitness and Sport Carbohydrate (CHO) loading does improve endurance performance. Rey Arcega, Danielle Contreras, Jason Orey P-CP Presentations April 04, 2017 1 Roadmap of Debate Carbohydrate

More information

Nutrition Guide for the Athlete

Nutrition Guide for the Athlete Nutrition Guide for the Athlete Do athletes need to follow a special diet? No, but they need to follow the basic guidelines for healthy eating with more discipline compared to a non-athlete. Proper nourishment

More information

BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION AT SELECTED OF OLYMPIC MODES WEIGHTLIFTING

BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION AT SELECTED OF OLYMPIC MODES WEIGHTLIFTING Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2001; 45 (2) : 239-244 BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION AT SELECTED OF OLYMPIC MODES WEIGHTLIFTING SUBIR GUPTA* AND ASIS GOSWAMI**,*Department of Physiology, P.S Medical College,

More information

Coaching Applications

Coaching Applications Coaching Applications The effects of ten weeks block and reverse periodization training on swimming performance and body composition of moderately trained female swimmers. Arroyo- Toledo, J.J. 1 Clemente,

More information

Athlete: IRONMAN Race Day Strategy and Nutrition Plan

Athlete: IRONMAN Race Day Strategy and Nutrition Plan Athlete: IRONMAN Race Day Strategy and Nutrition Plan The Peak Period The two most important elements of the Peak Period are intensity and recovery. Because of the reduced volume during this period, it

More information

ENERGY. The energy content of various foods can be measured in two ways: a. by calorimetry or b. by proximate composition.

ENERGY. The energy content of various foods can be measured in two ways: a. by calorimetry or b. by proximate composition. ENERGY 1 Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Energy exists in several forms. The forms of energy important in nutrition are: 1. Chemical energy in food. 2. Light or solar energy for synthesis

More information

Over the past 20 years, research has clearly documented

Over the past 20 years, research has clearly documented Nutrition and Athletic Performance ABSTRACT It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance,

More information

Chapter 11. Nutrition and Fitness. Karen Schuster Florida Community College of Jacksonville. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation created by

Chapter 11. Nutrition and Fitness. Karen Schuster Florida Community College of Jacksonville. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation created by Chapter 11 Nutrition and Fitness PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation created by Karen Schuster Florida Community College of Jacksonville Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson

More information

100 YEARS OF INNOVATION

100 YEARS OF INNOVATION SPORTS NUTRITION 100 YEARS OF INNOVATION by Dr. Shaklee and the Company He Founded FIRST MULTIVITAMIN IN THE UNITED STATES More than half a century ago, Dr. Shaklee created one of the first soy protein

More information

Coaching Applications Training Zones Revisited

Coaching Applications Training Zones Revisited J. Swimming Research, Vol. 19:2 (2012) Coaching Applications Ernest W. Maglischo, Ph.D. 1970 Lazy Meadow Lane Prescott, AZ 86303 USA ewmaglischo@cox.net Abstract The purpose of this paper will be to describe

More information

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes Bob Seebohar, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS Sport Dietitian USAT Level III Coach

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes Bob Seebohar, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS Sport Dietitian USAT Level III Coach Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes Bob Seebohar, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS Sport Dietitian USAT Level III Coach Bob Seebohar, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS BS-Exercise and Sport Science MS-Health and Exercise Science MS-Food

More information

Your Metabolism: Facts and Fables. David C. Nieman, DrPH, FACSM Appalachian State University, NCRC, Human Performance Lab

Your Metabolism: Facts and Fables. David C. Nieman, DrPH, FACSM Appalachian State University, NCRC, Human Performance Lab Your Metabolism: Facts and Fables David C. Nieman, DrPH, FACSM Appalachian State University, NCRC, Human Performance Lab niemandc@appstate.edu Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) Description The basal metabolic

More information

Training quantity and quality. Maximum is not always optimum!

Training quantity and quality. Maximum is not always optimum! Training quantity and quality Thor S. Nilsen Maximum is not always optimum! Coaches Conference Irland October 2014 1 How much can you train? 2 We have World Champions training 650 to 1500 hours a year!

More information

Persistent Fatigue in a Female Sprint Cyclist After a Talent-Transfer Initiative

Persistent Fatigue in a Female Sprint Cyclist After a Talent-Transfer Initiative International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2006;1:65-69 2006 Human Kinetics, Inc. Persistent Fatigue in a Female Sprint Cyclist After a Talent-Transfer Initiative Shona Halson, David T.

More information

PAPER Regulation of macronutrient balance in healthy young and older men

PAPER Regulation of macronutrient balance in healthy young and older men (2001) 25, 1497 1502 ß 2001 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 0307 0565/01 $15.00 www.nature.com/ijo PAPER Regulation of macronutrient balance in healthy young and older men KP Davy 1 3 *, T

More information

What We ll Cover: Training for Performance

What We ll Cover: Training for Performance Dr. Chet Zelasko The information provided in this presentation is for educational purposes only it is not meant to diagnose, treat, or cure any disease. If you have any questions about the information,

More information

Middle distance triathlon Nutrition guide. An overview of the scientific literature and its application

Middle distance triathlon Nutrition guide. An overview of the scientific literature and its application Middle distance triathlon Nutrition guide An overview of the scientific literature and its application Half Distance Triathlon Nutrition Guide Nutrition guide For a half distance triathlon or other 4 to

More information

Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading

Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 3(1): 28-34, 2006. (www.theissn.org) Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading Jennifer Wismann and Darryn Willoughby

More information

REVIEW ARTICLE INTRODUCTION

REVIEW ARTICLE INTRODUCTION REVIEW ARTICLE Carbohydrate Intake During Exercise and Performance Asker E. Jeukendrup, PhD From the Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston,

More information

Branched Chain Amino Acid, Leucine: The Effects of Leucine on Skeletal Tissue in Relation to Aerobic Exercise. Shea Teresi. For

Branched Chain Amino Acid, Leucine: The Effects of Leucine on Skeletal Tissue in Relation to Aerobic Exercise. Shea Teresi. For Branched Chain Amino Acid, Leucine: The Effects of Leucine on Skeletal Tissue in Relation to Aerobic Exercise By Shea Teresi For Dr. William R. Proulx, RD Associate Professor of Nutrition & Dietetics In

More information

MTE 4 and 9 Macronutrient Mix: Ideal Intake vs. Real-World Eating? References:

MTE 4 and 9 Macronutrient Mix: Ideal Intake vs. Real-World Eating? References: MTE 4 and 9 Macronutrient Mix: Ideal Intake vs. Real-World Eating? Bayview Room, Bay Level Marion J. Franz, MS, RDN, CDE Saturday, March 5, 2016 2:00 p.m. 3:30 p.m. and 3:45 p.m. 5:15 p.m. Research trials

More information

Effect of different types of carbohydrate supplementation on glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle

Effect of different types of carbohydrate supplementation on glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle Effect of different types of carbohydrate supplementation on glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle Tomohiro SONOU 1), Shin TERADA 2), Michiyo KIMURA 3), Isao MURAOKA 4), Yoshio NAKAMURA 4),

More information

IFA Sports Nutrition Certification Test Answer Form

IFA Sports Nutrition Certification Test Answer Form IFA Sports Nutrition Certification Test Answer Form In order to receive your certification card, take the following test and mail this single page answer sheet in with your check or money order in US funds.

More information

GLYCOGEN DEPLETION AND REPLETION IN THE HORSE POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR IN PERFORMANCE (REVIEW)

GLYCOGEN DEPLETION AND REPLETION IN THE HORSE POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR IN PERFORMANCE (REVIEW) A.J. Davie et al. 509 GLYCOGEN DEPLETION AND REPLETION IN THE HORSE POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR IN PERFORMANCE (REVIEW) A.J. DAVIE, D. L. EVANS, D. R. HODGSON AND R. J. ROSE The University of Sydney, Australia

More information

MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER (VO 2max /VO 2peak ) Application to Training and Performance

MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER (VO 2max /VO 2peak ) Application to Training and Performance MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER (VO 2max /VO 2peak ) Application to Training and Performance Presented by Coaching and Sports Science Division of the United States Olympic Committee Revised July 2004 MAXIMAL AEROBIC

More information

The effect of nutritional strategy on the distance covered during a simulated Sportive-like event

The effect of nutritional strategy on the distance covered during a simulated Sportive-like event Go Further Research Study Page 1 The effect of nutritional strategy on the distance covered during a simulated Sportive-like event Introduction The performance advantage gained by ingestion of carbohydrate

More information

NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR WEIGHT LOSS. Paul Blakeslee RD, LD, CNSC September 17 th 2017

NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR WEIGHT LOSS. Paul Blakeslee RD, LD, CNSC September 17 th 2017 NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR WEIGHT LOSS Paul Blakeslee RD, LD, CNSC September 17 th 2017 Disclosures None. Objectives Compare and contrast popular diets and evidenced based diets as part of a patients

More information

Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample

Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Food Science 2 (2013 ) 68 74 36 th National Nutrient Databank Conference Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative

More information

Chapter 14 Nutrition in Physical Activity Fitness What is fitness? Are you physically fit? The characteristics that enable the body to perform

Chapter 14 Nutrition in Physical Activity Fitness What is fitness? Are you physically fit? The characteristics that enable the body to perform Chapter 14 Nutrition in Physical Activity Fitness What is fitness? Are you physically fit? The characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity The ability to meet routine physical demands

More information

Advanced Exercise Nutrition

Advanced Exercise Nutrition Advanced Exercise Nutrition Version 1.1 Marie Dunford, PhD, RD Human Kinetics Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN: 0-7360-7235-7 9780-7360-7235-9 Copyright 2007 by Human Kinetics, Inc.

More information

PROTEIN. Lesson Objectives. Protein s Role in the Body = Building 8/25/2014. NUTR 2030 Principles of Human Nutrition

PROTEIN. Lesson Objectives. Protein s Role in the Body = Building 8/25/2014. NUTR 2030 Principles of Human Nutrition PROTEIN NUTR 2030 Principles of Human Nutrition Mrs. Deborah A. Hutcheon, MS, RD, LD Lesson Objectives At the end of the lesson, the student will be able to: 1. Identify the structure & functions of protein.

More information

Bulking Up. The Warfighter Nutrition Guide. Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS. Teresa Kemmer, PhD, RD. Lori Tubbs, MS, RD.

Bulking Up. The Warfighter Nutrition Guide. Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS. Teresa Kemmer, PhD, RD. Lori Tubbs, MS, RD. The Warfighter Nutrition Guide 10 Bulking Up Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS Teresa Kemmer, PhD, RD Lori Tubbs, MS, RD Stacey Zeno, MS Christiane Minnick, M.Ac 10 Bulking Up In This Chapter Benefits

More information

Diagnostic exercise tests and treatment options in McArdle disease

Diagnostic exercise tests and treatment options in McArdle disease Diagnostic exercise tests and treatment options in McArdle disease John Vissing Neuromuscular Clinic and Research Unit, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Exercise

More information

HIGH SCHOOL HEALTH 2

HIGH SCHOOL HEALTH 2 HIGH SCHOOL HEALTH 2 CONTENTS I. BENEFITS OF PROPER NUTRITION.............. 2 Nutrition.......................................... 2 Vitamins and Mineral Sources......................... 10 II. DEVELOPING

More information

Conflict of Interest Statement. I have no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this presentation.

Conflict of Interest Statement. I have no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this presentation. Conflict of Interest Statement I have no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this presentation. Tapering and peaking for optimal performance in team sports What is a taper? Contents

More information

Carbohydrates & Exercise

Carbohydrates & Exercise Carbohydrates & Exercise FCS 608 Fall 2010 Presented by: Armen Hovsepian Brian Mitchell Sandra Salute Vagram Sulukyan History India, circa 300 A.D. Sanskrit su = sweet gar = sand Egypt, circa 640 A.D.

More information

Biochemical Society Transactions

Biochemical Society Transactions Biochemical Society Transactions 362 ma1 conditions for the control of key biosynthetic processes during proliferation [ 18, 191. In addition, the link between muscle and brain, and muscle and immune cells,

More information

Food for Thought: Children s Diets in the 1990s. March Philip Gleason Carol Suitor

Food for Thought: Children s Diets in the 1990s. March Philip Gleason Carol Suitor Food for Thought: Children s Diets in the 1990s March 2001 Philip Gleason Carol Suitor Food for Thought: Children s Diets in the 1990s March 2001 Philip Gleason Carol Suitor P.O. Box 2393 Princeton, NJ

More information

Foundations of Personal Fitness. Chapter 4 Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness

Foundations of Personal Fitness. Chapter 4 Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness Foundations of Personal Fitness Chapter 4 Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness Lesson 1: The Importance of Nutrition Healthful Eating Taking in the proper amount of nutrients each day Nutrients substances

More information

Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post-exercise: Part I

Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post-exercise: Part I REVIEW ARTICLE Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post-exercise: Part I HH Wright (MSc Dietetics, PhD Nutrition) 1 A Claassen (BSc (Hons) Dietetics, BSc (Med) (Hons) Exercise Science)

More information

3 Day Diet Analysis for Nutrition 219

3 Day Diet Analysis for Nutrition 219 Name 3 Day Diet Analysis for Nutrition 219 Keep a record of everything you eat and drink for 3 days. Be specific. Was it white or wheat bread, 1% or 2% milk, 1 cup or 1½ cups, did you fry it in oil or

More information

Banana (Musa sapientum var. Cavendish) Flour As Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Bakery Products

Banana (Musa sapientum var. Cavendish) Flour As Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Bakery Products Banana (Musa sapientum var. Cavendish) Flour As Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Bakery Products Maria Ligaya T. Braganza, Ed.D.* School of Food Science and Technology The Philippine Women s University

More information

ENERGY ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION ENERGY BALANCE. Neutral. Positive. Negative

ENERGY ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION ENERGY BALANCE. Neutral. Positive. Negative ENERGY ANALYSIS ENERGY BALANCE DESCRIPTION Neutral -------- If the amount of energy in food intake exactly equals the amount of energy expended by the muscles in performing external work and internal functioning,

More information

Body Composition and Weight Control. Geraldine NG, Dietitian, Dietetics Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Body Composition and Weight Control. Geraldine NG, Dietitian, Dietetics Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Body Composition and Weight Control Geraldine NG, Dietitian, Dietetics Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Body Composition Assessment of Body Size Body Mass Index Waist Circumference Waist-to-Hip Ratio

More information

Good nutrition can reduce the risk of developing many preventable diseases! Nutrition is a cornerstone of health.

Good nutrition can reduce the risk of developing many preventable diseases! Nutrition is a cornerstone of health. Healthy Eating Tips Why is a Healthy Diet so Important? A) Prevent Disease Risks Did you know that many chronic diseases are preventable? This includes conditions such as:» Heart Disease» Strokes» Diabetes»

More information

Carbohydrates. Sugars, Starches, and Fibers. Chapter 4

Carbohydrates. Sugars, Starches, and Fibers. Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Chapter 4 Introduction Brain Glucose Muscles Glucose Glycogen Fat Sources of carbohydrates Whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, milk Fattening mistaken

More information

Polarized Training Striking a Balance Between High-Volume and High-Intensity Training

Polarized Training Striking a Balance Between High-Volume and High-Intensity Training Polarized Training Striking a Balance Between High-Volume and High-Intensity Training Frankie TAN, PhD Senior Sports Physiologist Singapore Sports Institute 1 Introduction Exercise intensity and its distribution

More information

ADVANCED NUTRITION GUIDE FOR STRONGER SPORTIVE. FREE Guide! For beginner to. Guides for more sports:

ADVANCED NUTRITION GUIDE FOR STRONGER SPORTIVE. FREE Guide! For beginner to. Guides for more sports: ADVANCED NUTRITION GUIDE FOR STRONGER SPORTIVE FREE Guide! pro For beginner to Guides for more sports: www.highfive.co.uk WHY USE SPORTS NUTRITION? Sports nutrition is designed to: l Help you ride faster,

More information

The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition A Narrative Review

The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition A Narrative Review Review Article The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition A Narrative Review ALEX LEAF 1, and JOSE ANTONIO 2 1 Human Nutrition and Functional Medicine, University

More information

Florida State University Libraries

Florida State University Libraries Florida State University Libraries Faculty Publications Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences 2014 Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on

More information

SUPER Carbs A New Source of Fuel for Ultrarunners? By Sunny Blende, MS, Sports Nutritionist

SUPER Carbs A New Source of Fuel for Ultrarunners? By Sunny Blende, MS, Sports Nutritionist SUPER Carbs A New Source of Fuel for Ultrarunners? By Sunny Blende, MS, Sports Nutritionist Faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, able to leap tall mountains (or at least large

More information

NUTRITION AND ATHLETE HEALTH

NUTRITION AND ATHLETE HEALTH PART 1 NUTRITION AND ATHLETE HEALTH The sport of athletics includes a wide range of events whose requirements range from speed to endurance, from a light physique to explosive power, and from multiple

More information

Restoration. Introduction METABOLISM. Greater the load, greater the recovery Identify common stressors Strategies to enhance recovery

Restoration. Introduction METABOLISM. Greater the load, greater the recovery Identify common stressors Strategies to enhance recovery Restoration Jack Ransone PhD, ATC, FACSM Texas State University ransone@txstate.edu 1932 Los Angeles Introduction Greater the load, greater the recovery Identify common stressors Strategies to enhance

More information

SUSTAGEN HOSPITAL FORMULA

SUSTAGEN HOSPITAL FORMULA SUSTAGEN HOSPITAL FORMULA Terry White Chemists Training 2016 SUSTAGEN Hospital Formula is a formulated meal replacement and cannot be used as a total diet replacement. Nutritional supplements can only

More information

Nutrition Notes website.notebook October 19, Nutrition

Nutrition Notes website.notebook October 19, Nutrition Nutrition Nutrition Notes website.notebook October 19, 2016 Food is any substance that is ingested ("eaten") and helps sustain life. Food categories: Meats and Alternative Dairy Products Fruits and Vegetables

More information

OVERALL DIET QUALITY OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

OVERALL DIET QUALITY OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETES University of Kentucky UKnowledge Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition Dietetics and Human Nutrition 2013 OVERALL DIET QUALITY OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETES Amanda N. Ireland University of

More information

Dance Medicine Workshop: Nutrition for Dancers. By: Danielle Mach, MS, RDN, LDN, ACSM EP-C

Dance Medicine Workshop: Nutrition for Dancers. By: Danielle Mach, MS, RDN, LDN, ACSM EP-C Dance Medicine Workshop: Nutrition for Dancers By: Danielle Mach, MS, RDN, LDN, ACSM EP-C Objectives To gain overall nutritional knowledge of relationship of nutrition to dancing. Understand the associations

More information

Healthy Eating Policy

Healthy Eating Policy Healthy Eating Policy Policy Code: TPN21 Policy Start Date: October 2014 Policy Review Date: October 2015 Healthy Eating Policy Page 1 of 5 1. Policy Statement 1.1 Children are provided with regular drinks

More information

Foods that Increase Body Fat

Foods that Increase Body Fat Foods that Increase Body Fat To better learn what foods you should eat, it is best to learn first what you should not eat! Knowing the various food types you should not eat better prepares you to more

More information

What to Eat After You Work Out

What to Eat After You Work Out What to Eat After You Work Out Refuel and Recover with a Post Workout Meal or Snack 6.7KSHARES Everyone knows that athletes must plan and time their meals and snacks very carefully to reach their performance

More information