2 Autoimmunity Origins Horror autotoxicus: Literally, the horror of self-toxicity. A term coined by the German immunologist Paul Ehrlich ( ) to describe the body's innate aversion to immunological selfdestruction.
3 History Continued This concept of autoimmunity as the cause of human illness is relatively new, and it was not accepted into the mainstream of medical thinking until the 1950s and 1960s.
4 What is autoimmunity? When the immune system is activated by self-antigens When the immune system no longer recognizes itself Generally is prevented by self-tolerance, where selfreactive antigens are eliminated But, the body cannot eliminate all self-reactive antigens because some help protect against foreign antigens! This means that everyone has some self-reactive antigens, only, they have not activated our antibodies yet
5 What is autoimmunity? When body mounts immune response against self, it is impossible for immune mechanism to eliminate antigen completely Result: a sustained response, chronic inflammation, tissue damage and sometimes death!
6 Autoimmunity defines a state in which unresponsiveness to self terminates, leading to specific adaptive immune responses against self. Since self tolerance is somatically acquired, it is subject to failure particularly with the complexity of the issue. A remarkable number of autoreactive T and B cell clones are present in the healthy immune repertoire.
7 Autoimmunity is not necessarily a sign of disease and it has become apparent that autoimmune responses are not as rare as once thought. In fact, current argument emphasizes that certain autoimmune responses are essential for the normal functioning and diversification of the immune response (CD-MHC, Id-anti-Id). Autoimmune diseases are not rare or exotic; autoimmune diseases and their sequelae occur with surprising frequency.
8 Normal Autoimmunity Autoimmunity is an inherent property of the normal immune system Autoimmune diseases must be distinguished from the many instances of nonpathologic self recognition by the immune system. Autoimmunity is unlikely to reflect the failure of the main mechanisms of tolerance.
9 Low titer, low affinity autoantibodies can be readily detected in the sera of normal individuals. Natural autoantibodies which are found in humans of all age groups, have a wide range of specificities They can bind to intracellular constituents, membrane proteins, serum proteins, and polypeptide hormones.
10 Natural autoantibodies are produced by B1 (CD5 + ) cells regardless of antigen exposure. They are IgM of low affinity and extensive cross-reactivity. Activities include; binding to bacteria followed by activation of complement, cross reactivity with blood group antigens, and binding to normal cellular components.
11 Natural autoantibodies may have a physiologic role such as elimination of degraded autoantigens, antigen presentation and prevention of autoimmune disease. The demonstration of autoimmunity as a cause of disease is difficult and requires the replication of disease manifestations by transfer of antibody or T-lymphocytes. An Experiment of nature is neonatal myasthenia gravis due to transplacental transfer of autoantibodies.
12 Significance of Autoimmune Diseases 5 % to 7% of adults are affected. Two thirds are women. More than 40 human diseases are autoimmune in origin.
13 Significance of Autoimmune Diseases They should be distinguished from diseases accompanied by an immune reaction not triggered by self antigens Understanding of autoimmunity has greatly improved with the development of animal models and the identification of predisposing genes Nevertheless, the etiology of most human autoimmune diseases remains obscure
14 Pathogenesis of autoimmunity Susceptibility genes Environmental trigger (e.g. infections, tissue injury) Failure of self-tolerance Persistence of functional self-reactive lymphocytes Activation of self-reactive lymphocytes Immune responses against self tissues
15 Mechanisms Failure of Tolerance Induction Break down of peripheral Tolerance (Defects in CTLA-4, Defects in Fas or Fas ligands, Excess IL-2) Release of sequestered antigens Neoantigens: not truly self, modified self, denatured antigens, and antigens of transformed cells Epitope (Determinant) spreading: anti-myelin in MS Cryptic epitopes: exposed by conformational changes (IgM anti- IgG in rheumatoid arthritis)
16 Molecular Mimicry - Rheumatic fever: Streptococcal M protein and antigens on sarcolemmal membrane and valves - IDDM: Coxsackie and CMV antigens with GAD on β cells of the pancreas - Ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis: HLA-B27 with Klebsiella and Yersinea T helper 1 T helper 2 imbalance and cytokine milieu Polyclonal Activation (Superantigens bind TCR Vß chain)
17 Rheumatic fever is a classic example of molecular mimicry
18 Release of sequestered Ag Smoking can trigger Good pasture's syndrome Alveolar basement membrane normally not exposed to the immune system Smoking damages alveoli, exposes collagen Anti-collagen Ab damages lung and kidney Anti-sperm Ab produced in some men after vasectomy Injection of myelin basic protein (MBP) produces MSlike EAE in mice May be triggered by injury or infection
19 Immune stimulation Inflammation and secretion of IFN-ɤ which upregulates MHC II Inappropriate MHC II expression e.g., on thyroid cells Activation of T and B responses to self Ag self Ag on MHC I; or MHC II Microbial infection stimulates APCs carrying self Ag High level of APCs with second signal breaks anergy
20 Induction of MHC class II expression facilitates autoimmunity
21 Grave s Disease Production of thyroid hormones is regulated by TSH The binding of TSH to a receptor on thyroid cells activates the synthesis of two thyroid hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine A person with Grave s Disease makes auto-antibodies to the receptor for TSH. The binding of these autoantibodies to the receptor mimics the normal action of TSH, without the regulation, leading to overstimulation of the thyroid The auto-antibodies are called long-acting thyroid stimulating hormones 21
22 What causes Autoimmunity? Defect in Fas and Fas ligand Activation of T cells Fas(CD95) Fas ligand Apoptosis (cell-death)
23 ALPS Mutations in Fas or Fas ligand genes in humans leads to development of Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Patients with ALPS have chronic, nonmalignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly of childhood onset and an increased risk of B-cell lymphomas, autoimmune complications, increased numbers of normally rare α/β TCR+ CD3+CD4-CD8- or "double negative T cells"
24 Multiple sclerosis One of the few autoimmune diseases caused by T cells. Abs are produced but their role is controversial. Mediated by Th17 cells.
25 Role of IL-17 in autoimmunity Unique T cells that produce IL-17 have been discovered that are distinct from Th1 and Th2 subsets. Such cells are called Th17 cells. Th1 cells differentiate in the presence of IL- 12 and Th2 cells use IL-4. Th17 cells differentiate in the presence of TGF-beta and IL-6. Mice deficient in IL-17 do not develop EAE.
26 Ab against intrinsic factor Pernicious Anemia
27 Characteristics of Autoimmune Diseases 1) Systemic (Ab) or organ-specific (T Cells) 2) Variable course 3) Female preponderance 4) Overlapping manifestations 5) Immunosuppression 6) Diverse immunopathology 7) Constant antigens 8) Genetic susceptibility 9) Role of environmental factors
28 Factors Affecting Autoimmunity Familial studies suggest clear association between genetics and autoimmune disease Also found to be more prevalent in women However, studies between identical twins show that despite identical genetic background, cellular processes and environment also play a role
29 AUTOIMMUNITY & LEFT-HANDEDNESS LEFT handed individuals more affected. 11% of left handed & 4% of right handed. Reasons for this are obscure. left-handedness & immune malfunction may both result from abnormal endocrine function in fetal life.
30 Examples of Organ-specific autoimmune Diseases Thyroid gland - Grave s disease - autoantibodies against TSH receptor - Hashimoto s disease (thyroiditis) - autoantibodies against thyroglobulin Pancreas: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Adrenal gland - Addison s disease (Hypoadrenocorticism): - Reduced production of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids as the result of atrophy of the adrenal gland. - Serum from humans suffering from Addison s disease may contain auto-antibodies against adrenal cortex cells and the enzymes involved in steroid hormone metabolism.
31 SLE as an Example of Non organspecific autoimmune Diseases Prototypic systemic autoimmune disease. Multiple autoimmune manifestations and generally high titer anti-nuclear antibody (seronegative cases have been described). Human SLE is more prevalent in females (oestrogens appear to aggravate the condition as does the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation). The clinical presentation of SLE involves polyarthritis, mucocutaneous lesions, proteinuria and anaemia/thrombocytopaenia.
32 Autoantidodies against common components of human cells can cause systemic autoimmune disease
33 Most rheumatological diseases are caused by autoimmunity
34 Female: Male Ratios in Some Autoimmune Diseases - Multiple sclerosis 2:1 - Myasthenia gravis 2:1 - Diabetes 2:1 - Rheumatoid arthritis 4:1 - Graves disese 7:1 - SLE 9:1 - Hashimoto s disease 50:1
35 Sex differences in autoimmunity
36 Immunopathologic Mechanisms Tissue destruction: in diabetes; CTLs destroy insulin-producing B-cells in pancreas Antibodies block normal function: in myasthenia gravis; Ab binds acetylcholine receptors Antibodies stimulate inappropriate function: in Graves disease; Ab binds TSH receptor, mimics thyroid-stimulating hormone and activates unregulated thyroid hormone production Antigen-antibody complexes affect function: in Rheumatoid arthritis; IgM specific for Fc portion of IgG and IgM-IgG complexes deposited in joints leading to inflammation
37 Genes and Autoimmunity The concept that a single gene mutation leads to a single autoimmune disease is the EXCEPTION not the rule. Because of this autoimmune diseases are generally classified as complex diseases as there is not a single pinpoint-able gene
38 Exceptions to the Rule Simple Genetic Autoimmune Illnesses Disease Gene Mechanism APS-1 (Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1) IPEX (Immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) ALPS (autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome ) Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) FOXP3 FAS, FASL Decreased expression of self-antigens in the thymus, resulting is a defect in negative selection Decreased generation of Tregs Failure of apoptotic death of self reactive T or B cells
39 Genetics of autoimmunity Human autoimmune diseases are complex polygenic traits Identified by genome-wide association mapping Single gene mutations are useful for pathway analysis Some polymorphisms are associated with multiple diseases May control general mechanisms of tolerance and immune regulation Other genetic associations are disease-specific May influence end-organ damage
40 HLA is the dominant genetic factor affecting susceptibility to autoimmune disease
41 HLA Association and Autoimmune Diseases HLA-B8: Myasthenia gravis HLA-B27: Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's disease, acute uveitis HLA-Cw6: Psoriasis HLA-DR2: Goodpastures syndrome, MS HLA-DR3: Graves disease, MS, SLE, IDDM, Addison s disease HLA-DR4: IDDM, Pemphigus vulgaris, Rheumatoid arthritis HLA-DR5: Hashimotos thyroiditis
42 Associations of HLA genotype with susceptibility to autoimmune disease Disease HLA allele Relative risk M/F Ankylosing spondylitis B Acute anterior uveitis B <0.5 Good Pasteur's syndrome DR ~1 Multiple sclerosis DR Graves disease DR Myasthenia gravis DR3 2.5 ~1 Systemic lupus erythematosus DR Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus DR3 & DR4 DQ ~1 Rheumatoid arthritis DR Pemphigus vulgaris DR ~1 Hashimoto s thyroiditis DR
43 Population studies of HLA alleles in insulin-independent diabetes mellitus Prevalence of diabetes DR3+DR4 Dr3 or DR4 +any allele EXCEPT DR2 DR3 or DR4 +DR2 DR2+DR2 Dr2 +any allele EXCEPT Dr2, DR3, DR4
46 Several ways in which infectious agents could break self tolerance
47 Treatment of Autoimmunity Immunosuppressive drugs Corticosteroids, Azathioprine Cyclosporine A Anti-inflammatory Oral administration of myelin purified from cow brains--to treat MS. Transfer of regulatory T cells.
48 Immunotherapy of autoimmune disease Use of Regulatory T cells Isolate lymphocytes from blood lymphocytes +IL-2 Purify regulatory T cells (Foxp3+)
49 Treatment of MS Th APC MBP V 17 & 5 Th + C Ab against V 17& 5 In MS, most T cells that respond to MBP use V 17 and V 5, TCR. Thus Abs against such T cells are being tested.
50 Treatment of Autoimmunity Use of beta-interferon to treat MS blocks HLA expression. Use of Abs against TNF--->suppresses arthritis pain for 5-10 weeks. Use of Abs against adhesion molecules---> VLA-4, ICAM-1, etc. Use of Abs against CD4 Th.
51 Summary of Autoimmunity Cause: Multiple genetic, environmental, nutrition, infections, etc Breakdown in self-tolerance. Organ specific or Systemic. Majority are caused by autoab production Treatment: Immunosuppressive drugs, Abs against TCR, cytokines, adhesion molecules, etc.
This sheet includes only the extra notes. Slide 5,6: [AUTOIMMUNITY] July 14, 2013 Autoimmunity is the condition or case where the immune system is activated by self antigensand when the immune system no
Molecular Mechanisms of Autoimmunity By: Nadia Chanzu, PhD Student, UNITID Infectious Minds Presentation November 17, 2011 Introduction 3m Pick an organ, any organ... Autoimmunity can affect ANY organ/organ
Autoimmunity Autoimmunity arises because of defects in central or peripheral tolerance of lymphocytes to selfantigens Autoimmune disease can be caused to primary defects in B cells, T cells and possibly
Autoimmune diseases Fundamental abnormality: the adaptive immune system is triggered by self antigens to initiate a sustained immune response against self molecules that results in tissue injury Specificity
Autoimmune diseases Fundamental abnormality: the adaptive immune system is triggered by self antigens to initiate a sustained immune response against self molecules that results in tissue injury Specificity
The Adaptive Immune Responses The two arms of the immune responses are; 1) the cell mediated, and 2) the humoral responses. In this chapter we will discuss the two responses in detail and we will start
Autoimmune diseases, their pathogenic mechanisms and treatment of unwanted immune responses (Janeway s Immunobiology) Picture source: https://www.klini kum.uniheidelberg.de/fil eadmin/pressest elle/pm_neu/20
1 Effector T Cells and Cytokines Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Cytokines Subsets of CD4+ T cells: definitions, functions, development New
Judy Owen Jenni Punt Sharon Stranford Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION CHAPTER 16 Tolerance, Autoimmunity, and Transplantation Copyright 2013 by W. H. Freeman and Company Immune tolerance: history * Some
immunopathology Dr. Ameer Dhahir Objectives. Explaining the causes of immune deficiency with clinical examples. Explaining important examples of inappropriate or excessive immune response. Discussing the
Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 19 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD. Chapter 19: Tolerance, Autoimmunity, and Autoinflammation Prepared
The Adaptive Immune Response T-cells T Lymphocytes T lymphocytes develop from precursors in the thymus. Mature T cells are found in the blood, where they constitute 60% to 70% of lymphocytes, and in T-cell
Immunology T-Lymphocytes 16. Oktober 2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Karin Peters, email@example.com The role of T-effector cells in the immune response against microbes cellular immunity humoral immunity
Staging of Type 1 Diabetes: TT Clinical Implications April 2016 Deborah Hefty, MN, RN, CDE firstname.lastname@example.org BRI s major contributions to type 1 diabetes research Identified type 1 diabetes susceptibility
Medical Virology Immunology Dr. Sameer Naji, MB, BCh, PhD (UK) Head of Basic Medical Sciences Dept. Faculty of Medicine The Hashemite University Human blood cells Phases of immune responses Microbe Naïve
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) An introduction to adaptive immune system before we discuss MHC B cells The main cells of adaptive immune system are: -B cells -T cells B cells: Recognize antigens
From autoimmunity to immunity and back? Relevance to vaccines Paul-Henri Lambert Centre of Vaccinology University of Geneva Vision of the Immune System in 1900 Immunity is exclusively directed to foreign
Interactions between innate immunity & adaptive immunity What happens to T cells after they leave the thymus? Naïve T cells exit the thymus and enter the bloodstream. If they remain in the bloodstream,
Physiology Unit 3 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The Specific Immune Response In Physiology Today The Adaptive Arm of the Immune System Specific Immune Response Internal defense against a specific pathogen Acquired
17 Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Define antigen, epitope, and hapten. Explain the function
Introduction to Immunology and the Immune System Assistant professor Dr. Aida R. Al-Derzi M.B.Ch.B; M.Sc; FICM/Path Dept. of Microbiology/College of Medicine/Baghdad University Introduction to Immunology
IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF TRANSPLANTATION Wasim Dar Immunobiology of Transplantation Overview Transplantation: A complex immunologic process Contributions Innate Immunity Adaptive immunity T Cells B Cells HLA Consequences
There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and Specific (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell Development of the Immune System ery pl neu mφ nk CD8 + CTL CD4 + thy TH1 mye
Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 35 Active Reading Guide The Immune System Section 1 Phagocytosis plays an important role in the immune systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Review the process
An autoimmune perspective on neuromuscular diseases Colin Chalk MD,CM FRCPC Montreal General Hospital McGill University Schlomchik 2001 The proportion of neuromuscular patients who have an autoimmune cause
Lauren O Brien PGY2 3/26/14 Review the immunologic process Review the disease process of three autoimmune disorders Identify the role of each disease in pregnancy Review through the management of these
CHAPTER 7 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) What is is MHC? HLA H-2 Minor histocompatibility antigens Peter Gorer & George Sneell (1940) Significance of the MHC role in immune response role in organ
ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY The recognition of specific antigen by naïve T cell induces its own activation and effector phases. T helper cells recognize peptide antigens through
Regulatory Cells and Maintenance of olerance Stephen Canfield, MD, PhD Asst. Prof. Medicine email@example.com What constitutes immune tolerance? Discrimination between: non-self and self e.g., virally
LECTURE: 23 Title T-AND B-LYMPHOCYTES COOPERATIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The student should be able to: Enumerate the major types of T-helper cells surface molecules, and that expressed on the B-lymphocytes
Immunology - Lecture 2 Adaptive Immune System 1 Book chapters: Molecules of the Adaptive Immunity 6 Adaptive Cells and Organs 7 Generation of Immune Diversity Lymphocyte Antigen Receptors - 8 CD markers
How s recognize antigen: The T Cell Receptor (TCR) Identifying the TCR: Why was it so hard to do By the early 1980s, much about function was known, but the receptor genes had not been identified Recall
Antigen processing Class I Ag processing TAP= transporters associated with antigen processing Transport peptides into ER Proteosome degrades cytosolic proteins Large, multi-subunit complex Degrades foreign
Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells Andrew H. Lichtman, M.D. Ph.D. Department of Pathology Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard
584 Infection of autoreactive B lymphocytes with EBV, causing chronic autoimmune diseases Michael P. Pender Department of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Clinical Sciences Building, Royal Brisbane
Bihong Zhao, M.D, Ph.D Department of Pathology 04-28-2009 Is tumor self or non-self? How are tumor antigens generated? What are they? How does immune system respond? Introduction Tumor Antigens/Categories
Heather Zwickey, PhD Immunology Fundamentals and Current Updates Outcomes Recall immunology terminology Describe the immune response to infectious disease Apply immunological principles to infectious disease
Chapter 20 Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Hormones The endocrine system consists of glands and tissues that secrete hormones Hormones are chemicals that affect other glands or tissues, many times
Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology Each student gets a set of 6 questions, so that each set contains different types of questions and that the set of questions
Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1 Major components of IS & their properties Definitions IS = cells & molecules responsible for: 1- Physiologic; protective
Induction of antigenspecific tolerance with peptide epitopes firstname.lastname@example.org University of Bristol Antigen-directed therapy of hypersensitivity diseases In 1911, Drs John Freeman and Leonard Noon
26.1 Chemical signals coordinate body functions Chapter 20 Endocrine System! Hormones Chemical signals Secreted by endocrine glands Usually carried in the blood Cause specific changes in target cells Secretory
General Overview of Immunology Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Objectives Describe differences between innate and adaptive immune responses
Chapters 20, 21. Lymphatic and Immune System Part II. Specific Immunity BIOL242 Overview Properties of specific immunity Antigen presentation and the MHC complexes T cell activation B cell activation Antibodies
Adaptive Immunity Jeffrey K. Actor, Ph.D. MSB 2.214, 500-5344 Lecture Objectives: Understand role of various molecules including cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory and adhesion molecules in the development
The Immune System Biological mechanisms that defend an organism must be 1. triggered by a stimulus upon injury or pathogen attack 2. able to counteract the injury or invasion 3. able to recognise foreign
MCMP422 Immunology and Biologics Immunology is important personally and professionally! Learn the language - use the glossary and index RNR - Reading, Note taking, Reviewing All materials in Chapters 1-3
Introduction to Immune System Learning outcome You will be able to understand, at a fundamental level, the STRUCTURES and FUNCTIONS of cell surface and soluble molecules involved in recognition of foreign
Antigen Presentation to T lymphocytes Immunology 441 Lectures 6 & 7 Chapter 6 October 10 & 12, 2016 Jessica Hamerman email@example.com Office hours by arrangement Antibodies and T cell receptors
Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Class meets MWF 1:00-2:30PM (*exceptions: no class Fri Sept 23, Fri Oct 14, Nov 11, or Wed Nov 23) Lectures are open to auditors and will be live-streamed
I. Lines of Defense Pathogen: Table 1: Types of Immune Mechanisms Table 2: Innate Immunity: First Lines of Defense Innate Immunity involves nonspecific physical & chemical barriers that are adapted for
Capillary exchange Fluid movement in capillaries Not all fluid is reclaimed at the venous end of the capillaries; that is the job of the lymphatic system Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic capillaries permeate
The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Outline PART 1: INNATE DEFENSES 21.1 Surface barriers act as the first line of defense to keep invaders out of the body (pp. 772 773; Fig. 21.1; Table
Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, 2016 Dan Stetson firstname.lastname@example.org 441 Lecture #2 Slide 1 of 26 CLASS ANNOUNCEMENT PLEASE NO TREE NUTS IN CLASS!!! (Peanuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, etc)
Chapter 26 Hormones and the Endocrine System PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture
Campbell's Biology: Concepts and Connections, 7e (Reece et al.) Chapter 24 The Immune System 24.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The body's innate defenses against infection include A) several nonspecific
Antigen Presentation to T lymphocytes Immunology 441 Lectures 6 & 7 Chapter 6 October 10 & 12, 2016 Jessica Hamerman email@example.com Office hours by arrangement Antigen processing: How are
Chapter 24 The Immune System The Immune System Layered defense system The skin and chemical barriers The innate and adaptive immune systems Immunity The body s ability to recognize and destroy specific
CHAPTER 8 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) What is is MHC? HLA H-2 Minor histocompatibility antigens Peter Gorer & George Sneell (1940) Significance of the MHC role in immune response role in organ
Development of B and T lymphocytes What will we discuss today? B-cell development T-cell development B- cell development overview Stem cell In periphery Pro-B cell Pre-B cell Immature B cell Mature B cell
Cellular & Molecular Immunology Cell-mediated Immunity Nicholas M. Ponzio, Ph.D. Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine April 6, 2009 Today s Presentation: Overview Cellular Interactions In Humoral
IMMUNITY AND DISEASE II A. Evolution of the immune system. 1. Figure 1--57.25, p. 1167 from Raven and Johnson Biology 6 th ed. shows how the immune system evolved. Figure 1. How the immune system evolved.
Autoimmune Antibody Testing Points of Note: The interpretation of all autoantibody tests is highly dependent on the likelihood of disease in the patient. The results should always be interpreted with the
BIO 116 Practice Assignment 1 The Endocrine System and Blood This is not a required assignment but it is recommended. 1. Match the following glands of the endocrine system with the appropriate label 1.
Endocrine System Chemical Control Endocrine System - the system that secretes hormones in the body - hormones can last for minutes or for hours - a major gland, once called the master gland, is the pituitary
LECTURE: 07 Title: IMMUNE CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The student should be able to: The chemical nature of the cellular surface receptors. Define the location of the
Thyroid Function Thyroid Antibodies Analyte Information - 1-2013-04-30 Thyroid Antibodies Determination of thyroid autoantibodies are, besides TSH and FT4, one of the most important diagnostic parameters.
Antigen Receptor Structures October 14, 2016 Ram Savan firstname.lastname@example.org 441 Lecture #8 Slide 1 of 28 Three lectures on antigen receptors Part 1 (Today): Structural features of the BCR and TCR Janeway Chapter