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1 Section: Chapter 5: Multiple Choice 1. The structure of synapses is best viewed with a(n): p.155 electron microscope. light microscope. confocal microscope. nissle-stained microscopic procedure. 2. Electron microscopy is a useful tool in the study of synaptic morphology. The resolution of an electron microscope is much greater than that of a light microscope because: p.155 smaller electron waves scatter less than light waves. light waves scatter less than electron waves. larger electron waves scatter more than light waves. larger light waves scatter in similar patterns as electron waves. 3. The contents of a synaptic vesicle include: p.157 neurotransmitters. structural proteins. DNA. all of the above. 4. Which of the following are characteristic of the postsynaptic membrane? E. p.157 thickened appearance receptor proteins synaptic vesicles all of the above a and b 1

2 5. Precursor chemicals that form the building blocks for neurotransmitters are absorbed from the: p.158 mitochondria. blood. cell nucleus. Golgi apparatus. 6. Which of the following would not be found at the axon terminals? p.158 mitochondria cell membrane synaptic vesicles axon hillock 7. Voltage-gated calcium ion channels that function in neurotransmission are primarily found on the: p.159 postsynaptic membrane. presynaptic membrane. synaptic vesicles. dendrites. 8. Immediately before neurotransmission, calcium ions entering the presynaptic membrane bind to: p.159 calcitonin. calmodulin. calretenin. calpactin. 9. Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters through the process of: p.159 endocytosis. pinocytosis. exocytosis. phagocytosis. 2

3 10. When a neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to a transmitter-activated receptor, which of the following occurs in the postsynaptic cell? E. membrane depolarization membrane hyperpolarization initiation of chemical reactions all of the above a and b only p For an action potential to be elicited: one quantum of neurotransmitter must be released from the presynaptic cell. multiple quanta of neurotransmitter must be released from the presynaptic cell. calcium ions must enter the postsynaptic cell. a and c. p How is a neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft? E. diffusion enzymatic degradation uptake by surrounding glial cells all of the above a and b p Hormones are diffusely released to the rest of the body via: axodendritic synapses. axosomatic synapses. axosecretory synapses. axoaxonic synapses. p.161 3

4 14. Which of the following best characterizes type I and/or type II synapses? Type I synapses are excitatory and have round synaptic vesicles. Type II synapses are inhibitory and have a greater postsynaptic density than type I synapses. Type I synapses are inhibitory and have larger active zones than type II synapses. Type II synapses are excitatory and have flattened synaptic vesicles. p Which of the following is not a classification type of neurotransmitters? small-molecule nucleic-acid gas peptide p Small-molecule neurotransmitters are: synthesized in the soma and packaged in the terminals. synthesized in the terminals and packaged in the soma. synthesized in the soma and packaged in the soma. synthesized in the terminals and packaged in the terminals. p Which of the following is not part of the amine subtype of small-molecule neurotransmitters? dopamine glycine serotonin norepinephrine p Which of the following is not an amino acid neurotransmitter? dopamine glutamate histamine GABA p.166 4

5 19. Which two neurotransmitters are synthesized from the same precursor molecule? glycine and dopamine glutamate and GABA histamine and serotonin acetylcholine and glycine p What is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord? p.166 GABA glutamate glycine histamine 21. Which of the following shows the correct sequence of a biochemical pathway in tyrosine-based neurotransmitters? p.166 tyrosine, l-dopa, DA, NE, EP tyrosine, NE, EP, l-dopa, DA tyrosine, EP, NE, l-dopa, DA tyrosine, l-dopa, DA, EP, NE 22. Type I synapses are found on the, while type II synapses are found on the. p.162 spines and dendritic shafts of the neuron; neuron cell body neuron cell body; spines and dendritic shafts of the neuron axons and axon terminals; neuron cell body neuron cell body; axons and axon terminals 5

6 23. Which of the following presynaptic events are in correct chronological order? calcium ion influx, action potential reaches axon terminal, vesicle fuses with membrane, diffusion of neurotransmitter action potential reaches axon terminal, calcium ion channels open, exocytosis, diffusion of neurotransmitter exocytosis, calcium ion influx, action potential reaches axon terminal, membrane depolarization action potential reaches axon terminal, calcium ion channels open, neurotransmitter diffusion, exocytosis p The active zone on type I synapses is when compared to the active zone on type II synapses. smaller larger the same size of varying size p Which of the following criteria are used to determine if a substance is a neurotransmitter? I. The chemical must be synthesized in the neuron. II. When the neuron is active, the chemical is released and produces a response. III. Injection of the chemical mimics the effects of neuronal stimulation. IV. Mechanisms exist for the removal of the chemical. II, III, IV I, II, III, IV II and IV only I, II, III pp A chemical that has not yet met all the conditions that constitute a neurotransmitter is referred to as a(n): chemical signaler. secondary messenger. putative neurotransmitter. unclassified neurotransmitter. p.164 6

7 27. A neurotransmitter is a chemical that is involved with: synaptic transmission. inducing changes to synaptic structure. affecting the voltage on the postsynaptic cell. all of the above. E. a and c. pp In the nervous system peptides play a role in: regulating feeding and drinking behavior. hormonal functions. pain and pleasure regulation. all of the above. E. a and b. p Which one of the following synthesizes acetylcholine from its component molecules? pp acetylcholinesterase choline acetyl transferase coenzyme A acetate and choline 30. Met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, and beta-endorphin are endogenous neuropeptides whose function is mimicked by: opium. dopamine. morphine. all of the above. E. a and c. p.167 7

8 31. Unlike small-molecule neurotransmitters, peptide transmitters: do not bind directly to ion channels. directly alter the voltage of the postsynaptic cell. indirectly influence cell structure and function. all of the above. E. a and c. p Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas neurotransmitter which: p Ionotropic receptors: pp is stored in synaptic vesicles. is synthesized in the soma. dilates blood vessels in active areas. is degraded by digestive enzymes. change in shape when neurotransmitters bind to them. have no openings for ion diffusion. activate second messenger systems. are more metabolically expensive than metabotropic receptors. 34. Metabotropic receptors consist of: p.169 complex units of membrane-spanning proteins. a single membrane-spanning protein. a single, non-membrane-spanning protein. complex units of non-membrane-spanning proteins. 35. Ionotropic receptors consist of: a binding site. a pore. G proteins. all of the above. E. a and b. p.167 8

9 36. A second messenger system can: alter ion flow through the membrane channels. cause a series of reactions that result in the formation of new membrane ion channels. initiate the production of new proteins. all of the above. E. a and c. p What chemical represents the "first messenger"? G proteins alpha subunits neurotransmitters sodium ions p The thought that an individual neuron releases only one type of neurotransmitter is known as and is. Dale's law; true Dale's law; false Hebb's law; true Hebb's law; false p Within a synapse, it is possible to find: a classical neurotransmitter and a neuropeptide. two types of classical neurotransmitters. only one type of classical neurotransmitter. all of the above. E. a and c. pp

10 40. Acetylcholine is the classical neurotransmitter for: all skeletal motor synapses. 95 percent of skeletal motor synapses. half of skeletal motor synapses. no skeletal motor synapses. p The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nachr) is: ionotropic. found in all skeletal motor synapses. permissive to the diffusion of both sodium ions and potassium ions. all of the above. E. a and b. p Sympathetic neurons are while parasympathetic neurons are. p.172 only cholinergic; cholinergic and adrenergic cholinergic and adrenergic; only cholinergic adrenergic; cholinergic cholinergic; adrenergic 43. Whether a neurotransmitter has an excitatory or inhibitory effect depends on: p NMDA receptors are: the particular neurotransmitter. the postsynaptic receptors. if it's a fight or flight response. the organism's current state of arousal. reversibly blocked with a magnesium ion. involved with long-term enhancement (LTE). "doubly gated channels." all of the above. E. b and c. pp

11 45. Regarding structural changes in sensory Answer neurons, Key habituation results in with the motor neuron, and sensitization results in with the motor neuron. pp an increased number of synapses; a decreased number of synapses no change in number of synapses; a decreased number of synapses a decreased number of synapses; an increased number of synapses a decreased or increased number of synapses; no change in the number of synapses 11

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