IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells. Memory CD8 T Cell Differentiation

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells. Memory CD8 T Cell Differentiation"

Transcription

1 IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells Memory CD8 T Cell Differentiation

2 CD4 T Cell Differentiation Bcl-6 T-bet GATA-3 ROR t Foxp3

3 CD4 T follicular helper (Tfh) cells FUNCTION Provide essential help for germinal center formation and maintenance Required for affinity maturation and differentiation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells PHENOTYPE The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is a functional marker for CD4+ Tfh cells Bcl6 is a lineage regulator of Tfh differentiation in CD4 T cells PD-1, ICOS other phenotypic markers Cytokines IL-21, (IL-4)

4 Role of CD4 T cell help in antibody responses

5 CD4 T cells are required for maintenance of the GC reaction CD4 T cells were depleted when GC were established (Day 15 post-lcmv infection)

6 Ruins of GC remain after CD4 depletion CD4 T cells were depleted when GC were established (Day 15 post-lcmv infection). Mice were sacrificed 7 days after CD4 T cell depletion.

7 IL-21 is needed for long-term humoral immunity after acute viral infection LCMV specific IgG (log 2) WT IL-21R KO WT IL-21R KO Days post-infection Mohammed et al. J Virol, 2013 Similar results seen with influenza virus and VSV

8 Importance of IL-21 for generation of long-lived plasma cells Spleen ASC in spleen (day 300) WT KO Day 8 Day 15 Day 22 Day 38 Day 300 Bone Marrow ASC in BM (day 300) Day 8 Day 15 Day 22 Day 38 Day 300 WT KO

9 Is there a Tfh memory cell? Central Questions: 1. Are there memory CD4 T cells that are poised to recall Tfh lineagespecific functions upon reencounter with antigen? 2. What are markers that define Tfh memory cells? 3. What is the tissue distribution of Tfh effector and Tfh memory cells? 1. What are mechanisms that reinforce the lineage-specific functions of memory Tfh cells? These questions are important for rational vaccine design, where improving the generation and engagement of memory Tfh cells could enhance vaccine-induced immunity. Hale et al. Immunity 2013

10 Do CXCR5+ memory cells preferentially recall Tfh effector responses following antigen reencounter?

11 CXCR5+ memory cells recall Tfh secondary effector cells

12 CXCR5+ memory cells promote enhanced germinal center B cell responses following viral challenge Day 7 Gated on CD19+B220+ Splenocytes

13 Distinct Tfh and Th1 memory CD4 T cell subsets exist that recall their lineage-specific functions upon reencounter with antigen

14 Memory CD8 T cell differentiation Effector Memory Naive

15 CD8 T cells migrate to many nonlymphoid tissues while effectors Lymphoid tissue Naive Effector Memory Intestinal mucosa a4b7 CCR9 And become resident

16 Resident memory T cells Observed in many tissues Small intestine epithelium Skin Lung Salivary gland Do not recirculate with other compartments Are not found in blood

17 Intestinal mucosa Lymphoid tissue Environmental milieu regulates phenotype and maintenance of resident memory CD8 T cells Naive Effector CD62L lo Memory CD62L hi Memory CD62L dependent Re-circulation LN Casey, et al., J Immunol 2012 TGF IL-33? TNFa? CD103 7 Ly6C GrB CD69 Survival CD103/ 7 dependent residence

18 Function of resident memory CD8 T cells extend beyond local killing of infected cells

19 Sensing and alarm function: when resident memory CD8 T cells encounter Ag in tissues: Blood Cognate antigen Res Memory T cell CD 8 CD 8 Virus or peptide Schenkel, et al., Nat Immun 2013 CD 8

20 Sensing and alarm function: when resident memory CD8 T cells encounter Ag in tissues: they rapidly induce local chemokine expression Blood Cognate antigen Res Memory T cell CD 8 IFN Chemokines CD 8 Virus or peptide Schenkel, et al., Nat Immun 2013 CD 8

21 Sensing and alarm function: when resident memory CD8 T cells encounter Ag in tissues: they rapidly recruit additional memory CD8 T cells Blood Cognate antigen Res Memory T cell CD 8 CD 8 CD 8 IFN CD 8 Chemokines CD 8 CD 8 CD 8 Virus or peptide CD 8 CD 8 Schenkel, et al., Nat Immun 2013 CD 8

22 Protective Immunity by Memory CD8 T cells: Division of Labor Resident memory CD8 T cells at mucosal sites immediate effector function limited proliferative capacity Circulating memory CD8 T cells in blood and lymphoid tissue can differentiate into effectors rapidly substantial proliferative capacity

23 Yellow Fever Vaccine Viremia Neutralizing Ab titer Days post vaccination YFV-17D is a live attenuated vaccine. A single immunization (~10 5 pfu, subcutaneous) generates long-term immunity with neutralizing antibodies appearing by day14. Ideal model to study CD8 T cell responses to a primary, acute viral infection in humans. (Miller et al. Immunity 2008)

24 Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine Max Theiler receives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine from the hands of His Majesty the King Gustaf Adolf VI on December 10, 1951.

25 Tracking YFV-specific CD8 T cells YFV A2-NS4B 214 Tetramer %YFV Tetramer + / CD8 Day Day 11 Day 14 Day 30 Day CD8 YFV-17D genomes / ml plasma Akondy et al J.Immunol, 2009

26 Differentiation of YFV specific memory CD8 T cells Days post YFV Days post YFV Days post YFV Days post YFV

27 % α4β7+ Expression of homing receptors on YFV specific CD8 T cells % CLA+ α4β7 CLA n = 7 n = Days post vaccination α4β7 and CLA are transiently expressed by YFV specific effector CD8 T cells

28 α4β7 Co-expression of α4β7 and CLA on YFV specific CD8 T cells Tetramer + Total CD8 T cells Day 11 Day 14 Day 30 Donor 1 Donor 2 Donor 3 CLA

29 YFV memory CD8 T cells re-express CD45RA Tetramer positive cells Total CD8 T cells CCR CD45RA Days post YFV

30 YFV memory cells look like terminal effectors CCR7 CCR T CM Naive T EM Terminal Effectors (T EMRA ) CD45RA CD45RA

31 YFV specific CD8 T cells are polyfunctional IFN Day e TNF IFN IL IFN Mip IFN CD107A IFN e CD45RA

32 CCR7 YFV specific effector CD8 T cells have an unique gene expression signature YF YFV T CM 189 YF YFV T EM 388 YFV TE 567 The number of genes that are modulated relative to naïve CD8 T cells (Fold change cutoff 1.8, p < 0.05) T CM Naive T EM TE (T EMRA ) CD45RA

33 Summary YFV specific CD8 T cells appear to pass through an effector phase before undergoing memory differentiation. YFV specific effector CD8 T cells transiently express homing molecules to not only the skin (CLA) but also the gut (α4β7) even though the vaccine is given subcutaneously. A window of opportunity for effector cells to migrate to the mucosal sites. Effector CD8 T cells are characterized by a gene expression signature that is distinct from that of memory and effector T cell subsets. YFV specific memory cells re-express CD45RA and continue to be CCR7 negative, a phenotype associated with terminal differentiation. However, they are polyfunctional and exhibit high proliferative potential.

34 Number of YFV-tetramer positive CD8 T cells / ml blood Persistence of the YFV-specific CD8 T cell response Absolute counts (Tetramer+ cells per ml of blood)

35 How are memory CD8 T cells maintained? Truly long-lived, quiescent cells Rapid replenishment (division and death)

36 Using 2 H 2 O to determine the lifespan and turnover of YFV-specific CD8 T cells Deuterium ( 2 H 2 ) is a non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. 2 H 2 O intake is safe and has no effect on physiologic processes at the dose used. Labeling can be monitored by sampling body water from saliva, urine or plasma. GC/MS used to quantify labeled DNA is sensitive and reproducible (inter-experiment variation s.d < 0.1%). It makes in vivo analysis in humans possible. Hellerstein MK, et al. J Clin Invest, 2003

37 Experimental design Vaccinate HLA-A2+ donors with YFV-17D Deuterated water intake by vaccinees from days 0 to 14 (100 to 150ml per day) Sort YFV-specific tetramer + CD8 T cells at days 14, 21, 28, 42, 70.. till ~ day 365 Isolate DNA and Analyze by GC/MS

38 % labeled YFV-specific CD8 T cells Life-span and turnover of YFV-specific CD8 T cells 2 H 2 labeled cells can be seen more than 1 year after vaccination 2 H 2 O Days post vaccination

39 Conclusions Label die-away is minimal with a half life of ~500 days. YFV-specific memory CD8 T cells are dividing once every 500 days with a very long intermitotic phase. Thus, the YFV vaccine is inducing truly longlived memory CD8 T cells in humans.

40

Effector T Cells and

Effector T Cells and 1 Effector T Cells and Cytokines Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Cytokines Subsets of CD4+ T cells: definitions, functions, development New

More information

T cell memory Friday, February 10, 17

T cell memory Friday, February 10, 17 T cell memory 2-10-2017 expansion contraction memory recall EFFECTORS 10 6 pathogen load secondary challenge MEMORY 10 2 NAIVE 2 7-8 30 >1 year days post-infection In mouse, ~100 naïve, CD8s become ~3x10

More information

How plasma cells develop. Deutsches Rheuma Forschungs Zentrum, Berlin Institut der Leibniz Gemeinschaft

How plasma cells develop. Deutsches Rheuma Forschungs Zentrum, Berlin Institut der Leibniz Gemeinschaft How plasma cells develop Deutsches Rheuma Forschungs Zentrum, Berlin Institut der Leibniz Gemeinschaft 1 Plasma cells develop from activated B cells Toll Like Receptor B Cell Receptor B cell B cell microbia

More information

General Overview of Immunology. Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center

General Overview of Immunology. Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center General Overview of Immunology Kimberly S. Schluns, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Immunology UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Objectives Describe differences between innate and adaptive immune responses

More information

System Biology analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses during HIV infection

System Biology analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses during HIV infection System Biology analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses during HIV infection Model of T cell memory persistence and exhaustion Naive Ag+APC Effector TEM (Pfp, Gr.B, FasL, TNF) Ag stim. IL-2, IL-7,

More information

CD4 T-Cell Memory Generation and Maintenance

CD4 T-Cell Memory Generation and Maintenance Critical Reviews in Immunology, 34(2):121 146 (2014) CD4 T-Cell Memory Generation and Maintenance David J. Gasper, 1,2 Melba Marie Tejera, 1 & M. Suresh 1,2, * 1 Department of Pathobiological Sciences;

More information

Memory NK cells during mousepox infection. Min Fang, Ph.D, Professor Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science

Memory NK cells during mousepox infection. Min Fang, Ph.D, Professor Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science Memory NK cells during mousepox infection Min Fang, Ph.D, Professor Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science Infectious Diseases are a Major Cause of Death Worldwide May 14 th 1796 Prevalence

More information

Chapter 3, Part A (Pages 37-45): Leukocyte Migration into Tissues

Chapter 3, Part A (Pages 37-45): Leukocyte Migration into Tissues Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 3, Part A (pages 37-45) of Cellular and Molecular Immunology (Seventh Edition), by Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. Lichtman and Shiv Pillai. Chapter 3, Part A (Pages

More information

Follicular Lymphoma. ced3 APOPTOSIS. *In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 131 of the organism's 1031 cells die during development.

Follicular Lymphoma. ced3 APOPTOSIS. *In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 131 of the organism's 1031 cells die during development. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.176: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Course Director: Dr. Shiv Pillai Follicular Lymphoma 1. Characterized by t(14:18) translocation 2. Ig heavy

More information

Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology

Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology Examples of questions for Cellular Immunology/Cellular Biology and Immunology Each student gets a set of 6 questions, so that each set contains different types of questions and that the set of questions

More information

How HIV Causes Disease Prof. Bruce D. Walker

How HIV Causes Disease Prof. Bruce D. Walker How HIV Causes Disease Howard Hughes Medical Institute Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School 1 The global AIDS crisis 60 million infections 20 million deaths 2 3 The screen versions of

More information

Micro 204. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier

Micro 204. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier Micro 204 Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier Lewis.Lanier@ucsf.edu Lymphocyte-mediated Cytotoxicity CD8 + αβ-tcr + T cells CD4 + αβ-tcr + T cells γδ-tcr + T cells Natural Killer cells CD8 + αβ-tcr

More information

Supplemental materials

Supplemental materials Supplemental materials 1 Supplemental Fig. 1 Immunogram This immunogram summarizes patient clinical data and immune parameters at corresponding time points for Patient IMF-32. The top panel illustrates

More information

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 scott.abrams@roswellpark.org Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION CHAPTER 13 Effector Responses: Cell- and Antibody-Mediated Immunity Copyright 2013 by W. H.

More information

Circulating T follicular regulatory and helper cells have memory-like properties

Circulating T follicular regulatory and helper cells have memory-like properties Circulating T follicular regulatory and helper cells have memory-like properties Peter T. Sage, 1,2 David Alvarez, 1 Jernej Godec, 1,2 Ulrich H. von Andrian, 1 and Arlene H. Sharpe 1,2,3 1 Department of

More information

Review Questions: Janeway s Immunobiology 8th Edition by Kenneth Murphy

Review Questions: Janeway s Immunobiology 8th Edition by Kenneth Murphy Review Questions: Janeway s Immunobiology 8th Edition by Kenneth Murphy Chapter 11 (pages 429-460): Dynamics of Adaptive Immunity prepared by Kelly von Elten, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center,

More information

Introduction. Abbas Chapter 10: B Cell Activation and Antibody Production. General Features. General Features. General Features

Introduction. Abbas Chapter 10: B Cell Activation and Antibody Production. General Features. General Features. General Features Introduction Abbas Chapter 10: B Cell Activation and Antibody Production January 25, 2010 Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies (Ab) Ab function to

More information

Medical Virology Immunology. Dr. Sameer Naji, MB, BCh, PhD (UK) Head of Basic Medical Sciences Dept. Faculty of Medicine The Hashemite University

Medical Virology Immunology. Dr. Sameer Naji, MB, BCh, PhD (UK) Head of Basic Medical Sciences Dept. Faculty of Medicine The Hashemite University Medical Virology Immunology Dr. Sameer Naji, MB, BCh, PhD (UK) Head of Basic Medical Sciences Dept. Faculty of Medicine The Hashemite University Human blood cells Phases of immune responses Microbe Naïve

More information

Question 1. Kupffer cells, microglial cells and osteoclasts are all examples of what type of immune system cell?

Question 1. Kupffer cells, microglial cells and osteoclasts are all examples of what type of immune system cell? Abbas Chapter 2: Sarah Spriet February 8, 2015 Question 1. Kupffer cells, microglial cells and osteoclasts are all examples of what type of immune system cell? a. Dendritic cells b. Macrophages c. Monocytes

More information

Naive, memory and regulatory T lymphocytes populations analysis

Naive, memory and regulatory T lymphocytes populations analysis Naive, memory and regulatory T lymphocytes populations analysis Jaen Olivier, PhD ojaen@beckmancoulter.com Cellular Analysis application specialist Beckman Coulter France Introduction Flow cytometric analysis

More information

Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors induce functionally impaired transgene product specific CD8 + T cells in mice

Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors induce functionally impaired transgene product specific CD8 + T cells in mice Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors induce functionally impaired transgene product specific CD8 + T cells in mice Shih-Wen Lin,, Marcio O. Lasaro, Hildegund C.J. Ertl J Clin Invest. 2007;117(12):3958-3970.

More information

Lymphocyte Migration to/from the Gut Tissue-specific markers of enteric vaccines immunogenicity

Lymphocyte Migration to/from the Gut Tissue-specific markers of enteric vaccines immunogenicity Correlates of enteric vaccine-induced protection Fondation Mérieux, March 21-23, 2016 Lymphocyte Migration to/from the Gut Tissue-specific markers of enteric vaccines immunogenicity Quantitative aspects

More information

Blocking antibodies and peptides. Rat anti-mouse PD-1 (29F.1A12, rat IgG2a, k), PD-

Blocking antibodies and peptides. Rat anti-mouse PD-1 (29F.1A12, rat IgG2a, k), PD- Supplementary Methods Blocking antibodies and peptides. Rat anti-mouse PD-1 (29F.1A12, rat IgG2a, k), PD- L1 (10F.9G2, rat IgG2b, k), and PD-L2 (3.2, mouse IgG1) have been described (24). Anti-CTLA-4 (clone

More information

Chapter 10 (pages ): Differentiation and Functions of CD4+ Effector T Cells Prepared by Kristen Dazy, MD, Scripps Clinic Medical Group

Chapter 10 (pages ): Differentiation and Functions of CD4+ Effector T Cells Prepared by Kristen Dazy, MD, Scripps Clinic Medical Group FIT Board Review Corner September 2015 Welcome to the FIT Board Review Corner, prepared by Andrew Nickels, MD, and Sarah Spriet, DO, senior and junior representatives of ACAAI's Fellows-In-Training (FITs)

More information

Regulation of anti-tumor immunity through migration of immune cell subsets within the tumor microenvironment Thomas F. Gajewski, M.D., Ph.D.

Regulation of anti-tumor immunity through migration of immune cell subsets within the tumor microenvironment Thomas F. Gajewski, M.D., Ph.D. Regulation of anti-tumor immunity through migration of immune cell subsets within the tumor microenvironment Thomas F. Gajewski, M.D., Ph.D. Professor, Departments of Pathology and Medicine Program Leader,

More information

IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY. May 28, 2017

IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY. May 28, 2017 IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY May 28, 2017 Francesca Di Rosa Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology National Research Council francesca.dirosa@uniroma1.it Pathogen infection and adaptive immune response Primary

More information

Spatial Map of Human T Cell Compartmentalization and Maintenance over Decades of Life

Spatial Map of Human T Cell Compartmentalization and Maintenance over Decades of Life Article Spatial Map of Human T Cell Compartmentalization and Maintenance over Decades of Life Joseph J.C. Thome, 1,3,6 Naomi Yudanin, 1,3,6 Yoshiaki Ohmura, 2 Masaru Kubota, 2 Boris Grinshpun, 4 Taheri

More information

Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells

Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells Immunology Basics Relevant to Cancer Immunotherapy: T Cell Activation, Costimulation, and Effector T Cells Andrew H. Lichtman, M.D. Ph.D. Department of Pathology Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard

More information

Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, Dan Stetson

Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, Dan Stetson Introduction to Immunology Part 2 September 30, 2016 Dan Stetson stetson@uw.edu 441 Lecture #2 Slide 1 of 26 CLASS ANNOUNCEMENT PLEASE NO TREE NUTS IN CLASS!!! (Peanuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, etc)

More information

Lecture 9: T-cell Mediated Immunity

Lecture 9: T-cell Mediated Immunity Lecture 9: T-cell Mediated Immunity Questions to Consider How do T cells know where to go? Questions to Consider How do T cells know where to go? How does antigen get targeted to a T cell expressing the

More information

Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has. Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure

Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has. Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES Volume 33, Number S1, 2017 ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2017.0153 Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure Shahzada

More information

Presented by Lucas Nemec. Nat. Med. 21, (2015)

Presented by Lucas Nemec. Nat. Med. 21, (2015) Presented by Lucas Nemec Nat. Med. 21, 647 53 (2015) 1 Introduction Sylvia S. Mader, Inquiry into Life, 8th Edition, 1997 2 Introduction Sylvia S. Mader, Inquiry into Life, 8th Edition, 1997 3 Introduction

More information

T Memory Stem Cells: A Long-term Reservoir for HIV-1

T Memory Stem Cells: A Long-term Reservoir for HIV-1 Towards an HIV Cure Pre-Conference Symposium 20 & 21 July 2012 T Memory Stem Cells: A Long-term Reservoir for HIV-1 Maria J Buzon, PhD Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachussetts General Hospital,

More information

Understanding basic immunology. Dr Mary Nowlan

Understanding basic immunology. Dr Mary Nowlan Understanding basic immunology Dr Mary Nowlan 1 Immunology Immunology the study of how the body fights disease and infection Immunity State of being able to resist a particular infection or toxin 2 Overview

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture Immune system Lab Quiz 2 this week; bring a scantron! Study guide on my website (see lab assignments) Extra credit Critical thinking questions at end of chapters 5 pts/chapter Due

More information

Memory B cells. Tomohiro Kurosaki 1,2, Kohei Kometani 2,3 and Wataru Ise 1

Memory B cells. Tomohiro Kurosaki 1,2, Kohei Kometani 2,3 and Wataru Ise 1 Memory s Tomohiro Kurosaki 1,2, Kohei Kometani 2,3 and Wataru Ise 1 Abstract The immune system can remember a previously experienced pathogen and can evoke an enhanced response to reinfection that depends

More information

This is a free sample of content from Immune Memory and Vaccines: Great Debates. Click here for more information on how to buy the book.

This is a free sample of content from Immune Memory and Vaccines: Great Debates. Click here for more information on how to buy the book. A ACT. See Adoptive cellular therapy Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), 38, 48, 56 57, 214, 218 Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 392 ADCC. See Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ADCP.

More information

supplemental Figure 1

supplemental Figure 1 supplemental Figure 1 A T cell T1 anti-ny-eso-117-16/hla-a*:1 CDζ CH/CH scfv B T cell T1 anti-ny-eso-117-16/hla-a*:1 CDζ CH/CH scfv C T cell BW1/6 anti-cea CDζ CH/CH scfv supplemental Figure 1.79.9.87

More information

Licensing delineates helper and effector NK cell subsets during viral infection

Licensing delineates helper and effector NK cell subsets during viral infection Licensing delineates helper and effector NK cell subsets during viral infection Anthony E. Zamora, 1 Ethan G. Aguilar, 1 Can M. Sungur, 1 Lam T. Khuat, 1 Cordelia Dunai, 1 G. Raymond Lochhead, 2 Juan Du,

More information

Supplemental Materials

Supplemental Materials Supplemental Materials Programmed death one homolog maintains the pool size of regulatory T cells by promoting their differentiation and stability Qi Wang 1, Jianwei He 1, Dallas B. Flies 2, Liqun Luo

More information

Cell-mediated Immunity

Cell-mediated Immunity Cellular & Molecular Immunology Cell-mediated Immunity Nicholas M. Ponzio, Ph.D. Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine April 6, 2009 Today s Presentation: Overview Cellular Interactions In Humoral

More information

Fluorochrome Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 3 Panel 4 Panel 5 CTLA-4 CTLA-4 CD15 CD3 FITC. Bio) PD-1 (MIH4, BD) ICOS (C398.4A, Biolegend) PD-L1 (MIH1, BD)

Fluorochrome Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 3 Panel 4 Panel 5 CTLA-4 CTLA-4 CD15 CD3 FITC. Bio) PD-1 (MIH4, BD) ICOS (C398.4A, Biolegend) PD-L1 (MIH1, BD) Additional file : Table S. Antibodies used for panel stain to identify peripheral immune cell subsets. Panel : PD- signaling; Panel : CD + T cells, CD + T cells, B cells; Panel : Tregs; Panel :, -T, cdc,

More information

Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan. 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1

Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan. 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1 Properties & Overview of IRs Dr. Nasser M. Kaplan JUST, Jordan 10-Jul-16 NM Kaplan 1 Major components of IS & their properties Definitions IS = cells & molecules responsible for: 1- Physiologic; protective

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 16 THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? The adaptive immune system protects us from many infections The adaptive immune system has memory so we are not infected by the same pathogen

More information

Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection (CoP)

Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection (CoP) Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection (CoP) Juana Angel, Manuel Franco 2004 Derechos Reservados Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Instituto de Genética Humana Bogotá COLOMBIA Compartmentalization

More information

There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and. Specific. (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell

There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and. Specific. (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell There are 2 major lines of defense: Non-specific (Innate Immunity) and Specific (Adaptive Immunity) Photo of macrophage cell Development of the Immune System ery pl neu mφ nk CD8 + CTL CD4 + thy TH1 mye

More information

Acquired Immunity 2. - Vaccines & Immunological Memory - Wataru Ise. WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC) Osaka University.

Acquired Immunity 2. - Vaccines & Immunological Memory - Wataru Ise. WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC) Osaka University. Acquired Immunity 2 - Vaccines & Immunological Memory - Wataru Ise WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC) Osaka University Outline 1. What is vaccine (vaccination)? 2. What is immunological memory?

More information

Heterosubtypic immunity. Professor Ajit Lalvani FMedSci Chair of Infectious Diseases 14/07/2014

Heterosubtypic immunity. Professor Ajit Lalvani FMedSci Chair of Infectious Diseases 14/07/2014 Protective cellular immune correlates against pandemic influenza: implications for universal vaccines 2 nd WHO Meeting on development and clinical trials of broadly protective influenza vaccines 5th 7th

More information

REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMORY B CELL AND LONG LIVED PLASMA CELL DEVELOPMENT DURING ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION

REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMORY B CELL AND LONG LIVED PLASMA CELL DEVELOPMENT DURING ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMORY B CELL AND LONG LIVED PLASMA CELL DEVELOPMENT DURING ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION Amanda Beth Keener A dissertation submitted to the faculty at

More information

The Immune Response in Time and Space

The Immune Response in Time and Space The Immune Response in Time and Space Chapters 14 & 4 Sharon S. Evans, Ph.D. Department of Immunology 845-3421 sharon.evans@roswellpark.org September 18 & 23, 2014 Inflammation Inflammation Complex response

More information

Shiv Pillai Ragon Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School

Shiv Pillai Ragon Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School CTLs, Natural Killers and NKTs 1 Shiv Pillai Ragon Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School CTL inducing tumor apoptosis 3 Lecture outline CD8 + Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) Activation/differentiation

More information

Physiology Unit 3. ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The Specific Immune Response

Physiology Unit 3. ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The Specific Immune Response Physiology Unit 3 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The Specific Immune Response In Physiology Today The Adaptive Arm of the Immune System Specific Immune Response Internal defense against a specific pathogen Acquired

More information

The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection. Components of Human Immune System

The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection. Components of Human Immune System Chapter 17: Specific Host Defenses: The Immune Response The Immune Response Immunity: Free from burden. Ability of an organism to recognize and defend itself against specific pathogens or antigens. Immune

More information

Mucosal Immunology Sophomore Dental and Optometry Microbiology Section I: Immunology. Robin Lorenz

Mucosal Immunology Sophomore Dental and Optometry Microbiology Section I: Immunology. Robin Lorenz Mucosal Immunology Sophomore Dental and Optometry Microbiology Section I: Immunology Robin Lorenz rlorenz@uab.edu Why do we Need to Understand How the Mucosal Immune System Works? The mucosa is the major

More information

Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options

Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options Velu et al. Retrovirology (2015) 12:14 DOI 10.1186/s12977-015-0144-x REVIEW Open Access Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options Vijayakumar Velu 1,2*, Ravi

More information

Immunology. T-Lymphocytes. 16. Oktober 2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Karin Peters,

Immunology. T-Lymphocytes. 16. Oktober 2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Karin Peters, Immunology T-Lymphocytes 16. Oktober 2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Karin Peters, karin.peters@rub.de The role of T-effector cells in the immune response against microbes cellular immunity humoral immunity

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURE 1

SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURE 1 SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURE 1 A LN Cell count (1 ) 1 3 1 CD+ 1 1 CDL lo CD hi 1 CD+FoxP3+ 1 1 1 7 3 3 3 % of cells 9 7 7 % of cells CD+ 3 1 % of cells CDL lo CD hi 1 1 % of CD+ cells CD+FoxP3+ 3 1 % of CD+ T

More information

IMMUNE CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

IMMUNE CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS LECTURE: 07 Title: IMMUNE CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The student should be able to: The chemical nature of the cellular surface receptors. Define the location of the

More information

Supplementary Figure 1. mrna expression of chitinase and chitinase-like protein in splenic immune cells. Each splenic immune cell population was

Supplementary Figure 1. mrna expression of chitinase and chitinase-like protein in splenic immune cells. Each splenic immune cell population was Supplementary Figure 1. mrna expression of chitinase and chitinase-like protein in splenic immune cells. Each splenic immune cell population was sorted by FACS. Surface markers for sorting were CD11c +

More information

Vaccine Immunology HOW DO VACCINES MEDIATE PROTECTION? What Are the Main Effectors of Vaccine Responses? Claire-Anne Siegrist

Vaccine Immunology HOW DO VACCINES MEDIATE PROTECTION? What Are the Main Effectors of Vaccine Responses? Claire-Anne Siegrist Vaccine Immunology Claire-Anne Siegrist To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding

More information

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

White Blood Cells (WBCs) YOUR ACTIVE IMMUNE DEFENSES 1 ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 2! Innate Immunity - invariant (generalized) - early, limited specificity - the first line of defense 1. Barriers - skin, tears 2. Phagocytes - neutrophils,

More information

Bezzi et al., Supplementary Figure 1 *** Nature Medicine: doi: /nm Pten pc-/- ;Zbtb7a pc-/- Pten pc-/- ;Pml pc-/- Pten pc-/- ;Trp53 pc-/-

Bezzi et al., Supplementary Figure 1 *** Nature Medicine: doi: /nm Pten pc-/- ;Zbtb7a pc-/- Pten pc-/- ;Pml pc-/- Pten pc-/- ;Trp53 pc-/- Gr-1 Gr-1 Gr-1 Bezzi et al., Supplementary Figure 1 a Gr1-CD11b 3 months Spleen T cells 3 months Spleen B cells 3 months Spleen Macrophages 3 months Spleen 15 4 8 6 c CD11b+/Gr1+ cells [%] 1 5 b T cells

More information

Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow

Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow Antigen-Independent B-Cell Development Bone Marrow 1. DNA rearrangements establish the primary repertoire, creating diversity 2. Allelic exclusion ensures that each clone expresses a single antibody on

More information

T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH

T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH T Cell Effector Mechanisms I: B cell Help & DTH Ned Braunstein, MD The Major T Cell Subsets p56 lck + T cells γ δ ε ζ ζ p56 lck CD8+ T cells γ δ ε ζ ζ Cα Cβ Vα Vβ CD3 CD8 Cα Cβ Vα Vβ CD3 MHC II peptide

More information

Abnormalities of the Immune System and Inflammation in MDS Pathogenesis. Shahram Kordasti MSc(Med Imm), MD, PhD Department of Haematological Medicine

Abnormalities of the Immune System and Inflammation in MDS Pathogenesis. Shahram Kordasti MSc(Med Imm), MD, PhD Department of Haematological Medicine Abnormalities of the Immune System and Inflammation in MDS Pathogenesis Shahram Kordasti MSc(Med Imm), MD, PhD Department of Haematological Medicine What is the role of immune system in MDS? Oligoclonal

More information

Innate immunity (rapid response) Dendritic cell. Macrophage. Natural killer cell. Complement protein. Neutrophil

Innate immunity (rapid response) Dendritic cell. Macrophage. Natural killer cell. Complement protein. Neutrophil 1 The immune system The immune response The immune system comprises two arms functioning cooperatively to provide a comprehensive protective response: the innate and the adaptive immune system. The innate

More information

Tbk1-TKO! DN cells (%)! 15! 10!

Tbk1-TKO! DN cells (%)! 15! 10! a! T Cells! TKO! B Cells! TKO! b! CD4! 8.9 85.2 3.4 2.88 CD8! Tbk1-TKO! 1.1 84.8 2.51 2.54 c! DN cells (%)! 4 3 2 1 DP cells (%)! 9 8 7 6 CD4 + SP cells (%)! 5 4 3 2 1 5 TKO! TKO! TKO! TKO! 15 1 5 CD8

More information

CD34+ Cells: A Comparison of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Cord Blood, Peripheral Blood, and the Bone Marrow

CD34+ Cells: A Comparison of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Cord Blood, Peripheral Blood, and the Bone Marrow White Paper September 2016 CD34+ Cells: A Comparison of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Cord Blood, Peripheral Blood, and the Bone Marrow Lily C. Trajman, PhD Introduction: Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

More information

Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host

Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host 17 Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Define antigen, epitope, and hapten. Explain the function

More information

A temporal role Of Type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T Cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection

A temporal role Of Type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T Cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection Washington University School of Medicine Digital Commons@Becker Open Access Publications 2011 A temporal role Of Type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T Cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection

More information

Basic immunology. Lecture 9. Innate immunity: inflammation, leukocyte migration. Péter Engelmann

Basic immunology. Lecture 9. Innate immunity: inflammation, leukocyte migration. Péter Engelmann Basic immunology Lecture 9. Innate immunity: inflammation, leukocyte migration Péter Engelmann Different levels of the immune response Recognition molecules of innate immunity Initiation of local and systemic

More information

Supplementary Figure 1. Efficiency of Mll4 deletion and its effect on T cell populations in the periphery. Nature Immunology: doi: /ni.

Supplementary Figure 1. Efficiency of Mll4 deletion and its effect on T cell populations in the periphery. Nature Immunology: doi: /ni. Supplementary Figure 1 Efficiency of Mll4 deletion and its effect on T cell populations in the periphery. Expression of Mll4 floxed alleles (16-19) in naive CD4 + T cells isolated from lymph nodes and

More information

Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8 + T cells through PD-1

Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8 + T cells through PD-1 Research article Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8 + T cells through PD-1 John J. Erickson, 1 Pavlo Gilchuk, 1 Andrew K. Hastings, 1 Sharon J. Tollefson, 2 Monika Johnson, 1 Melissa B.

More information

The Adaptive Immune Responses

The Adaptive Immune Responses The Adaptive Immune Responses The two arms of the immune responses are; 1) the cell mediated, and 2) the humoral responses. In this chapter we will discuss the two responses in detail and we will start

More information

Generation of ST2-GFP reporter mice and characterization of ILC1 cells following infection

Generation of ST2-GFP reporter mice and characterization of ILC1 cells following infection Supplementary Figure 1 Generation of ST2-GFP reporter mice and characterization of ILC1 cells following infection with influenza virus. (a) ST2-GFP reporter mice were generated as described in Methods.

More information

Supplementary Figure 1. NAFL enhanced immunity of other vaccines (a) An over-the-counter, hand-held non-ablative fractional laser (NAFL).

Supplementary Figure 1. NAFL enhanced immunity of other vaccines (a) An over-the-counter, hand-held non-ablative fractional laser (NAFL). Supplementary Figure 1. NAFL enhanced immunity of other vaccines (a) An over-the-counter, hand-held non-ablative fractional laser (NAFL). (b) Depiction of a MTZ array generated by NAFL. (c-e) IgG production

More information

Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Concepts. MCMP422 Immunology and Biologics Immunology is important personally and professionally!

Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Concepts. MCMP422 Immunology and Biologics Immunology is important personally and professionally! MCMP422 Immunology and Biologics Immunology is important personally and professionally! Learn the language - use the glossary and index RNR - Reading, Note taking, Reviewing All materials in Chapters 1-3

More information

ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY The recognition of specific antigen by naïve T cell induces its own activation and effector phases. T helper cells recognize peptide antigens through

More information

Control of Virus-Specific CD8 T-Cell Exhaustion and Immune-Mediated Pathology by E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b during Chronic Viral Infection

Control of Virus-Specific CD8 T-Cell Exhaustion and Immune-Mediated Pathology by E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b during Chronic Viral Infection JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Apr. 2008, p. 3353 3368 Vol. 82, No. 7 0022-538X/08/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/jvi.01350-07 Copyright 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Control of Virus-Specific

More information

The Skinny of the Immune System

The Skinny of the Immune System The Skinny of the Immune System Robert Hostoffer, DO, FACOP, FAAP Associate Professor of Pediatrics Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Overview 1. Immune system of the skin 2. Immune Players

More information

Tracking total polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred hosts after infection

Tracking total polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred hosts after infection University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations 2010 Tracking total polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred hosts after infection Deepa Kumari Rai University of Iowa Copyright

More information

Sensing Microbial Viability through Bacterial RNA Augments T Follicular Helper Cell and Antibody Responses

Sensing Microbial Viability through Bacterial RNA Augments T Follicular Helper Cell and Antibody Responses Article Sensing Microbial Viability through Bacterial RNA Augments T Follicular Helper Cell and Antibody Responses Graphical Abstract Authors Gaetan Barbet, Leif E. Sander, Matthew Geswell, Irina Leonardi,

More information

Chapter 2 (pages 22 33): Cells and Tissues of the Immune System. Prepared by Kristen Dazy, MD, Scripps Clinic Medical Group

Chapter 2 (pages 22 33): Cells and Tissues of the Immune System. Prepared by Kristen Dazy, MD, Scripps Clinic Medical Group Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 8th Edition By Abul K. Abbas, MBBS; Andrew H. H. Lichtman, MD, PhD; and Shiv Pillai, MBBS, PhD. Chapter 2 (pages 22 33): Cells and

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Aldridge et al. 10.1073/pnas.0900655106 Fig. S1. Flow diagram of sublethal (a) and lethal (b) influenza virus infections. (a) Infection of lung epithelial cells by influenza virus

More information

La risposta immune all infezione da virus ebola. Chiara Agrati, PhD

La risposta immune all infezione da virus ebola. Chiara Agrati, PhD La risposta immune all infezione da virus ebola Chiara Agrati, PhD Pathogenetic mechanisms This virus infection is able to: - disable the immune system, preventing an effective protective immune response

More information

Immunology - Lecture 2 Adaptive Immune System 1

Immunology - Lecture 2 Adaptive Immune System 1 Immunology - Lecture 2 Adaptive Immune System 1 Book chapters: Molecules of the Adaptive Immunity 6 Adaptive Cells and Organs 7 Generation of Immune Diversity Lymphocyte Antigen Receptors - 8 CD markers

More information

Antigen Presentation to Lymphocytes

Antigen Presentation to Lymphocytes Antigen Presentation to Lymphocytes Jiyang O Wang, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba, Japan Takeshi Watanabe, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan Antigen presentation

More information

Overview of role of immunologic markers in HIV diagnosis

Overview of role of immunologic markers in HIV diagnosis Overview of role of immunologic markers in HIV diagnosis Savita Pahwa, M.D. Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pediatrics University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida Background:

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. T-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. T-cells The Adaptive Immune Response T-cells T Lymphocytes T lymphocytes develop from precursors in the thymus. Mature T cells are found in the blood, where they constitute 60% to 70% of lymphocytes, and in T-cell

More information

Hua Tang, Weiping Cao, Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Rajesh Ravindran, Helder I Nakaya, Kousik

Hua Tang, Weiping Cao, Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Rajesh Ravindran, Helder I Nakaya, Kousik SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURES 1-19 T H 2 response to cysteine-proteases requires dendritic cell-basophil cooperation via ROS mediated signaling Hua Tang, Weiping Cao, Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Rajesh Ravindran, Helder

More information

Antigen Presentation to T lymphocytes

Antigen Presentation to T lymphocytes Antigen Presentation to T lymphocytes Immunology 441 Lectures 6 & 7 Chapter 6 October 10 & 12, 2016 Jessica Hamerman jhamerman@benaroyaresearch.org Office hours by arrangement Antibodies and T cell receptors

More information

Supplemental Information. Genomic Characterization of Murine. Monocytes Reveals C/EBPb Transcription. Factor Dependence of Ly6C Cells

Supplemental Information. Genomic Characterization of Murine. Monocytes Reveals C/EBPb Transcription. Factor Dependence of Ly6C Cells Immunity, Volume 46 Supplemental Information Genomic Characterization of Murine Monocytes Reveals C/EBPb Transcription Factor Dependence of Ly6C Cells Alexander Mildner, Jörg Schönheit, Amir Giladi, Eyal

More information

Supplementary Figure 1. IL-12 serum levels and frequency of subsets in FL patients. (A) IL-12

Supplementary Figure 1. IL-12 serum levels and frequency of subsets in FL patients. (A) IL-12 1 Supplementary Data Figure legends Supplementary Figure 1. IL-12 serum levels and frequency of subsets in FL patients. (A) IL-12 serum levels measured by multiplex ELISA (Luminex) in FL patients before

More information

Lines of Defense. Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing. Immunology Terminology

Lines of Defense. Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing. Immunology Terminology Immunology, Immune Response, and Immunological Testing Lines of Defense If the First and Second lines of defense fail, then the Third line of defense is activated. B and T lymphocytes undergo a selective

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Lecture 14 Biology W3310/4310 Virology Spring Life is simple, but we insist on making it complicated CONFUCIUS

Adaptive Immunity. Lecture 14 Biology W3310/4310 Virology Spring Life is simple, but we insist on making it complicated CONFUCIUS Adaptive Immunity Lecture 14 Biology W3310/4310 Virology Spring 2016 Life is simple, but we insist on making it complicated CONFUCIUS Host defenses Intrinsic - Always present in the uninfected cell - Apoptosis,

More information

Generation of post-germinal centre myeloma plasma B cell.

Generation of post-germinal centre myeloma plasma B cell. Generation of post-germinal centre myeloma. DNA DAMAGE CXCR4 Homing to Lytic lesion activation CD38 CD138 CD56 Phenotypic markers Naive Secondary lymphoid organ Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of s caused

More information

Supplementary Figures

Supplementary Figures Supplementary Figures Supplementary Figure 1. NKT ligand-loaded tumour antigen-presenting B cell- and monocyte-based vaccine induces NKT, NK and CD8 T cell responses. (A) The cytokine profiles of liver

More information

Prepared by Cyrus H. Nozad, MD, University of Tennessee and John Seyerle, MD, Ohio State University

Prepared by Cyrus H. Nozad, MD, University of Tennessee and John Seyerle, MD, Ohio State University Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 21 of Middleton s Allergy Principles and Practice, Seventh Edition, edited by N. Franklin Adkinson, et al. Chapter 21: Antigen-Presenting Dendritic Cells (Pages

More information