Soybean Cyst Nematode and other disease issues in soybean. Sam Markell, Ph.D. Extension Plant Pathologist North Dakota State University

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2 Soybean Cyst Nematode and other disease issues in soybean Sam Markell, Ph.D. Extension Plant Pathologist North Dakota State University

3 Questions to Answer What is Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)? Why is SCN a threat? How do we manage SCN?

4 Questions to Answer What is Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)? Why is SCN a threat? How do we manage SCN?

5

6 Cysts Nodule

7

8 Soybean Cyst Life Cycle Source:

9 Why is the Cyst Important? Soybean Cyst Life Cycle Tough structure Long term survival Moves with soil Equipment, Water, Wind, Birds, Boots, 4-wheelers, etc.. Source:

10 Soybean Cyst Life Cycle Source:

11 Why is Mating Important? High genetic Soybean diversitycyst Life Cycle Ability to change/adapt Source:

12 Soybean Cyst Life Cycle Source:

13 Soybean Cyst Life About Cycle 4 weeks Source:

14 What does SCN do? Feeds Takes away nutrients Water Damages roots Entry for other pathogens

15 Questions to Answer What is Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)? Why is SCN a threat? How do we manage SCN?

16 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes Quickly in New Environments

17 1957

18 1973

19 1980

20 1990

21 2001

22 Marett & Tylka 2013

23 Slide courtesy of Greg Tylka, Ph.D. Iowa St. Univ. Random Survey Sample Sites, in cooperation with 54% Incidence of SCN Infestation 74% 83% 47% 60% 71%

24 ND Sampling Program ( ) Funding = North Dakota Soybean Council Pick up sample bags at County Extension Office (Mid-August or later) Soil Sample Send in sample Data mailed to you Reported in eggs/100cc

25

26

27

28

29 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes quickly in new environments 2. Few above ground symptoms early

30

31 Richland County, ND

32 Richland County, ND B. D. Nelson

33 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes quickly in new environments 2. Few above ground symptoms early 3. High level of reproduction

34 How fast can SCN increase? Eggs/100 cc Spring Fall RG200 P0606 A801 Variety Data Courtesy Ted Helms and Berlin Nelson: Richland Co. 2007

35 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes quickly in new environments 2. Few above ground symptoms early 3. High level of reproduction 4. Survives very well

36 Source: Slack, D.A., unpublished Slide courtesy of Greg Tylka, Ph.D. Iowa St. Univ. SCN has tremendous long-term survival SCN cysts containing viable eggs recovered from a field cropped to fescue (nonhost grass) for 40 years Source: Riggs, R.D., unpublished SCN-infested field kept fallow and weed free for 8 years soybeans grown in years 9 & 10 SCN damage to soybeans occurred in year 10

37 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes quickly in new environments 2. Few above ground symptoms early 3. High level of reproduction 4. Survives very well 5. Yield loss

38 Richland Co., ND 2006 SCN-susceptible 4,000 eggs /100 cm 3 sandy loam soil Drought conditions Source: Berlin Nelson, NDSU

39 SCN infested soil Richland Co., ND SCN-susceptible soybean variety SCN-resistant soybean variety Source: B.D. Nelson, North Dakota State University

40 Iowa field, undated Tylka - ISU

41 Why is SCN a threat? 1. Establishes quickly in new environments 2. Few above ground symptoms early 3. High level of reproduction 4. Survives very well 5. Yield loss 6. Interacts with other pathogens

42 Kandel, NDSU

43 Kandel, NDSU

44 Kandel, NDSU

45 D. Malvick U of MN

46

47 Questions to Answer What is Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)? Why is SCN a threat? How do we manage SCN?

48 How do we manage SCN? Sampling Resistance Rotation Seed Treatments

49 Resistance Pays Twice Protects yield Keeps egg levels low

50 2012 SCN variety trials Susceptible Check Avg of Resistant Yield bu/a Arthur Wyndmere Wolverton Data: SCN variety test - Ted Helms

51 2015 SCN Variety Trials 50 Susceptible Check Avg of Resistant 40 Bu/Acre Absaraka Arthur Galesburg Hankinson Data Courtesy: SCN Variety Trials Ted Helms

52

53 Not all resistant varieties are created equal Average Yields of Three ND Locations: 2012 LSD = 5.3 Bu/A Variety Data: SCN variety test - Ted Helms

54 2015 SCN Variety Trials 50.0 Average Yield of Four ND Locations: Bu/Acre Variety Data Courtesy: SCN Variety Trials Ted Helms

55 Resistance pays twice Egg levels Eggs / 100 cc Eggs/100 cc Spring Fall Spring Fall 0 0 A B C A B C D E Susceptible Resistant Varieties Variety Adapted From: Berlin Nelson: Richland Co. 2007

56 Rotate, rotate, rotate

57 Crop Rotation Effects Significant egg level drop in the first year Some egg level drop in second year Limited drop in next years

58 SCN survival in crop rotation Eggs / 100 cc Soybean Wheat Year Adapted From Berlin Nelson

59 Rotation Recommendations SCN Hosts Dry Edible Beans Chickweed Field Pennycress Purselane Shepard s Purse Sweet Clover Wild Mustard Soybean Varieties Rotate sources of resistance PI88788, Peking Rotate Variety May be rotating genes within source

60 Putting resistance and rotation together

61 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

62 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

63 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

64 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

65 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

66 Managing SCN Sus Soy Non-host Res Soy Egg / 100 cc Year end of season samples Adapted From Berlin Nelson

67 Seed Treatments Multiple products now more coming Avicta, Clariva, N-Hibit, Votivo. Trials every year good data is limited Add on to resistance and rotation Not recommended on susceptible beans

68 Syngenta Seed Treatments Bu/acre Absaraka Arthur Galesburg Hankinson CruiserMaxx Vibrance CruiserMaxx Vibrance + Clariva Avicta Complete + Vibrance

69

70 Three Soybean Diseases Charcoal Rot Brown Stem Rot Sudden Death Syndrome

71 Charcoal Rot Soybean, Dry Edible Beans, Corn, Sunflower are hosts Confirmed (widespread) in MN and ND Yield loss high in spots

72 Photos: Wrather (PMN), Miss St., Bradley, Tone

73

74

75 Courtesy: Malvick, U MN

76 Brown Stem Rot Soybean Confirmed in ND and MN Premature senescence 5-15% yield loss

77 Photos: Dean Malvick (UMN)

78 Sudden Death Syndrome Soybean Confirmed in MN only Worse with SCN Premature senescence Up to 50% yield loss

79 Photos: Dean Malvick (UMN)

80 Thank You! Questions?

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