Neuroscience. Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior 1/11/2010. The Brain and Behavior

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Neuroscience. Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior 1/11/2010. The Brain and Behavior"

Transcription

1 Neuroscience The Brain and Behavior Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior I. How is the Nervous System Organized? II. Methods of Studying the Brain III. How Does the Brain Function? IV. What Effects Do Hormones Have on Behavior? V. How Do Genetic Factors Affect Behavior? 1

2 I. How is the Nervous System Organized? A. Cellular Level 1. The Neuron Building block of the nervous system Single nerve cell = neuron Bundle of neurons = nerve or tract A. Cellular Level 1. The Neuron a. Three types of neuron i. Afferent or Sensory Neurons: Carry info to the brain & spinal cord ii. Efferent or Motor Neurons: Carry info from the brain & spinal cord to other structures in the body iii. Interneurons: Connect sensory and motor neurons 1. The Neuron b. Glial cells surround, nourish, and support the neurons Smaller than neurons More prevalent than neurons Form the myelin sheath that covers some large motor neurons Speeds up transmission of neural signals Multiple sclerosis causes a loss of myelination 2

3 1. The Neuron Alzheimer s Disease A progressive deterioration of cognitive skills (memory loss). Reduced branching of the dendrite trees. No cure. Etiology: genetic, defective gene on the 21 st chromosome, environmental factors. 1. The Neuron d. The Synapse Small space between neurons A. Cellular Level 2. The Functioning of Neurons Communication is an electrochemical process Within neurons it is electrical Between neurons it is chemical A thin membrane around the neuron allows the process 3

4 2. The Function of Neurons Partially permeable cell membrane Traps charged particles inside or outside the neuron At rest, the interior carries a negative electrical charge The exterior carries a positive electrical charge This difference in charges creates a state of polarization 2. The Function of Neurons Each neuron has a threshold Level of stimulation required for activation When the threshold is reached: Gates open in cell membrane Positive ions rush into cell Neuron is depolarized Relative charge is reversed Action potential has formed 2. The Function of Neurons Action potential The spike charge is an electrical current that travels down an axon If the threshold is not reached, the neuron will not fire All-or-none Principle Either the neuron fires or it doesn t Action potential is always the same strength 4

5 2. The Function of Neurons Neuron must recover between firings Refractory period No action potentials can occur until resting state is re-established A. Cellular Level 3. Neurotransmitters and Behavior Communication must cross the synapse between neurons Chemical signal At the axon terminal, the action potential causes the release of neurotransmitters 5

6 3. Neurotransmitters After binding with an adjacent neuron, one of two processes occurs Breakdown by enzymes Reuptake re-absorption by the terminal buttons (SSRI s) Neurotransmitters have two effects Excitatory: receiving neuron fires more easily. Increase the likelihood that neuron will fire Inhibitory: receiving neuron fires less easily. Decreases the likelihood Copyright that Allyn & the Bacon 2006 neuron will fire. 3. Neurotransmitters There are at least 50 different neurotransmitters Examples: Acetylcholine (Ach) Excitatory Receptors in skeletal muscles Involved in memory and learning Alzheimer s disease involves insufficient production of acetylcholine 3. Neurotransmitters Serotonin Inhibitory Involved in sleep regulation, appetite, anxiety, and depression Antidepressants affect serotonin A monoamine neurotransmitter 6

7 3. Neurotransmitters Dopamine Inhibitory Involved in movement, learning and memory, emotions, pleasure Also involved in Schizophrenia, ADHD, Parkinson s Disease 3. Neurotransmitters Norephinephrine Excitatory Involved in arousal, hunger, learning, memory, & mood disorders. 3. Neurotransmitters Neuropeptides are chemicals similar to neurotransmitters Endorphins Inhibitory, Painkillers. Occur naturally in the brain & bloodstream. Similar to morphine. 7

8 A. The Cellular Level 4. Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Behavior Psychopharmacology Study of how drugs affect behavior Types of effects: a. Alter amount of neurotransmitter released Ecstasy causes massive release of serotonin May also block release of neurotransmitters A. The Cellular Level Types of effects: a. Increase production of neurotransmitters b. L-dopa, used to treat Parkinson s disease 4. Neurotransmitters, Drugs, and Behavior c. Change the speed at which neurotransmitters are disabled after release Prozac and Zoloft slow reuptake of serotonin d. Bind to neurotransmitter receptor sites 8

9 4. Neurotransmitters, Drugs, and Behavior Medications to treat Schizophrenia are often dopamine antagonists Mimic effects of dopamine Reduce symptoms of schizophrenia Divisions of the NS Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Somatic NS Autonomic NS Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS Central Nervous System a. The Brain Lower structures are involved in more basic functions Higher structures are involved in more complex functions 9

10 Divisions of the Nervous System b. Spinal Cord Controls spinal reflexes without input from the brain Knee-jerk reflex Relays information to and from the brain Divisions of the Nervous System 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Carries information to and from the CNS Consists of neurons and nerves found outside the CNS 1. Peripheral Nervous System a. Somatic nervous system Responds to and acts on the external stimuli Under voluntary control Both sensory and motor neurons b. Autonomic nervous system Controls automatic processes Two subdivisions 10

11 1. Peripheral Nervous System b. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) i. Sympathetic nervous system Produces physiological changes, increases heart rate, blood pressure, & respiration to perceived emergencies. Activates fight-or-flight response ii. Parasympathetic nervous system Controls normal physiological operations and calms the body Central Nervous System Brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain b. The Brain i. The Hindbrain: Survival functions a) Medulla Controls involuntary reflexes, heartbeat and breathing Contains the reticular formation Passes through the midbrain into the forebrain Involved in arousal, sleep, attention b) Pons Links lower brain with the rest of the brain Also involved in sleep and arousal 11

12 i. The Hindbrain c) Cerebellum Little brain Influences balance, coordination, and movement Only 10% of brain volume, but has >50% of neurons Alcohol disrupts the cerebellum b. The Brain ii. Midbrain Collections of cell bodies that receive signals from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain Involved in smooth movement, temperature, and some reflexes b. The Brain iii. The Forebrain a) Thalamus Relay station for sensory information b) Hypothalamus: Controls ANS & endocrine system, body temperature, motivation & emotion Regulates hormone secretion, hunger, eating, drinking, homeostasis and sexual activity 12

13 b. The Brain c) The Limbic System: Hunger, sex, aggression, emotion, & memory Hippocampus Memory Amygdala Emotion iii. The Forebrain iii. The Forebrain c) Limbic System Contains the pleasure center Involved in addiction d) Basal Ganglia Link the thalamus and cortex Control movement and posture Degeneration is associated with Parkinson s Disease 13

14 iii. The Forebrain e) Cerebrum Largest structure in the human brain Two hemispheres Connected by the corpus callosum iii. The Forebrain e) Cerebrum Covered by the cortex 2 to 3 mm thick. Wrinkled and convoluted Controls cognitive functioning, voluntary action Left Hemisphere: Primarily speech, language, analytical skills, calculation Right Hemisphere: Primarily interpretation of emotions, creativity, intuition Neither hemisphere acts in isolation of the other Cerebral Cortex Gives the ability to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments Lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital 14

15 iii. The Forebrain Frontal Lobe e) Cerebrum Four lobes Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Methods of Studying the Brain A. Phrenology B. Anatomical Studies Brain lesions: Tissue damage Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB): Technique used to relate activity in particular brain regions to behavior. II. Methods of Studying the Brain C. Monitoring Neural Activity Single-unit recording Measures activity in individual neurons Electroencephalography (EEG) Measures electrical activity Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) scans Computer-enhanced X-rays 15

16 A. Monitoring Neural Activity Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Uses magnetic fields to trace activity & make up of tissue Images are clearer and more detailed than CT scans Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Tracks radioactive markers that have been injected into the bloodstream III.How Does the Brain Function? Information from damaged brains Damage from strokes and accidents Learned that Broca s area and Wernicke s area are involved in language 16

17 III. How Does the Brain Function? B. Brain Specialization 1. Splitting the brain Cerebral hemispheres are not identical Left hemisphere more involved in language Information comes from study of splitbrain patients Individuals whose corpus callosum has been cut to treat severe epilepsy Left and Right symmetrical Halves Left hemisphere controls the right side of the body Verbal competence Processes info sequentially Right hemisphere controls the left side of the body Spatial relationships Recognition of patterns Music Emotional expression Processes info globally 1. Splitting the Brain An image in the left visual field appears in the right (nonverbal) hemisphere when looking straight ahead???? 17

18 1. Splitting the Brain An image in the right visual field appears in the left (verbal) hemisphere when looking straight ahead It s a silly yellow and pink polkadotted bug. B. Brain Specialization 2. Gender and the Brain There are NOT masculine and feminine sides of the brain However, there are some gender differences Women may be less lateralized than men on some tasks Individual variation is larger than gender differences IV. What Effects Do Hormones Have on Behavior? Hormones are chemicals produced by endocrine glands Secreted directly into the bloodstream Regulate activities of specific organs or cells Slower action than that of neurotransmitters 18

19 III. Hormones Brain Behavior Endocrine Glands Target Organs III. Hormones III. Hormones B. Endocrine Glands 1. Pituitary Gland Master gland Regulates many other endocrine glands Linked to the hypothalamus 19

20 B. Endocrine Glands 2. Gonads Ovaries and testes Produce androgens and estrogens 3. Adrenal Glands Located above kidneys Produce adrenaline (epinephrine) B. Endocrine Glands 4. Pancreas Produces insulin Regulates body s sugar levels Diabetes mellitus results when pancreas doesn t produce enough insulin Hypoglycemia is caused by overproduction of insulin V. How Do Genetic Factors Affect Behavior? A. The Issue of Nature versus Nurture Nature refers to biology Nurture refers to environment Which is more influential? Neither can solely account for behavior Relative importance is source of much debate 20

21 V. How Do Genetic Factors Affect Behavior? B. The Basics of Genetics Each human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes Strands of DNA Carry genes Fundamental units of heredity Genetically determined traits are controlled by pairs of genes B. The Basics of Genetics Genotype A person s genetic make-up Fixed at birth Phenotype A person s observable characteristics Will reflect recessive traits only if both members of the gene pair are recessive B. The Basics of Genetics Mutation An unexpected change in gene replication Important sources of diversity in the human gene pool Not always undesirable 21

22 IV. How Do Genetic Factors Affect Behavior? C. How Genes Affect Behavior Genes affect behavior indirectly Behavioral genetics The study of the influence of genes on behavior Heritability The degree to which genetics influences traits C. How Genes Affect Behavior Twin Studies Fraternal Twins Dizygotic twins Two sperm and two eggs No more genetically similar than non-twin siblings Identical Twins Monozygotic twins One sperm and one egg split Identical genes C. How Genes Affect Behavior Twin Studies Identical twins raised apart share genes, but not environment Fraternal twins raised together share environment, but not genes Allows study of effects of genes and environment Most behaviors are determined by an interaction between genes and environment 22

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Copyright 2001 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited Heredity! Chromosomes! Threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each

More information

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma.

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma. 1. Base of brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing 2. tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 3. A thick band of axons that connects the

More information

Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2

Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2 Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2 1. The function of dendrites is to A) receive incoming signals from other neurons. B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons. C) coordinate

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1 Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1 Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer:

More information

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System The Nervous System and the Endocrine System Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System Nervous System The electrochemical communication system of the body Sends messages from the brain to the

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 1 What is a neuron? 2 Name and describe the functions of the three main parts of the neuron. 3 What do glial cells do? 4 Describe the three basic

More information

Practice test 1 spring 2011 copy

Practice test 1 spring 2011 copy Practice test 1 spring 2011 copy Student: 1. The fundamental units of the nervous system are nerve cells, called: A. axons B. glial cells C. neurons D. neurotransmitters 2. Which of the following is NOT

More information

General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain

General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain These are general notes designed to assist students who are regularly attending class and reading assigned material: they are supplemental rather than exhaustive

More information

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons The Nervous System How you know when to STOP doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable Complexity of the Brain The brain contains approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, and

More information

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Neural and Hormonal Systems Module 4 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate

More information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information NERVOUS SYSTEM Monitor changes External / internal Integrate input Primary Functions Process, interpret, make decisions, store information Initiate a response E.g., movement, hormone release, stimulate/inhibit

More information

CHAPTER 2 the biological perspective

CHAPTER 2 the biological perspective CHAPTER 2 the biological perspective psychology fourth edition, global edition Overview of Nervous System Biological Psychology LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves? focuses on the biological

More information

Distinguish between the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS

Distinguish between the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS Psychology Mr. Duez - LEARNING TARGETS UNIT 2 - "The Biological Bases of Behavior" Part I - The Brain, Nervous System, Neurons, & Behavior/Heredity Major points to understand: 1. The different methods

More information

The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized?

The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? Honors Biology Guided Notes Chapter 28 Nervous System Name 28.10 28.19 The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Define Cephalization and Centralization. What type of

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.

More information

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe

More information

Brain Basics. Introduction to Cognitive Science

Brain Basics. Introduction to Cognitive Science Brain Basics Introduction to Cognitive Science Human brain: ~100 billion (10 11 ) neurons ~100 trillion (10 14 ) neural connections Neurons Dozens of different neurotransmitters Why? And why neurotransmitter

More information

Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization The Nervous System Chapter 44 All animals must be able to respond to environmental stimuli -Sensory receptors = Detect stimulus -Motor effectors = Respond to it -The nervous system links the two -Consists

More information

Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system

Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system In this module you will learn: The main parts of the nervous system The different sections of the brain and how it functions The structure and function of the spinal

More information

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name:

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: PSYCH 260 Exam 2 March 2, 2017 Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: 1 1 Main Please put in their proper order the steps that lead to synaptic communication between neurons. Begin with the

More information

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition)

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 CAN AN INJURED SPINAL CORD BE FIXED? Injuries to the spinal cord disrupt communication between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body

More information

Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy. Components of a Nervous System

Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy. Components of a Nervous System Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy Components of a Nervous System In any nervous system, there are 4 main components: (1) sensors: gather information from the external environment (sense organs) (2)

More information

Week 2 Psychology. The Brain and Behavior

Week 2 Psychology. The Brain and Behavior Week 2 Psychology The Brain and Behavior In this lesson, we will focus on the nervous system. We will learn about the Nervous System and its Command Center the Brain Characteristics and Divisions of the

More information

Unit III, Modules 9-13 Test Review

Unit III, Modules 9-13 Test Review Unit III, Modules 9-13 Test Review See also the Unit III notes and pages 76-122 About 45 m.c., plus two essays; one on brain functioning, the other review concepts from previous units. Some practice questions

More information

Psychology Chapter 3. Biology and Behavior

Psychology Chapter 3. Biology and Behavior Psychology Chapter 3 Biology and Behavior Chapter 3 Key Words -Define and describe your Keywords and share! Section 1 Activating Activity Section 1 Preview Video Chapter 3 Section 1E.Q. What is the Nervous

More information

Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8

Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 1 Surgical Papyrus Egyptian hieroglyphics. 17 th Century B.C. Oldest known surgical treatise. 48 case histories are outlined. 2 Organization of the Nervous System Consists

More information

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system action potential A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber. afferent neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses

More information

Forebrain Brain Structures Limbic System. Brain Stem Midbrain Basil Ganglia. Cerebellum Reticular Formation Medulla oblongata

Forebrain Brain Structures Limbic System. Brain Stem Midbrain Basil Ganglia. Cerebellum Reticular Formation Medulla oblongata Brain structures (1) Cut out the following cards (2) Identify the three major divisions of the brain (as defined by your book). Initially, try this without any form of aid such as your textbook. (3) Organize

More information

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System Warm-up Objective: Explain how membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between cells' content and the extracellular fluid. Warm-up: Cells from this structure migrate to other parts

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED Images of the human brain in popular culture almost always focus on the cerebrum, the part of the brain whose surface lies just

More information

Cell body of sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglion. Hamstring. muscle

Cell body of sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglion. Hamstring. muscle The nervous system In vertebrates The CNS (central nervous system) is composed of the brain and spinal cord The PNS (peripheral nervous system is composed of nerves and ganglia The spinal cord conveys

More information

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition)

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types

More information

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems Bio11 schedule Lecture Nervous system and senses Lab Current events reports (10 pts) Urinalysis Lecture exam 2 Thursday Feb 24 Same format as before Study guide will be posted Your total points so far

More information

2 The Biological Perspective

2 The Biological Perspective 2 The Biological Perspective Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level Type A=Applied C=Conceptual F=Factual Level (1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult LO=Learning Objective SG=Used in Study

More information

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System Total 33 points Name: Circle the best response to the following: (33 points) 1. What do we call the long fibre that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body? A.

More information

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE 1 Name: BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE Date: 1) Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. 2) Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z?

More information

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter 3 Structure and Function of the Nervous System 1 Basic Features of the Nervous System Neuraxis: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the

More information

Chapter 7 Nervous System

Chapter 7 Nervous System Chapter 7 Nervous System Two message centers: Functions of these systems: 1. * 2. * Overview of the Nervous System Parts: General Functions: Functions Sensory input: Sensation via nerves Integration: interpretation

More information

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Invertebrates Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Radial Symmetry - Nerve net Cnideria Bilateral Symmetry double, ventral, solid nerve cord brain (cephalization) Vertebrates Dorsal, single, hollow,

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Causes of Abnormal Behavior. Paradigms. Biological. Chapter 2

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Causes of Abnormal Behavior. Paradigms. Biological. Chapter 2 Slide 1 Causes of Abnormal Behavior Chapter 2 Slide 2 Paradigms (def)-a set of shared assumptions that include a theory and how data should be collected. Four Basic Paradigms: Biological Psychodynamic

More information

Objectives. ! Describe the major structures of the nervous system. ! Explain how a nerve impulse is transmitted.

Objectives. ! Describe the major structures of the nervous system. ! Explain how a nerve impulse is transmitted. Objectives! Describe the major structures of the nervous system.! Explain how a nerve impulse is transmitted.! Distinguish between the functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems.! Identify

More information

Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424. By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi

Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424. By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424 By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions, mental activities,

More information

Biological Bases of Behavior

Biological Bases of Behavior Biological Bases of Behavior What do neurons look like? I These are the basic parts Types of Neurons What do neurons (really) look like? What do neurons do? Collect inputs on their If sufficient input

More information

[CHAPTER 12: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM] [ANSWER KEY]

[CHAPTER 12: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM] [ANSWER KEY] WORDBANK: Cholinesterase Dopamine Axon Choroid layer Cochlea Incus Action Potential Cataract Cornea Astigmatism Dendrite Malleus Alzheimer s Disease Central Excitatory Response Fovea Centralis Acetylcholine

More information

Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day)

Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day) Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day) Nervous System Overview Major Function: Control the body's and. Divided into the Nervous System (CNS=Brain and Spinal Cord) and the Nervous System (PNS=Cranial

More information

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells CHAPTER 7 The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses Chapter 7 Outline Neurons and Supporting Cells Activity in Axons The Synapse Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter Monoamines as Neurotransmitters Other

More information

Basic Neuroscience. Sally Curtis

Basic Neuroscience. Sally Curtis The Physiology of Pain Basic Neuroscience Sally Curtis sac3@soton.ac.uk The behaviour of humans is a result of the actions of nerves. Nerves form the basis of Thoughts, sensations and actions both reflex

More information

The Biological Basis of Behavior

The Biological Basis of Behavior The Biological Basis of Behavior Chapter 2 Chapter Overview I. Introduction II. Neurons III. The Human Nervous System IV. The Brain I. Introduction A. Announcement: The Brain Game B. Phrenology I. Introduction

More information

Nervous System Notes

Nervous System Notes Nervous System Notes The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells or neurons. I. A nervous system is an important part of a cell s (or an organism s) ability to respond to the environment. A.

More information

Ch. 2: The Biological Perspective Take Home Test on Peripheral Nervous System and the Brain Human Behavior Mr. Minervini

Ch. 2: The Biological Perspective Take Home Test on Peripheral Nervous System and the Brain Human Behavior Mr. Minervini Ch. 2: The Biological Perspective Take Home Test on Peripheral Nervous System and the Brain Human Behavior Mr. Minervini Level 1 Only Name: Period: Please highlight the correct answer/response in yellow

More information

SBI4U PRACTICE QUIZ Endocrine and Nervous Systems

SBI4U PRACTICE QUIZ Endocrine and Nervous Systems SBI4U PRACTICE QUIZ Endocrine and Nervous Systems Part I: Multiple Choice 1. Steroid hormones operate by: A. crossing the cell membrane and starting transcription for the appropriate protein B. attaching

More information

Chapter 22. The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets. 561

Chapter 22. The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets. 561 Chapter 22 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 22.1: The Nervous System Lesson 22.2: The

More information

The Nervous System. Nerves, nerves everywhere!

The Nervous System. Nerves, nerves everywhere! The Nervous System Nerves, nerves everywhere! Purpose of the Nervous System The information intake and response system of the body. Coordinates all body functions, voluntary and involuntary! Responds to

More information

Biological Bases of Behavior Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind AP Objective 3: Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%)

Biological Bases of Behavior Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind AP Objective 3: Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%) Biological Bases of Behavior Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind AP Objective 3: Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%) An effective introduction to the relationship between physiological processes and behavior

More information

Learning Intention. Name and describe the components of a neuron

Learning Intention. Name and describe the components of a neuron c) Neural Pathways Learning Intention Name and describe the components of a neuron Cells of the Nervous System The nervous system consists of a complex network of nerve cells called neurons which receive

More information

L01 L02 L03 L04 L05 L06 L07 L08

L01 L02 L03 L04 L05 L06 L07 L08 2/12/15 The Biological Mind What Is Biological Psychology? L01 L02 L03 L04 L05 Debate the strengths and limitations of biological psychology as a major psychological perspective, considering the roles

More information

Nervous System Worksheet

Nervous System Worksheet Nervous System Worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Nervous System The Nervous System regulates and coordinates activities within the body. It detects, interprets and responds to changes that occur internally

More information

Chapter 2 Test. 1. Evolutionary structures within the are the most primitive. *a. hindbrain b. thalamus c. forebrain d. midbrain e.

Chapter 2 Test. 1. Evolutionary structures within the are the most primitive. *a. hindbrain b. thalamus c. forebrain d. midbrain e. Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory 5th Edition Galotti TEST BANK Full clear download (no formatting errors) at: https://testbankreal.com/download/cognitive-psychology-laboratory-5thedition-galotti-test-bank/

More information

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides Fall 2013 Slides are taken from Vander s Human Physiology, 11 th edition, McGraw Hill (ISBN 0077216091)" These slides cover:" Chapter 6, Neuronal Signaling

More information

Chapter 49 Nervous Systems

Chapter 49 Nervous Systems Chapter 49 Nervous Systems Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells Nervous System Organization The simplest animals with nervous systems, the cnidarians, have neurons

More information

Composed of gray matter and arranged in raised ridges (gyri), grooves (sulci), depressions (fissures).

Composed of gray matter and arranged in raised ridges (gyri), grooves (sulci), depressions (fissures). PSYC1020 Neuro and Pysc Notes Structure Description Major Functions Brainstem Stemlike portion of the brain, continuous with diencephalon above and spinal cord below. Composed of midbrain, pons, medulla

More information

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 I) INTRO A) Nervous system discussed so far 1) Specific 2) Fast B) Other systems extended in space and time 1) Nonspecific 2) Slow C) Three components that

More information

Neurons: Structure and communication

Neurons: Structure and communication Neurons: Structure and communication http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/gall1.html Common Components of a Neuron Dendrites Input, receives neurotransmitters Soma Processing, decision Axon Transmits

More information

THE NEURON: A CELL FOR RAPID COMMUNICATION

THE NEURON: A CELL FOR RAPID COMMUNICATION The only way in which cells communicate is chemically. Communication for a cell means having chemicals moving into and out of it. We will now see how the work of the two organ systems responsible for integration

More information

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA Neural Tissue Contains 2 kinds of cells: neurons: cells that send and receive signals neuroglia (glial cells): cells that support and protect neurons Neuron Types Sensory

More information

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Nervous System & Nervous tissue Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Nervous System 1. Nervous system and endocrine system are the chief control centers in maintaining body homeostasis. 2. Nervous

More information

Chapter 2: Biology and behavior

Chapter 2: Biology and behavior D E B O R A H M. L I G H T M I S T Y G. H U L L C O C O B A L L A N T Y N E Chapter 2: Biology and behavior Courtesy Dr. Julie Gralow LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Part 1 LO 1 Define neuroscience and explain its

More information

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Diversity of Neural Signaling The diversity of neuron structure and function allows neurons to play many roles. 3 basic function of all neurons: Receive

More information

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite 13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology Dendrite Histology (Cells) of the Nervous System 2 major categories of cells are found in the nervous system: 1. Nerve cells (neurons) carry

More information

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts:

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts: Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons

More information

The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Pearson Education, Inc.

The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Pearson Education, Inc. 17 The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Introduction The autonomic nervous system: Functions outside of our conscious awareness Makes routine adjustments in our body s systems The autonomic nervous

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION Nervous system THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is comprised of the brain, the spinal cord and nerves. FUNCTION The nervous system has 3 general functions: a sensory function an interpretative function

More information

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!)

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) Bio 201 Tissues and Skin 1 March 21, 2011 Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) 1. The study of the normal functioning and disorders of the

More information

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves

More information

Mood Disorders and Suicide. What Are Mood Disorders? What Are Mood Disorders? Chapter 7

Mood Disorders and Suicide. What Are Mood Disorders? What Are Mood Disorders? Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide Chapter 7 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission

More information

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out transmits signal signal

More information

NEUROTRANSMITTERS. Contraction of muscles to move our bodies Release hormones Psychological states of thinking and emotions

NEUROTRANSMITTERS. Contraction of muscles to move our bodies Release hormones Psychological states of thinking and emotions NEUROTRANSMITTERS NEURONS Neurons don t actually touch Separated by a tiny fluid-filled gap called a synapse Neural impulses must be ferried across the synapse by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

More information

Physiology Unit 2 CONSCIOUSNESS, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

Physiology Unit 2 CONSCIOUSNESS, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR Physiology Unit 2 CONSCIOUSNESS, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR In Physiology Today What the Brain Does The nervous system determines states of consciousness and produces complex behaviors Any given neuron may

More information

BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES

BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES Cranial Meninges Cranial meninges are continuous with spinal meninges Dura mater: inner layer (meningeal layer) outer layer (endosteal layer) fused to periosteum

More information

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5 P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms

More information

Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me. Agenda. What We Know About Pain 9/7/2012

Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me. Agenda. What We Know About Pain 9/7/2012 Receptors and Neurotransmitters: It Sounds Greek to Me Cathy Carlson, PhD, RN Northern Illinois University Agenda We will be going through this lecture on basic pain physiology using analogies, mnemonics,

More information

Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline

Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline Module 14.1 Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (Figures 14.1 14.3) A. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the involuntary arm of the peripheral

More information

Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet

Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet The third midterm exam will cover the following lecture material (lectures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13): Skeletal System (from chapter 5 in the textbook), Nervous System

More information

I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors. Chapter 9. Autonomic Motor Nerves. Autonomic Neurons. Autonomic Ganglia. Autonomic Neurons 9/19/11

I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors. Chapter 9. Autonomic Motor Nerves. Autonomic Neurons. Autonomic Ganglia. Autonomic Neurons 9/19/11 Chapter 9 I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors The Autonomic Nervous System Lecture PowerPoint Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Autonomic

More information

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

More information

Basic Nervous System anatomy. Neurobiology of Happiness

Basic Nervous System anatomy. Neurobiology of Happiness Basic Nervous System anatomy Neurobiology of Happiness The components Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral" Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

More information

Psychology 101 Exam 1 Fall 2000 Name

Psychology 101 Exam 1 Fall 2000 Name Psychology 101 Exam 1 Fall 2000 Name 1. Psychology is defined as: a. the scientific investigation of thought processes b. the understanding of abnormal behavior c. the scientific study of behavior and

More information