The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized?

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1 Honors Biology Guided Notes Chapter 28 Nervous System Name The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Define Cephalization and Centralization. What type of body symmetry is associated with these two terms? ORGANIZATION OF THE PNS (WE WON T SPEND TIME ON ENTERIC DIVISION) AUTONOMIC DIVISIONS OF THE PNS PARASYMPATHETIC What neurotransmitter is utilized by this division? SYMPATHETIC What neurotransmitter is utilized by this division? How can these two systems cause opposite responses in target organs?

2 CNS The CNS is made up of the: MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE HUMAN BRAIN BRAIN STRUCTURE MAJOR FUNCTIONS Brainstem Medulla Oblongata Pons Midbrain Cerebellum Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebrum LABEL AND COLOR THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM.

3 THE CEREBRAL CORTEX FRONTAL LOBE TEMPORAL LOBE PARIETAL LOBE MOTOR CORTEX SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX OCCIPITAL LOBE THE LIMBIC SYSTEM THE LIMBIC SYSTEM AMYGDALA HIPPOCAMPUS SHORT-TERM MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY How might short-term memories become long-term memories?

4 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following is characteristic of vertebrate nervous systems? (28.11) a. a distinct central nervous system consisting of a brain and spinal cord b. a spinal cord with homeostatic control centers that keep the body functioning smoothly c. a spinal cord that runs outside the vertebral column and gives rise to a series of cranial nerves d. only partially centralized and cephalized 2. Unlike the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system is. (28.12) a. involuntary and primarily controls skeletal muscle b. voluntary and primarily controls smooth and cardiac muscle c. regulated only by the endocrine system d. involuntary and primarily controls smooth and cardiac muscle 3. It is your turn to do your presentation. You have worried about this moment all month long. Are you prepared? Will someone spot that ring of sweat forming under your arms? Because of the activity of your nervous system, your. (28.12) a. sympathetic pupils constrict and your heart slows b. parasympathetic heart is racing and your mouth is dry c. sympathetic lunch suddenly does not agree with you and epinephrine shoots through your body d. enteric heart is racing and your mouth is dry 4. The medulla, pons, and cerebellum in the adult brain develop from this part of the early embryonic brain. (28.13) a. hindbrain b. forebrain c. midbrain d. diencephalon 5. A man is admitted to the hospital suffering from an abnormally low body temperature, a loss of appetite, and extreme thirst. A brain scan shows a tumor located in the. (28.14) a. hypothalamus b. pons c. corpus callosum d. cerebellum 6. As you start to pick up your biology book, you suddenly realize that it is much heavier than you thought it would be. Which of the following brain regions is responsible for the rapid adjustment of muscle force that allows you to pick up the book smoothly? (28.14) a. cerebellum b. cerebrum c. hypothalamus d. medulla oblongata 7. The relay center for sensory messages is the. (28.14) a. cerebrum b. cerebellum c. thalamus d. pons 8. The corpus callosum connects the. (28.14) a. right and left cerebellar hemispheres b. cerebellum and spinal cord c. pituitary and the hypothalamus d. right and left cerebral hemispheres

5 9. Which function below is a direct role of the cerebral cortex? (28.15) a. coordinating body movement b. using inputs from the brainstem to make judgments c. creating sensory perceptions d. storing short- and long-term memories 10. Higher brain functions, such as creativity and analytical skills, are centered in the. (28.15) a. cerebrum b. cerebellum c. hypothalamus d. corpus callosum 11. Damage to the occipital lobe would most likely be expressed as. (28.15) a. auditory impairment b. paralysis c. a numbness in the extremities d. visual impairment 12. Which of the following is specifically a part or a function of the central nervous system? (28.15) a. motor output b. interpretation of sensory signals c. sensory receptor d. sensory input 13. The hearing centers are located in the. (28.15) a. temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex b. occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex c. parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex d. frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex 14. The limbic system is involved in. (28.19) a. speech and hearing b. emotion, learning, and memory c. sleep and wakefulness d. vision 15. Which of the following situations best represents the function of the amygdala? (28.19) a. Pressing her hand to her forehead, Oki could not think of the Spanish word for "clouds." This exam was difficult! b. Falling backward and smacking the back of his head, Lamont suddenly stopped breathing. Within a minute he was recovering, but still unable to breathe and swallow normally. c. Dana could tell by the look on Jafar's face that he did not do well on the exam. d. Disruption of body rhythms occurs after an 11-hour flight, when eating and sleeping routines are not maintained.

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