Calcium and Cancer Prevention and Treatment

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1 Calcium and Cancer Prevention and Treatment By: Corrine VanDeMaele and Lindsay Wexler

2 Calcium - Ca - Ca++ Most abundant mineral in human body Functions: Supports structure of bone and teeth Muscle contraction Blood vessel contraction and expansion Secretion of hormones and enzymes Sends messages through nervous system

3 Intake and Absorption Food Sources: Dairy milk, cheese, yogurt Leafy Green Veggies Spinach RDA for adults 19-50: 1000 mg/day Vitamin D is important to help the body absorb calcium Absorption depends on age

4 Question! Why is vitamin D important in the diet? is important to help the body absorb calcium

5 Media and Marketing Claims Calcium is essential for strong bones and Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. A healthful diet with adequate calcium can help teen and young adult women maintain good bone health and may reduce their high risk of osteoporosis later in life. Kirkland Other marketing claims: Maintains normal muscle tone and function Reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer Plays a role in activating fat cells Helps blood clot

6 Calcium Intake and Cancer According to Cancer.org: Some evidence that high intake is linked with increased risk for prostate cancer. Foods high in calcium might help reduce risk of colorectal cancer and perhaps others. Has potential to prevent breast and pancreatic cancers. It s greatest benefit to people with cancer is to reduce the risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There are current studies taking place to test the correlation between Ca and the prevention of angiogenesis and therefore metastasis of cancers.

7 Question! Some evidence has shown that consuming foods high in calcium may reduce the risk of what cancers? colorectal cancer and potentially breast and pancreatic cancers.

8 Cohort Study - Colorectal Cancer and Calcium Intake Study Design: researchers pooled data from 10 cohort studies which assessed dietary intake with frequency questionnaires. Follow up exams were included. Results: Consuming less than 70g of milk a day showed a positive relationship to being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Milk intake was related to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Calcium intake was inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer.

9 Cohort Study Breast Cancer and Calcium Intake Study Design: examination of data from long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of dairy products, calcium or vitamin D was associated with reducing the risk of breast cancer following 88,691 women whom were in cohort study. Results: intakes of dairy products, calcium or vitamin D were not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, the consumption of dairy products was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: Those who consumed less than one serving of dairy a day, or less than 200mg while premenopausal were at highest risk for breast cancer, those consuming more than those who consumed 3 or more servings of dairy per day, or more than 800 mg/day.

10 Question! Based on the cohort study with calcium intake, those were and consumed less than mg of calcium a day were at highest risk to develop breast cancer? Premenopausal 200 mg

11 Safety Greatest risk is not getting enough Can lead to: certain cancers Osteopenia and osteoporosis High intake (more than 2,400 mg/d) can lead to hypercalcemia Can lead to: Kidney stones Muscle pain Mental confusion Decreased absorption of other minerals and some medicines

12 References Cho, Eunyoung, Hunter, D., Smith-Warner, S., Spiegelman, D., Virtanen, M., Willet, W., Wolk, A., Wu, K., Yaun, S., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A. Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Colorectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute (13); S=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cancer+and+calcium&search id=1&firstindex=0&resourcetype=hwcit Colditz, G., Hankinson, S., Holmes, K., Shinn, M., Willett, W. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. Journal National Cancer Institute Sep 4;94(18( area=eto

13 Notes: First Study: Cho, Eunyoung, Hunter, D., Smith-Warner, S., Spiegelman, D., Virtanen, M., Willet, W., Wolk, A., Wu, K., Yaun, S., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A. Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Colorectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute (13); S=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cancer+and+calcium&searchi d=1&firstindex=0&resourcetype=hwcit The researchers of this study pooled data from 10 cohort studies from 5 different countries which assessed dietary intake with frequency questionnaires. Follow up exams were included. The studies included 534,536 individuals, 4,992 were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 6 and 16 years of the follow up exams. The subjects were put into categories of milk intake and how much calcium intake was in the diet. The results showed that milk intake was related to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Consuming less than 70grams of milk a day showed a positive relationship to being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Calcium intake was inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. The risk for the highest vs. lowest calcium/milk intake had a 95% CI , which does not contain 1, so this meant that it was conclusive evidence. Therefore, consuming more than 70 grams of milk/calcium a day reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. The results were consistent across all studies and sexes. Inverse association for milk and cancer was limited to colon and rectum cancer. Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. The study did not show any biased and had conclusive evidence. Second Study Colditz, G., Hankinson, S., Holmes, K., Shinn, M., Willett, W. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. Journal National Cancer Institute Sep 4;94(18( This study began based on ideas that high levels of dairy products may reduce breast carcinogenesis, however epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results. They examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of dairy products, calcium or vitamin D was associated with reducing the risk of breast cancer. The method followed 88,691 women whom were in a Nurses' Health Study cohort. Dietary information was collected in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990 and They identified 3482 women, 827 whom were premenopausal and 2345 whom were postmenopausal and 310 unknown. They used pooled logistic regression and estimated relative risk within 2 year increments. Results showed that intakes of dairy products, calcium or vitamin D were not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. However, in premenopausal women, the consumption of dairy products (especially low fat products) was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer. Those who consumed less than one serving of dairy a day, or less than 200mg while premenopausal were at highest risk for breast cancer, those consuming more than those who consumed 3 or more servings of dairy per day, or more than 800 mg/day. They took in account supplemental calcium and vitamin D, they did find an association with calcium due to dairy sources. There was no association between intake of dairy products and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. High intake of low fat dairy foods was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women.

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