1 Nutrition: Nutrients for the Body Nutrients are chemical substances supplied by food that the body needs for growth, maintenance, and repair. The six nutrients are: 1. Carbohydrates. 2. Proteins. 3. Fats. 4. Minerals. 5. Vitamins. 6. Water. Purpose and food sources of fats A. To provide energy and body heat, provide organ protection, for absorption and digestion of fat soluble vitamins, to carry essential fatty acids, for satiety and flavor to foods. B. Food sources include milk, meat, and butter. Purpose and food sources of proteins C. To provide building tissue, provide energy, provide water balance to regulate hormones and enzymes, for immunity. D. Food sources of complete protein include meat, poultry, eggs, cheese. E. Food sources of incomplete protein include grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds. Purpose and food sources of carbohydrates F. To provide energy, to spare body protein, to prevent ketosis. G. Food sources include breads, vegetables, fruit, and milk. Purpose of water H. It is essential for almost every body process, including Digestion, absorption, circulation, and excretion.
2 I. It helps maintain a normal body temperature, carries wastes out of the body, transports nutrients throughout the body, prevents constipation. Purpose and food sources of vitamins J. Vitamin A: 1. Necessary for maintenance of skin, hair, gums, Bones, and teeth; promotes good vision; prevents infection; antioxidant. 2. Food sources include liver, kidney, milk, cream, Butter, egg yolk, carrots, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, apricots, fish liver oils, beets, cantaloupe, garlic, spinach. K. Vitamin B1 (thiamine): 1. Necessary for growth and energy; improves mental attitude; improves functioning of nervous system, heart, and muscles. 2. Food sources include lean pork, beef, liver, whole Grains, beans, peas, wheat germ, brewers yeast, eggs, fish, brown rice, soy beans, nuts, oatmeal, etc. L. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): 1. Necessary for metabolism of protein, fats, carbohydrates; helps build and maintain body tissues, growth and reproduction, release of energy to cells; protects skin and eye from disorders. 2. Food sources include milk, liver, eggs, grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, yogurt, cheese, meat, fish, and poultry. M. Vitamin B3: 1. Necessary for nervous system; digestion; healthy skin; lowers cholesterol and improves circulation, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. 2. Food sources include meat, peanuts, peas, beans, sunflower seeds, beef, broccoli, eggs, fish, milk, potatoes, and carrots. N. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid):
3 1. Necessary for coping with physical and mental stress, production of antibodies; helps convert carbohydrates, fats and protein into energy; aids digestion. 2. Food sources include liver, kidney, whole grain, legumes, eggs, peanuts, sunflower seeds, beef, and fresh vegetables. O. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): 1. Necessary for production of red blood cells, normal function of nervous system, maintenance of most body functions; aids protein and carbohydrate metabolism. 2. Food sources include whole grains, seeds, liver, kidney, eggs, oatmeal, walnuts, pork, wheat germ, bananas, potatoes, brewers yeast, chicken, fish, brown riche, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots. P. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): 1. Necessary for vital nerve structures; prevents anemia; aids in cell formation. 2. Food sources include liver, kidney, sardines, lean meat, milk, cheese, beef, blue cheese, clams, eggs, and herring. Q. Vitamin C: 1. Necessary to combat stress; needed for amino acid metabolism and synthesis of hormones, wound healing, adrenal gland function, iron absorption, folic acid conversion; improves immunization; resists infections; antioxidant. 2. Food sources include kiwi, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, cantaloupe, oranges, potatoes, cabbage, and broccoli. R. Vitamin D (calciferol): 1. Necessary for normal growth and development, healthy teeth and bones, calcium and phosphorous absorption and utilization. 2. Food sources include cereal, fortified milk, sardines, tuna, cod liver oil, egg yolk. 3. A major source is sunshine. S. Vitamin E:
4 1. Necessary for metabolism of fats, repair of tissue, protection from toxins; improves circulation; antioxidant. 2. Food sources include milk, eggs, fish, cereals, leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, whole grains and wheat germ, brown rice, liver, sweet potatoes, poultry. T. Vitamin K: 1. Necessary for blood clotting, normal liver function, bone metabolism. 2. Food sources include leafy vegetables, milk, meats, eggs, cereals, broccoli, cauliflower, oatmeal, liver, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, liver, and wheat bran. Purpose and food sources of minerals U. Calcium: 1. Necessary for healthy bones and teeth, muscle and nerve function. 2. Food sources are milk and milk products, sardines, oysters, salmon, broccoli, cabbage, oats, turnip and mustard greens. V. Chromium: 1. Necessary for metabolism of glucose, synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, energy. 2. Food sources include cereal, whole grains, brewers yeast, wheat germ chicken, clams, brown rice, cheese, meat, liver, mushrooms, and potatoes. W. Iodine: 1. Necessary for function of thyroid gland, physical and mental development. 2. Food sources include seafood and iodized salt. X. Iron: 1. Necessary for production of hemoglobin; increases resistance to stress and disease; helps energy production.
5 2. Food sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, whole grains, leafy vegetables, potatoes, dates, peaches, pears. Y. Magnesium: 1. Necessary for bones, nerves, muscle, and teeth, transmission of nerve impulses; activates enzymes; aids in release of energy. 2. Food sources include whole grain cereals, seeds, legumes, nuts, green vegetables, bananas, milk, cheese, meat. Z. Manganese: 1. Necessary for skeletal development, nerves, and brain. 2. Food sources include whole grains, leafy vegetables, cereals, peas, nuts, seeds, avocado, milk, tea, coffee. AA. Phosphorous: 1. Necessary for repair of cells and energy production; builds bones and teeth; promotes nerve function. 2. Food sources include milk, meat, poultry, fish, cereal, nuts, and legumes. BB. Potassium: 1. Necessary for nerves, muscles heart; regulates the body s fluid balance. 2. Food sources include buttermilk, garlic, nuts, meats, brown rice, legumes, whole grains, apricots, avocados, bananas, potatoes. CC. Zinc: 1. Necessary for healing and development of new cells; aids in digestion and metabolism, male fertility, brain development; improves immunity and prostate function. 2. Food sources include seafood, oysters, liver, meat, milk, cheese, whole grains, pecans, pumpkin seeds, eggs, and limas.