Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)

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1 Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) What is Vitamin K? Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin which plays a key role in blood coagulation. Its name comes from the German name, Koagulationsvitamin. There are three forms, two naturally occurring and one synthetic: K1 (phylloquinone-synthesized from plants, especially chlorophyll) and K2 (memaquinone-synthesized from gut bacteria) and K3, the synthetic derivative. Why is Vitamin K important and what does it do in the body? Vitamin K plays a crucial role in the so-called clotting cascade where the formation of blood clots K Vitamin stops hemorrhage. It plays a part in the formation of the clotting factors: prothrombin (factor 2) and clotting factors V11, 1X and X. A deficiency of vitamin K can accordingly lead to hemorrhage which cannot be stopped. It is responsible for activating bone proteins such as osteocalcin to bind with calcium to build healthy bones. This is particularly important for older individuals who lose calcium from the bones and require K1 supplements. What amount of Vitamin K do you need each day? Vitamin K is very safe. The preferred forms are K1 (phylloquinone) and/or K2 (memaquinone).the latter is derived from plants, especially from chlorophyll. It is best to use fat-soluble chlorophyll for better gut absorption. Fat-soluble chlorophyll also contains other beneficial components such as beta carotene and vitamin K1. The DRI (Daily Recommended Intake) /RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of dietary vitamin K are listed on the next page: Please Note: By definition, the DRI/RDA recommendations apply only to 98% of healthy individuals and are not sufficient for those with higher nutrient requirements based upon their biochemical individuality, genetics, health status, medications, deficiencies, lifestyle, and toxic exposures.

2 The daily Adequate Intake for vitamin K is: Adult Men 19 years and older: 120 mcg Women 19 years and older: 90 mcg Pregnant and breastfeeding women years: 75 mcg Pregnant and breastfeeding women 19 years and older: 90 mcg Note: Individuals with gallbladder or biliary disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, or Crohn s disease cannot absorb sufficient vitamin K and will benefit more from a multivitamin containing vitamin K than individual vitamin K supplements. In certain circumstances a vitamin K shot may be given by a healthcare professional. Pediatric A single injection of vitamin K is given at birth. Infants birth - 6 months: 2 mcg Infants 7-12 months: 2.5 mcg Children 1-3 years: 30 mcg Children 4-8 years: 55 mcg Children 9-13 years: 60 mcg Adolescents years: 75 mcg RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE 50mcg/Day OPTIMAL DAILY ALLOWANCE 1,000mg/Day

3 NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS AND CONDITIONS What are possible Vitamin K deficiency conditions and symptoms? Bleeding disorders Coronary thrombosis Diarrhea Excessive menstrual flow Hemorrhagic disease in newborns Low blood platelets Nose bleeds and hemorrhages Osteoporosis Poor blood clotting What are possible Vitamin K excess symptoms? Administration of Vitamin K1 has no known side effects or toxicity. What steals Vitamin K from the body? High doses of Vitamin E and Vitamin A - interfere with Vitamin K absorption. Squalene - decreases absorption of Vitamin K Olestra - inhibits absorption of Vitamin K Drugs that deplete Vitamin K levels: Aspirin and salicylates Bile acid sequestrants: Cholestyramine (questran) and Colestipol (Colestid) Broad spectrum antibiotics: Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic Acid (Augmentin) and Vancomycin and Cephalosporins: Celoperazone, Cefotetan, Cefamandole, Latamoxfet and Cefazolin Weight management drugs: Orlistat (Xenical) Anti-clotting drugs: Warfarin (Coumadin) - stops vitamin K synthesis Anticonvulsants: Phenytoin- interferes with the ability to use vitamin K What tests can be used to assess Vitamin K levels? Phylloquinone in plasma (<1nmol/L suggests deficiency) PIVKA-11 (<29mAU/ml suggests deficiency) (an abnormal coagulation protein) Prothrombin time (>12 seconds suggests deficiency)

4 What foods contain the highest amounts of Vitamin K? TOP 10 VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE) RICH FOODS ARE: 1. Cauliflower 3,600mcg/100g 2. Brussels sprouts 1,888mcg/100g 3. Kale 882mcg/100g 4. Spinach 861mcg/100g 5. Green peas 260mcg/100g 6. Spring Onions 207mcg/100g 7. Broccoli 200mcg/100g 8. Asparagus 144mcg/100g 9. Cabbage 125mcg/100g 10. Prunes 60mcg/100g What are the best Vitamin K products? Vitamin K is not generally required except for specific health problems where there is a deficiency. K1 and K2 are the preferred supplemental forms. REFERENCES Vitamin K University of Maryland Medical Center medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-k#ixzz35pdlegb8 University of Maryland Medical Center Sidney. M.D, Pangborn. Jon Autism effective Biomedical Treatments 2005 Lord S.Richard, Bralley J. Alexander, Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine 2nd Ed 2008 Sharon, Michael Dr. Complete Nutrition 2002 Murray. T. Michael. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements 1996 Holford. Patrick The Optimum Nutrition Bible 2012 Laake. Dana Nutrient Chart (not published) Groff. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism 5th 2009 Gibson Principles of Nutritional Assessment 2nd Ed Clinical Nutrition: A functional Approach 2nd Ed. IFM 2004 Harpers review of Biochemistry. Lange Med 26 Ed 2009 Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH Fact sheets 2010 Balch. A. Phyllis CNC Prescription for Nutritional Healing 2002 All the statements, including product labels, supporting literature and/or product manufacturers websites have not been evaluated by FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

5 Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) What are the very best Vitamin K products to buy? ProThera K2 Natural source as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Recent evidence indicates several important functions for vitamin K beyond its role in blood coagulation, including benefits for bone health and vascular function. Natural vitamin K2, also Klaire VitaSpectrum Powdered multiple vitamin/mineral supplement for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Natural berry-pomegranate flavor. This comprehensive multiple vitamin/mineral supplement contains 28 highly bioavailable ProThera MultiThera 3 Iron- and copper-free multiple formula. Both iron and copper have been eliminated from this version of MultiThera to address the needs of patients who may have elevated tissue identical in all other respects to MultiThera 1 Pure Caps Mens Pure Pack Regardless of your walk of life all men need to ensure that they get enough of an array of important nutrients. However who wants to spend their time picking out supplements for a daily Pure Caps Womens Pure Pack Women s Supplement to Support Bone and Heart Health. Now With Metafolin L-5-MTHF. Sizes Available 30 packets. Each packet contains 6 different supplements, including

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